Rafed English

War, Peace & Non-Violence

War, Peace & Non-Violence

by :

Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq Shirazi

In addressing the issue of universal peace, the author in this discourse begins with tackling the phenomenon of war by discussing aspects such as the causes of war, as well as the management of war and behaviour during war.

The author goes on to present some of the Islamic perspective on war and the measures needed to contain war and its causes. The following is Chapter 4 of Imam Shirazi's book The New Order for a World of Faith, Freedom, Prosperity, and Peace pp349-402. Translated by Ali Adam.

War is the worst thing known to mankind War is the worst thing known to mankind througho ut his long history. It brings about the killing and maiming o f human beings, the loss of their powers and their disfigurement. It also causes the destruction of civilisations, stirs up hatred and resentments amongst people, and passes psychological problems on to future generations.

It also causes the fighters to become prisoners of war. For these reasons, war must be avoided at all costs and if war becomes necessary - because the enemy has forced the situation - it is imp erative that war should be limited to the least degree of necessity. It is also imperative that human ity in general put an end to wars finally so that they do not occur in the future.

War is an illness

War has been a phenomenon from the earliest times. It is said that it is confirmed as a fact in the Holy Qur'an in the verse:

{And had Allah not checked one set of people by means of another, the Earth would indeed be full of corruption.} 1

Some say that war is one manifestation of the struggle for survival which is a natural attribute of all living things and which will never cease, and that it is one o f the traditio ns of human society. However, the prevention of war by finding another solution is what should be sought.

For illness and disease is also a human reality from the very beginning as is the burning of cities, houses and shops or destruction by flooding and other natural events, which can cause harm to humanity. However, all of this does not make war inevitab le, for war is not a prime reality but rather a secondary phenomenon, which happens because of the malice of certain individuals.

Hence, a group of religious scholars have said that war in itself is bad and ugly because it entails the killing of people and destruction. The Holy Qur'an supports this in the following verse:

{Fighting is prescribed upon you though ye dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing that is good for you and that you love a thing that is bad for you. Allah knoweth and you knoweth not.} 2 On the surface, this verse shows that if fighting were a natural thing then Allah would not have said: {thoug h ye dislike it.}. Therefore, war is a social phenomenon brought about by corrupt instincts and not something natural in humanity.

War as the last resort

We find that the Prophet Muhammad (S) 3 did not instigate a single war, but rather made war only in self-defence. Even then he did not resort to defensive wars until after the exhaustion of a number of alternatives: Firstly neutrality, as this was the case between the Prophet (S) and Abyssinia.

Neutrality is the first phase of non-aggression. After neutrality comes the turn of the treaty of non-aggression as practised by the Prophet (S) when he entered into a treaty with the Jews of Madinah or when he entered into a treaty with the non-believers of Makkah at Hudaib ia.

After these two possibilities co mes the role of Islam. For if the other party (the enemy) accepts Islam he will have spared his wealth and blood and there will be no enmity other than for the wrongdoers and oppressors. The acceptance of Islam is clearly not a matter for compulsion it rather consists of solid evidences, which promote the conviction of the intellect in the matters of the beginning and the resurrection, the Prophet (S) and the Sacred Law etc.

The Jizyah tax . . . finally

In the absence o f neutrality, or a treaty, or the acceptance of Islam, then the 'Jizyah' tax 4 comes into play as was practised by the Prophet (S) with the Christians of Najran. The 'Jizyah' tax is of two types:

1. The 'Jizyah' of the people of the 'Dhimma' or protectorate who live under the auspices of Islam. This tax is taken from them in the same way that the 'Khums' and 'Zakat' taxes are taken from the Muslims.

We have mentioned in our books of jurisprudence that the 'Jizyah' tax is taken solely from the unbelievers (contrary to what is widely believed). The money collected from the unbelievers who live under the province of Islam does not come under the heading of 'Khums' or 'Zakat' but rather under the heading of the 'Jizyah' tax. This applies whether the unbelievers are 'People of the Book' like J ews or Christians or Zoroastrians, or others like the Idolaters or the Polytheists.

2. The 'Jizyah' tax collected from those unbelievers who are not under the auspices o f Islam. This is collected because of the obduracy of those to whom the truth has appeared, as the Prophet (S) did with the Christians of Najran when he discussed with their learned men the truthfulness of Islam but they dismissed it.

The Prophet (S) then disputed further with them but they still resisted. After that there was nothing left but their obstinacy. The obstinate person should become less obstinate in the face of what should return him gradually to the truth.

Allah states in the Qur'an regarding the Christians of Najran: {The similitude of Jesus in the sight of Allah is as that of Adam, He created him from pure earth then said to him 'Be', and so he was. This is the truth from your Lord so do not be amongst the doubters.

And if anyone disputes with you in this matter after knowledge has come to you, say: 'Come let us gather together our sons and your sons, our wives and your wives, ourselves and yourselves, then let us earnestly pray and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars.' This is the true account: there is no god but Allah, and Allah is indeed The Exalted in Power, The Wise. But if they turn back, Allah has full knowledge of those who cause mischief. Say: ' O People of the Book!

