Abbas (a.s.) and Muawiya's Reign; Horrible Nightmare
After the peace treaty with Imam al-Hasan, Muawiya ibn Abi-Suffian; the mortal enemy and the son of the mortal enemies of Islam, could hold the position of the leadership of the Islamic State after he had eradicated the government of Ali and his descendants-the one and only government, after the Prophet's, that was characterized by ideal justice.
With the collapse of Imam Ali's government, all the values of humanity and morality were replaced by values of paganism, altogether with all of its disadvantages, which Muawiya exerted all efforts for confirming them as an alternate for the principles of Islam.
Under the shades of the Umayyad reign, vice, immorality, despotism, and corruption spread all over the Islamic provinces. Muslims had to encounter insufferable ordeals that tested their perseverance on their principles and the scope of their faith and steadfastness against misfortunes.119
Muawiya, first of all, directed towards the policy of eliminating the Islamic attentive personalities, such as Hijr ibn Edi, Amr ibn al-Hamq, Rushaid al-Hujari, Saad ibn Abi-Waqqas,
Abd-ur-Rahman ibn Khalid, Abd-ur-Rahman ibn Abi-Bakr, and, finally, Imam al-Hasan.
He then dedicated all his possibilities to antagonizing the Ahl-ul-Bayt because they acted as oppositionists, represented the genuine and true trend of Islam, and belonged to that great Prophet who smashed the glories of the other Koreishite clans, especially Muawiya and his father who had stood against him openly as possible as they could until he conquered their city, captured them, and, then, set them free.
He established a faction of fabricators whose missions were to invent words, ascribed falsely to the Prophet, praising the other companions (of the Prophet) so as to be a front against the Ahl-ul-Bayt, invent other words dispraising the Ahl-ul-Bayt, and invent a third collection of words praising the Umayyads. Unfortunately, the influence of these inventions have still been effective and many Muslims have been still deluded by such fabrications that were aimed at deceiving the Islamic nation by taking it away from the actual leadership that God, His Prophet Mohammed, and intellect have selected.
Muawiya, also, issued a formal decision ordering the officials of his government to revile at Imam Ali openly from the mimbars of Masjids all over the Islamic State.
Furthermore, Muawiya used the teaching institutions for achieving his blind goals of eradicating the Ahl-ul-Bayt. Hence, the new generations were brought up on malice against the Ahl-ul-Bayt.All the same, the policies of Muawiya have failed and he was terribly disappointed. Amir ul-Mu'minin Ali ibn Abi-Talib has been the world's song of human perfection and freedom, while the Umayyads have become nothing but a corruptive germ detested by everybody.
All these policies of persecution and grievous forms of discrimination that the Ahl-ul-Bayt had to suffer during the reign of the Umayyads increased in the mentality of al-Abbas the necessity of the struggle against oppression. He also believed in the obligation of revolting against the Umayyads for sake of fulfilling the religious duty and saving the Muslim community against the deviations and wrong policies of those illegitimate rulers.
The gravest danger that Muawiya brought to the Islamic nation was his naming Yazid; his lascivious son as the next ruler of the Islamic State.
Historians have unanimously mentioned that Yazid ibn Muawiya was empty of any humanitarian value. He was sunken in sins and crimes. He declared openly that he had not believed in God or His Prophet and that he had had one and only mission-to eradicate the Prophet's progeny so as to revenge himself against the Prophet and his family who killed many of his fathers and humiliated the others.
Finding his faithless son as the best one to achieve the evil aims of his fathers and him, Muawiya appointed Yazid as the coming leader and instructed him to do some matters that achieve the continuity of the Umayyad dynasty as absolute rulers of this nation.
Even during the funeral ceremonies of Imam al-Hassan, the Umayyads aroused a seditious matter when they prevented the holy body of the Imam to be buried beside the holy body of the Prophet. They exploited the malice that Aisha bore against the Ahl-ul-Bayt for achieving their wicked purposes.
Moreover, they threw the coffin of the Imam with darts. As he could no longer stand the situation, al-Abbas tried to attack the Umayyads and tear them into pieces with his sword, but Imam al-Hussein stopped him and asked him to comply with the will of the dear deceased who ordered them not to shed a single drop of blood because of a matter concerning him.
Thus, the funeral ceremonies were ended peacefully and the holy body of Imam al-Hasan was buried in al-Baqee.
When Muawiya surpassed the limits and adopted policies in violation of the interests of Muslims, Imam al-Hussein, in Medina, denied and exerted all efforts for exposing Muawiya's policies and called Muslims to revolt against such an illegitimate authority. The secret agents in Medina reported all these activities to Muawiya who was frightened; therefore, he forwarded a message to the Imam threatening him with severe procedures if he would not stop. The Imam answered with a strongly-worded message in which he renounced Muawiya's policies by mentioning his horrible political events and declared an opposite situation against that government.120
During the season of the hajj, Imam al-Hussein held a political conference by the participation of a good number of Muhajirs, 121 Ansar, 122 and their followers. He delivered a sermon in which he referred to the harsh ordeals that the Prophet's household, as well as all Muslims, had had to encounter during the reign of Muawiya. The Imam also asked the attendants to convey his message to everybody they trust so that Muslims would not be deluded by the mean policies of Muawiya and his agents. 123
119. See Sayyid Mir Al al-Hindi's Rouh ul-Islam; 296.
120. See Ibn Qutaiba's al-Imama was-Siyasa; 1/189 and al-Kheshi's ar-Rijal.
121. Muhajirs: The emigrants. The early Muslims of Mecca who had to flee their homeland to Medina.
122. Ansar: The supporters. The people of Medina who received, welcomed, and protected the Prophet (s) and the Muhajirs.
123. See Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi's Hayat ul-Imam il-Hussein; 2/228-9.
Adopted from the book : "Al-Abbas"
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