Come to a common parlance between us and you: that we wo rship none but Alla h and we associate no partners with Him and we take no lords from amongst ourselves instead of Allah. But if they turn back then say: Bear witness that we are Muslims.} 5 The Jizyah tax is paid by the non-Muslims, as opposed to the Khums and Za kat taxes paid by the Muslims.

The Prophet's wars were fought in self defence

When all these aforementioned ways and means have been exhausted, then comes the turn of the defensive war. All the wars of the Prophet (S) were of this nature. For example, the first clash of the Muslims with the Qureish occurred when the raiding party of 'Abdullah ibn Jahsh came up against the caravans of the Qureish which were coming from al-Sham (Syria) led by Abu Sufyan.

This was a retort to the aggression of the Polytheists against the Prophet (S) and his companions, which had gone on for ten years. They had killed some of them, banished some to Abyssinia and some to Madinah, and tortured another group of them and destroyed the honour of others as in the account of Sumayyaha the mother of 'Ammar.

They confiscated their houses and their wealth in Makkah. And if this was not enough, they approached the other Arabian tribes, which surrounded Madinah and bribed them not to let the Prophet's caravans pass through their lands. This threatened the Muslims with death by starvation.

The defensive economic blockade is one legal method used in wars, and what the Muslims wanted from this raiding party and what followed it (like the battle of Badr) was to place an economic blockade on the people of Makkah who were at war with the Prophet in the same way that they had placed a blockade upon him.

As for the rest of the Prophet's raids, wars and assaults, they resulted from either a breaking of the treaty by the other side as did the Jews of the clan of Qainaqa' in Madinah, and the Polytheists of the Qureish in breaking the peace treaty of Hudaibia, or they were to repel the enemy as in the battles of Uhud and al-Khandaq. Otherwise they were for defensive purposes as in the story of Mu'ta when the Persians and the Romans had engaged in aggression towards the Islamic state and Islam was surrounded by enemies who only sought the worst for Islam.

They began to try to attack Islam and tear it out by the roots and kill the Prophet (S) and exterminate the Muslims. They indeed began to do this. Hercules, the leader of the Romans killed a group of his subjects who had become Muslims in Syria. All of this gave the Prophet (S) the religious, common law, and legal right to defence. Likewise with the Persians, Khosrau their leader ordered his governor in Yemen to send some of his henchmen to bring him the blessed head of the Prophet.

However the messengers who came to Madinah refused when they saw the Muslims thronging around the Prophet who reasoned with them in a story much mentioned in the chronicles.

The least amount of casualties

The Prophet (S) used to strive to keep the amount of killing and prisoners in his wars to a bare minimum in a way that the world has not witnessed either prior to or after the advent of Islam. For example, one writer mentions that the number of people killed on both sides (Muslims and Polytheists) in all the battles in which the Prophet fought did not exceed much more than one thousand and this in more than eighty wars.

Another mentions that the number killed in all the wars was 1 018 people. A third mentions that the number of Infidels and Muslims killed in all the wars was no more than 1400 this being the largest number mentioned in this regard. Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah in his book 'Muhammad' mentions that the Prophet Muhammad (S),

although he gained control of more than one million square miles of territory which is equal to all of Europe excluding Russia, and although millions of people lived in this area, only one-hundred and fifty Muslims were killed in all of his wars. He adds that this number amounts to approximately one death per month. This is only due to the respect that Islam has for blood and its avoidance of killing wherever possible.

Excess of killing and torturing

In contrast to the government of the Prophet (S) we find that most other governments went to excesses in blood spilling. Historians say that the Assyrians were cruel and heartless. They would destroy cities, which they conquered after besieging them, and would go to great lengths in killing, torture, and mutilations.

They would reward the army for every severed head brought from the battlefield. They would set about killing all the prisoners of war on the battlefield when they were great in number so that they would not consume food and drink, or be a danger to the rear of the army. The kings and leaders would lead the carnage and would begin it by putting out the eyes and cutting the throats of prisoners.

The leaders and nobles amongst the prisoners would be tortured before being killed. Their ears and no ses would be amputated, their tongues cut out and their hands and feet severed or they would be skinned alive or roasted over fire or thrown from high towers. The king who ascended the throne of Assyria in the year 745 B.C. used to crucify priso ners on posts while archers would kill them with arrows. In certain wars he would use prisoners to pull carriages laden with wood instead of beasts of burden.

Frightening scenes of the brutality of the Moguls

In the book 'Prisoners of War' in the story of the Moguls the writer says: "The Moguls were known for cruelty, brutality and bloodshed. Genghis Khan the founder of their empire was famous for violence, killing, and his love of destruction and annihilation.

Amongst their wars they became embroiled with the Kharazm Shah 'Ala al-Din. The Moguls burned the city of Bukhara and plundered its wealth and raped the women. The prisoners were marched to the city of Samarqand. When they could not keep up with the horsemen Genghis Khan ordered that anyone who lagged b ehind be killed and Bukhara was razed to the ground.

Samarqand met with the same fate when the city was plundered and the inhabitants killed and 30,000 skilled craftsmen were taken p risoner. Genghis Khan sent them to his sons in the north. A great number were forcibly enlisted into the army and used for military operations and transport.

In Kho rasan, the Moguls gathered the citizens in a wide space and ordered them to manacle one another. They then began to slaughter them killing more than 70,000. When they occupied Merv, they distributed its occupants amongst the Mongol warriors each of whom got a share.

They only spared 400 people who fulfilled the needs of the army and some individuals were taken as slaves. The rest of the cities met with the same fate. When the Moguls heard that some citizens were sleeping amongst the corpses of those killed the order was given that every head should be severed from its body, an order that they carried out in all future battles.

They would pursue tho se who fled like hunters pursuing their prey. They would use all kinds of devices to bring people out from their hiding places. For example they forced a muezzin from amongst the prisoners to give the call to prayer so the Muslims came out from concealment believing that the raiders had left but they were ambushed and wiped out. Before they left the cities they would burn produce and crops so that those who were hiding or had fled would die of hunger.

The policy of Genghis Khan in his wars was to slaughter all of the soldiers in the garrisons and the inhabitants of the cities and to p lunder and pillage and drown the prisoners. If a city resisted the Moguls they would do even worse to it. The city of Nisapur resisted for a few days and its reward was the wholesale slaughter of men, women, and children.

The Moguls did in Russia what they did in the state of Kharazm, destroying and burning. They took a number of Russian leaders prisoners through deception and betrayal and put them in chains. Then carpets were put over them and the Mongol leaders sat upon them to eat the victory banquet while the Russian leaders were dying of suffocation.

The Moguls then returned to Mongolia and destroyed the city of Bulghar, and pillaged all the cities of Bazan and razed their buildings to the ground and burned Mosco w and besieged Tlotir. When the noblemen cut their hair and hid in churches and wore the robes of monks, the Moguls ordered that the church and the city be burnt and all perished. Hulagu continued the advance in western Asia until he reached Tabriz and turned towards Baghdad the seat of the 'Abbasid leadership.

They laid siege to Baghdad for forty days and set up mangonels around all the castles and fortresses. Then they pelted them with rocks and flaming torches making a large breach in the walls and setting fire to houses.

When the Caliph saw that there was no way out except through peace he requested peace and showed his readiness to surrender on condition that his life and the lives of the citizens be spared. He went out to meet Hulagu with three thousand judges, aides and nobles. But Hulagu betrayed the agreement and double- crossed them and destroyed the city. He ordered that the city be pillaged and the population slaughtered.

The bodies of those pleading for help fell under the hooves of the horses and the women were raped. The blood flowed in the streets for three days until the waters of the Tigris were red for a number of miles. The city became a free for all for six weeks. They slaughtered the population, violated sacred sites, burned houses, palaces were levelled, and mosques and tombs were ruined by fire or pickaxes.

The patients in the hospitals were slaughtered, students and professors were killed in the schools. The shrines of saints and Imams were desecrated and the corpses burnt. The bloodbath went on fo r a number of days until Baghd ad became a wasteland of rubble. More than a million and a half citizens had perished.

The Moguls then crossed the Euphrates heading towards the Arabian Peninsula in pursuit of the populace. They killed and pillaged and destroyed all the population of al-Raha, Jaran, and Nasibayn and butchered in Aleppo fifty thousand and abused ten thousand women and children.

They did the same thing in all the lands of Islam. For example when Tamburlaine heard of the killing of a number o f his men and soldiers in Isfahan he became angry and ordered his army to invade the city and that each soldier was to return with the head of one of the citizens who had been killed which the army duly did.

The city became a human bloodbath. By the evening some 70,000 of the victims skulls had piled up so Tamburlaine ordered that towers be built from them in the streets. The same thing happened in other cities they reached, slaughtering the populace and setting fire to the cities."

Modern wars are no less brutal

We find the situation in modern wars to be the same if not worse than that. America with the atomic bomb killed more than 250,000 people in Japan in the space of hours, and burnt everything.

When the British came to Iraq, they treated the people in the worst possible ways. They would kill the wounded and be merciless towards the prisoners and would extract corpses from the graves desiring the shirts and clothes. In Sudan, the British soldiers would cut off the heads of those killed and send them to London to be made into ashtrays out of hatred for the Muslims.

In Libya, the Italians killed half the populace, which in those days reached a million. They killed half a million in the most horrible ways. They would use corpses as an example to the rest and would torture the living foully.

Likewise the French in Algeria where they killed a million out of nine million people. Some statistics say that the killed two millions. They would use corpses as an example and would torture the living cruelly in a way that has few equals.

In the war between India and East Pakistan (Bangladesh) more than three millions were killed through hunger, torture or plague. The Russians killed five million Muslims in vario us ways like burning, drowning, torturing to death and shooting in Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the other Islamic lands which they took control of. They also killed more than one million in Afghanistan and filled their prisons with innocent people and tortured the people in the most disgusting ways. The Americans in Vietnam and elsewhere have killed a vast number of people counted in millions. They also used to torture people and destroy crops.

The world witnesses in the modern age the worst forms of killing, torture, and burning and the degradation of the nobility of the human being. The events of the first and second world wars are well known and to be found documented in books.

The increase of the dangers of war in the modern age

In a previous book of ours "Sociology" 6 regarding the dangers of war we have written: 'It is imperative that the nations strive in all earnestness to bring about a comprehensive peace in our time, for the dangers of war have increased in a way unimaginable. This increase has b rought about a number of considerations:

The weapons of mass destruction that science has discovered and the use of these weapons in wars bring about the devastation of civilisation whether that be in limited wars or world wars, for even limited wars cause destruction on their own scale.

For example, in the Lebanese war 150,000 people were killed or injured. In the Iran-Iraq war the number of dead and injured has been estimated at more than 1,500,000 and the losses due to the war at 500 billion dollars. If, God forbid, a world war was to occur, then it is likely that civilisation would end.

A report has mentioned that it was the plan of America to destroy in a nuclear attack 85 per cent of Russia's manufacturing plants. Each of America and Russia have stockpiled enough weapons of mass destruction to destroy humanity seven times over. There are bombs, which if dropped on a city would annihilate everything in an area of 250 square miles.

There are other fearsome weapons of mass destruction which when compared with the weapons of the second world war are like the cannon and tank in comparison with primitive weapons like the sword and the spear.

The other effects of war

War, in addition to the death and destruction has other effects: 1. It leaves behind war wounded and disabled p eople who will suffer from their complaints for the rest of their lives. The weapons of mass destruction cause many different diseases and d isfigurements in humanity, animals, and to the land itself.

There is a report that Russia bought 25 million prosthetic limbs and organs like hands, legs, and eyes for the maimed after the end of the Second World War. This in addition to the fact that atomic warfare irradiates houses and causes plants not to grow in the earth for lo ng periods of time.

2. War eats into the economy on a great scale. States change their apparatus during time of war to the apparatus of war which gobbles up money and brings about poverty for many years. Gustav Le Bon has mentioned that Spain has not yet recovered from the Crusades against the Muslims and this is after nearly 1000 years. Another historian has said that Iraq has not recovered from its destructio n at the hands of the Moguls seven centuries ago .

America spent 7 .4% of its GNP on the cold war in the year 1953. If this were the case for the cold war what would be the case for the hot war? In addition to the warring nations, war eats into the economy of all the other nations, for these days the economy is not confined to one place on earth but the economy of all nations has become interconnected and goods are imported and exported to and from all states.

Even the nations that are nominally neutral but are not really neutral are affected economically by war. All can remember how the world fell into dire straits during the second world war in both the nations at war and those not at war.

3. War also causes a decline in civilisation for the warring nations and those connected to them and indeed all the nations of the world. For when every nation becomes at war then cultural services, manufacturing, agriculture, and education cease on a large scale which causes the stagnation of the culture and indeed its decline.

great number of different types of scholars who are the axis of the progress of the civilisation can become taken up by the war. Certain newspapers have mentioned that Egypt lost ten thousand engineers, experts and doctors when the Israeli Bar-Levi line was destroyed.

It is then necessary, for the sake of a general and comprehensive peace, to transfer the weapons making factories into those of peaceful motives. It should not be argued that warfare pro vides work for millions of workers for many of these workers could be absorbed by works with peaceful intent.

Projects for the housing, health and the other needs of the people of the world could be put into action as well as projects to conquer space. If it was inevitable that a surplus of workers were left without any work this does not necessitate that they be idle. They can occupy themselves with seeking knowledge or in acts of worship or in recreation after the work had been distributed to them and others.

For example, let us suppose that there are ten million workers each one occupied eight hours per day in the different areas of manufacturing and agriculture and half of them - five million - were working in the arms industry. If they were put to work in works of a peaceful nature there might remain two million without any work the other three million being absorbed by the works of a peaceful motive.

In this case the available work could be distributed amongst the ten million and the length of the working day reduced. So in the example given, rather than having ten million working eight hours per d ay so that five million may work in the arms industry,

each worker would work six and two fifths hours per day and for the rest of the time they could spend it in science and knowledge - teaching or learning or experimenting, or in acts of worship which bring about the good in this life and the next, or with recreation like travelling etc.

It is not right to say that we should manufacture weapons and kill the people just so that there is no unemployment. It is as if there was a family half of whom had work and half of whom did not and we said that the half who did not have work should occup y themselves in killing the other half who do have work just so that the half who did not have work were busy doing something. This kind of logic is neither reaso nable nor lawful; it is nothing but co rrupt.

It is necessary then for us to bring forth peaceful work for the workers in arms factories as well as fo r those who are occupied in military matters like the officers, leaders, and soldiers and others. Naturally, there should remain a small number for possible emergencies, and the others if trained should be trained to an extent and will fo rm a reserve army rather than a full time one.

We have already mentioned in other books that Iran, in the days of the reformer al-Shirazi and the story of the prohibition of tobacco, had around ten million reserve soldiers - all of the population - and ten thousand men at arms for the times of peace. In any case, it is imperative that the problem of war be solved in this way or in another way. This is as regards the amount of weapons.

As regards to the type of weapons, it is imperative that weapons be reduced. That is, there should be committees to change the advanced weapons into light weapons like the rifle, then to substitute these light weapons for primitive weapons like the sword and the spear for it is a grave error for humanity to prepare weapons which will annihilate both the fighter and his enemy.

This is possible if we enable a general mobilisation for peace. Then the arms factories will become obsolete and the workers can be employed in other fields. Large armies will be demobilised and complicated weapons will be destroyed and there will b e a return to light weapo ns.

It is likely that the world will end with the sword as a weapon for it is found in certain traditions about the Imam al-Mahdi 7 (May Allah hasten his appearance) that he will carry a sword and in some accounts it will be the sword 'Dhulfiqar' the same as was carried by Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Imam 'Ali ibn Abu Talib (A) 8 in the battles of Islam. It is related in some hadith that this sword descended from the heavens upon the Messenger of Allah (S).

He then gave it to Imam 'Ali (A) after which it became part of the sacred inheritance of the impeccable Imams peace be upon them until it ended up with the Imam al-Mahdi (A). It is also found in the hadith that the area of the battle of the Imam and his companions will be between Makkah and al-Kufa, a very small area indeed. As for the rest of the lands, they will unite under the flag of the Imam without warfare.

Cutting the roots of war

In our book 'al-Fiqh series: Sociology' we have said that the maintenance of peace is no t possible through only the media and peace organisations, for peace is not merely a superficial issue just as war is not a superficial issue. The roots of war must be cut so that peace reigns. The roots of war are human deprivation, which brings about revolutio n Al-Mahdi, the Guided, the Saviour. The Prophet (S) promised that al-Mahdi will appear to spread peace and justice throughout the world after it has been filled with tyranny and oppression. Imam al-Mahdi is the twelfth, and last, infallible Imam from the household of the Prophet Muhammad (S).

against the group causing this deprivation. The causes of this deprivation are colonialism, exploitation, and despotism in government, in economics, or in science and education. It is necessary for one seeking to sever the roots of war to prevent those who stir up war from attaining their goals and this through spreading political, economic, and social awareness. Political awareness brings about the non-surrender and defiance of people to dictators whether the dictatorship be open like inherited and coupe de tat governments or disguised like the governments who claim to Democracy but are in fact in the claws of Cap italism or of the single party like America, Britain, France, Russia, and China.

Economic awareness prevents the capital from being in the hands of a certain group whether that group has control of government as well - as in the former Soviet Union, or not - as in America.

Social awareness brings abo ut the knowledge of the equality of society regarding education, power, and wealth. Indeed:

{Every person is responsible for what he has earned.} 9 {Man will get o nly that for which he has strived.} 10 It also brings about the knowledge that there is no 'chosen' class. If it is seen that education is particular to a certain group because th ey are wealthy or have power or are the ruling political party then it will be known that the society is corrupt and that it must be realigned until education is general to everyone. The same should be said for power and wealth.

The world has begun to head gradually toward s this kind of awareness. The world power was held for a time in the hands of Britain, then America, then between the two powers America and Russia. However, the power now is distributed amongst a larger number of states - America, Russia, Europe, and China. It is true that in the area of military strength there are only two powers but there are numerous other centres of po wer in the political arena each of which has a treaty organisation.

In the economic arena there are the two main states as well as Western Europe, China and Japan. In the nuclear field there is India and other states which has caused the world to come out gradually from being under a monopoly.

Communism began to break up because of the splitting of China and the attempted split of Poland and the unrest of other states under the banner of Communism. It has also brought great ignominy upon itself, particularly when it invaded Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Afghanistan.

Capitalism has begun to break up bit by bit. Bo th Jap an and France have lost their empires, and British and American colonialism have here and there started tottering, especially in the Middle East, with the advent of the dirty policies of the state of Israel.

To continue, it has become an easier matter to increase the awareness of humanity. It is true that neutrality is not possible nor would it be correct, as a person should not stay silent in front of the oppressor. However, uneasy awareness has begun to work to bring about the proper kind of neutrality.

As for the neutrality of twenty years ago, it was in reality a camouflage for agents of other regimes. For was Castro the agent of the east non-aligned? Or was Nasser the agent of America non-aligned?

In any case, an increase in awareness is required so that the roots of war may be extirpated; the roots being the confinement of knowledge and education, power, and wealth in the hands of a minority in the face of a deprived majority. This awareness as well as putting these three things in the hands of all will also bring people closer together and will create more relationships.

Then corrupt partisans may not exploit the rest of humanity for their own personal goals. It is our opinio n that whenever awareness increases nationalisms and corrupt group lo yalties decrease in importance and matters of race, colour and geographical area are buried.

Exposing 'War by proxy'

It is also imperative before reaching the final result of a comprehensive peace to expose 'wars by proxy' and prevent them from occurring by a number of means:

a. Changing the relationships between the smaller states and the larger states so that the larger cannot make the smaller proxy in wars as is the custom now.

b. Exposing the military bases of the large states on the land of the smaller states.

c. Exposing the military pacts amongst the small states, which are under the sp here of influence of the large state, and making it clear

that the small states in the pact only want the services of the larger states.

d. Strengthening the relations b etween neighbouring states so that the large states may not cause a war to occur between them.

e. (Most importantly) Bringing about the awareness of the people of the smaller nations so that they do not become as puppets in the hands of their governments which execute the orders of their masters.

It is indeed imperative that awareness is brought about for the people of nations in general so that they do not fall victim to the greed of Cap italists and Dictatorial rulers be they open Dictators like the former Soviet Union, or Dictators clothed in the flimsy robe of Democracy like Britain, France and America. It is these two groups - Dictators and Capitalists - who ignite wars always, backed up by corrupt religious scholars, or civilian experts.

The Messenger of Allah (S) spoke truly when he says:

'There are two groups from my nation who if righteous, my nation will be righteous and if corrupt, my nation will be corrupt.' He was asked: Who are they? O Messenger of Allah.' He said: 'The scholars and the commanders.'

The Messenger of Allah (S) did not mention wealth in this hadith as it had a very small role in the past before the appearance of the corrupt capitalistic practices that play no part in Islam in the least. Those who ignited wars then were corrupt commanders and counterfeiting scholars who used to collaborate in oppressing the populace. Hence the Prophet (S) was alerted to the dangers of these two groups.

It should also be made clear that the Prophet (S) was alerted in Islam to the danger of wealth only "revolving amongst the rich." We have discussed this topic in the chapter on wealth.

Islam calls to peace and considers peace to be normal and war to be extraordinary and exceptional emergency entered into only out of desperation and as a last resort. Allah Almighty says:

{O ye who have faith, enter into peace all of you, and do not follow the footsteps of Satan.} 11 {And if they incline to peace then incline to peace and put yo ur trust in Allah.} 12

{They will not cease fro m fighting you until they cause you to turn away from your religion if they are able.} 13 {There was in them indeed an excellent example for you to follow of one who seeks Allah and the last day. But if any turn away, then know that Allah is Free of all wants, Worthy of all praise.

It may be that Allah will establish friendship between you and those whom ye hold as your enemies. Allah has power, and Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Allah does not forbid you from dealing kindly and justly with those who do not fight you for your religion or drive you from your homes. Allah loveth those who are just. Allah only forbids you from taking as allies tho se who fight you for your religion and turn you out from your homes and aid others in turning you o ut from your homes. Whoever takes them as allies, they are the wrongdoers.} 14

So we can see that Islam orders that those who persist in fighting the Muslims and seek enmity be fought back, and prohibits making friends with these types of people. As for those people who do not fight the believers or expel them from their homes, Allah indicates that they should be treated kindly and with fairness even though they may be infidels.

There are many other Qur'anic verses which if collected would show that jihad and war are secondary and extraordinary and that peace is the primary ruling as we have already indicated.

In a hadith, Amir-ul-Mu'mineen Imam 'Ali (A) spoke to his troops before meeting the enemy at the battle of Siffin:

"Do not fight them until they begin to fight, for you by the grace of Allah have the just cause, and by leaving them until they start on you, you will have another just cause over them."

In a letter, Imam Ali (A) relates what took place in the battle of Siffin: "Initially, it was that we and the group from the people of Syria (the army of Mu'awiyah) faced one oth er on the battlefield. It is obvious (for both sides) that our Lord is One and our Prophet is one and our call to Islam is one and we do not seek to increase their faith in Allah and belief in His Prophet nor do they seek to increase ours.

Everything is common between us except for our difference over the blood of 'Uthman in which we are innocent.

So we said: Come let us solve what may not be achieved today by extinguishing the uprising and calming the general populace so that the rule may become firm and consolidated. Then we will become stronger in putting the truth in its rightful place.

They said: 'No, we will solve it by seeing who will have the upper hand in battle and they refused all but war. When both them and us had been torn by war and it had put its claws in them and us, then they responded to that which we had called them to previously.

We accepted this and hurried to meet their requests so that they might have no complaint or cause against us."

He also said to his son al-Hassan: "Do not call to combat." Look also at this hadith related by Imam al-Saadiq (A) who said:

"The Messenger of Allah when he wanted to send out a troop he called them and bid them sit before him. He then said to them: Go out in the name of Allah and by Allah and in the way of Allah and according to the religion of the Messenger of Allah. Do not handcuff or tie up (the prisoners of war), do not mutilate (even the dead), and do not betray people.

Do not kill the old man, the child or the woman, and do not cut down a single tree except when you are forced to do so. And if any Muslim be he lofty or lowly gives a man of the Polytheists sanctuary, then his safety must be secured so that he hears the word of Allah. If he follows you then he is your brother in religion. If he refuses then give him his sanctuary and seek the help of Allah regarding him."

In an account on the occasion of war, Imam Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) advised the Muslims saying:

'Commit yourselves to prayer and guard your prayers and pray much. Seek nearness to Allah through it for it is a duty of the Muslims at prescribed times.' He also used to say: 'Do not fight them until they begin to fight you.'

War is something resorted to only in dire emergency, and whether or not it is resorted to come from an evaluation, which in the case of war is particularly important as it involves d estruction, annihilation and the termination of life.

Hence, Islam has laid down conditions and terms for war despite it having made either offensive or defensive jihad obligatory, as is well known in the books of jurisprudence. These many terms and cond itions have been laid down so that war only o ccurs in cases of dire emergency. Then if the war ends, Islam grants a general amnesty and grants the freedom of the wrongdoers wherever possible, as we shall see in the following sections.

The condition of parental permission

Related by Imam Ja'far al-Saadiq (A) who said:

'A man approached the Messenger of Allah (S) and said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I wish to take part in the jihad 15.' The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'Then strive in the way of Allah and if you are killed you will find yourself with Allah and be given sustenance 16, and if you die then your reward will be with Allah, and if you return then you will be as free from sin as the day you were born.' The man said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I have two aged parents who wish that I spend my time in their company and would not like me to go out to battle.' The Messenger o f Allah (S) said:

'Then stay with your parents, for by He in whose hands my soul lies, spending a day and a night in their company is better than one year's jihad." Related by Jabir who said: 'A man approached the Messenger of Allah (S) and said: 'I am a strong man and I wish to fight jihad but my mother does not like this.' The Prophet (S) said: 'Return and be with your mother, for by He who sent me with the truth, you spending one night in her company is better than one year's jihad in the way of Allah.'

Ibn 'Abbas relates that the Prophet (S) was approached by a man who said: 'O Messenger of Allah shall I do jihad?' (Meaning going into battle). The Prophet said: 'Do you have parents?' The man said: 'Yes.' So the Prophet said: 'Then do jihad 17 for them.' Related by Abu Sa'id al-Khudari:

'A man emigrated from Yemen to the Messenger of Allah (S) who said to him: 'Have you anyone in Yemen?' The man replied that he had two parents there. The Prophet (S) asked: 'Have they given permission to you?' The man replied: 'No.' The Prophet (S) said: 'Then return and seek their permission and if they give you their permission then fight jihad, and if not then obey them and be kind to them.'

Jihad is not incumbent upon certain groups

In a hadith related by al-Hassan ibn Mahboub, from some of his companions who said:

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A) in his letter to one of the Umayyad Caliphs wrote rebuking those Caliphs who had tasked people with things that had not been enjoined by Allah Almighty saying:

' . . . the blind and the lame have been wrongly obligated as well as those who do not have the funds to spend on jihad, and this after Allah has granted them exemption.' This is according to what is to be found in the Holy Qur'an regarding this matter where the Almighty has said:

{Those of the believers who sit (do not go to fight), other than those who have injuries, are not equal to the mujahidin who fight in the way of Allah with their wealth and their selves.

Allah favours those mujahidin who strive in the way of Allah with their wealth and their selves, a degree over those who sit it out. Allah has promised both parties a goodly reward but Allah has favoured those mujahidin over those who sit it out with a great reward and by degrees. From Him is a {Say to those Bedouin Arabs who lag behind: You will be called to a people of might who you will fight or they will enter Islam. If you obey, then Allah will give you a goodly reward and if you turn away as you turned away before then,

Allah will torment yo u with a painful torment. There is no blame upon the blind man nor upon the cripple nor upon the sick. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be given entry to gardens below which rivers flow, but whoever turns away will be tormented a painful torment.} 19

In our book 'al-Fiqh series: volume 48, Jihad' We have mentioned that six groups are exempt from the duty o f jihad: The blind, the cripple, the sick, the person who cannot cover his expenses, the person to whom jihad would be injurious, and the person impeded from jihad in general. The duty of jihad is not incumb ent upon the insane, the slave, or the elderly person.

The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'The pen 20 is lifted from the youngster until he reaches maturity and from the insane until he regains his mind.' Related from Imam 'Ali (A) that he said: 'Jihad is not incumbent upon the slave.'

There are many other traditions in this regard.

Jihad is not incumbent upon women

Related from al-Asbagh ibn Nabatah who said: 'Amir-ul-Mu'mineen 'Ali (A) said:

'Allah has prescribed jihad for both men and women. The jihad of the man is to spend of his wealth and of his self until he is killed in the way of Allah. The jihad of the woman is to remain patient in the face of problem from her husband."

In another hadith: 'The jihad of the woman is to make a good wife for her husband.'

Related from Imam 'Ali (A) who said: 'The duty of jihad does not fall upon the slave when they can be dispensed with, nor upon the woman, nor upon he who has not reached maturity.'

Also from Imam 'Ali (A) who said:

'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'Allah has prescribed jihad for the men of my nation (Islam) and jealousy upon the women of my nation. And whoever of the women is patient and seeks a reward, Allah will give her the reward of a martyr.'

Related by Sayyid 'Ali ibn Tawous who said: 'I saw a hadith which said that Wahab was a Christian . . . until it mentioned his death and that his mother entered the battle. Then Imam al-Hussein (A) said to them both: 'Go back O mother of Wahab, you and your son are with the Messenger of Allah (S) for the duty of jihad has been lifted from women.' Imam Saadiq (A) was asked about how it came to be that the burden of the Jizyah tax has been lifted from women. He (A) said:

'Because the Messen ger of Allah (S) proh ibited the killing of women and children in dar al-harb 21 except when they take part in the fighting and even when they take part in the fighting then one should restrain oneself from fighting them as far as is possible. Because this is the case in dar al-harb then this is even more appropriate in dar al-Islam 22. If they were to refuse to pay the Jizyah tax then killing them is not possible and this being the case, th en th e Jizyah is lifted from them. If the men were to refuse to pay the Jizyah tax then they would be breaking the treaty and therefore killing th em would b e allowed because the killing of men is allowed in the lands of polytheism. The crippled, the blind, the old man, the women and children of the lands of war are not to be killed and because of this the burden of the Jizyah tax has been lifted from them.

War is not permitted in the absence of the just Imam

Related from Yunis who said: 'I was with Imam al-Kaadhem (A) when a man asked the Imam (A): 'One of your followers has heard that a man is giving out swords and bo ws in the way of Allah so he went to him and took a sword and a bow from him (not knowing the proper way in this matter). He then met some of his companions who told him that this was not allowed and ordered him to return them (the sword and the bow). Imam al-Kaadhem (A) said: 'Then let him do so.'

But he replied that he had sought the man but was unable to fin d him and he was told that the man had died.

Imam al-Kaadhem (A) said: 'Then let him defend but not to fight.' The man said: 'and in places like Qazwin, or Ashkelon, or al-Daylam or other citad els?'

Imam al-Kaadhem (A) said: 'Yes.'

The man said: 'And if the enemy comes to where he is attached, what should he do?'

Imam al-Kaadhem said: 'He should defend the territory of Islam.'

The man asked: 'Should he fight jihad?'

Imam al-Kaadhem (A) said: 'No, unless he fears for the safety of the territory of Islam.'

The man said: 'Are you saying that if the Romans should enter upon the Muslims, they should not prevent them from doing so.'

Imam al-Kaadhem (A) said: "He should defend and if he should fear for the safety of Islam and the Muslims then he should fight and his fighting would be for himself (to protect his life, and those of other Muslims) and not for the government (of the time) for if Islam were to be obliterated then the reminder of Muhammad (S) would be obliterated."

Also related that Imam Saadiq (A) was asked his opinion about a man who entered the land of war safely and then deluded a people who were subject to another people. He (A) said:

'The Muslim should defend himself and fight to establish the rule of Allah and His Prophet. It is not allowed that he fight the unbelievers under the authority of a tyrannical rule (in a Muslim country) or their traditions.'

Related by Abu 'Urwah al-Sulami, from Imam Saadiq (A) who was asked by a man who said: 'I used to go on frequent military excursions and would travel far in seeking reward and would be absent for long periods of time. This began to be hard on me. Then I was told that there is to be no military campaigns in the absence of the just Imam. What is your opinion?' He (A) said: 'Shall I be brief or in detail?' He said:

'Why, in detail.' He (A) said: 'Alla h will bring the people before him on the Day of Resurrection according to their intentions . . .' (as if man wished the Imam to be brief.) The man said: 'Tell me in brief.' He (A) said: 'Ask your question.' The man said: 'If I went on a raid and battled the Polytheists is it necessary to call them to Islam before I fight them?'

He (A) said: 'If they raid and fight and are fought then you can fight them. If they are however, a people who have not raided or fought then you may not fig ht them until you call them to Islam.'

The man said: 'I called them and one answered and entered Islam in his heart. When he was in the Muslim country, he was treated unjustly, his dignity was violated and his possession was taken from him, and his rights abused. Am I responsible for this, as I had called him to Islam? 23 Imam Saadiq (A) said: "You are both rewarded for what has happened.

It is better that he is with you defending you, your family, your Qiblah and your Book, rather than being against you, fighting you, violating your dignity, spilling your blood and burning book."

Related by al-Sukuni, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

'Amir-ul-Mu'mineen 'Ali said: 'The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen and said: 'O 'Ali, do not fight anyone until you have invited him to Islam for if Allah should give his guidance to one man through your hands it would be better for you than the whole Earth and you would have his loyalty O 'Ali.'

Related in the book Da'aim al-Islam from Imam 'Ali (A) who said: 'A people should not be fought until they have been invited to Islam.'

Related in the book Ghawali al-Layali from the Prophet (S) who said: 'The infidels should not be fought until after the invitation to Islam.' Also from the book Da'aim al-Islam: Related from Imam al-Saadiq (A), from his forefathers, from Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) that whenever the Messenger of Allah (S) sent an army or a raiding party, would enjoin God fearing piety up on its leader personally and then upon the rest of the troops in general and would say: 'Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah and according to the creed of the Messenger of Allah (S).

Do not figh t the people until you have the justifica tion by inviting them to testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is his messenger and to confirm what he (Muhammad) has brought from Allah.

If they respond then they are your brothers in faith and you should then invite them to move from their territory to the town s of the Mu slims . . .' (This is so that they can learn more about Islam in Muslim populated cities where there are centres of learning of Islamic sciences.) Limiting (fighting) to the least amount necessary Related by Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

"The Messenger of Allah (S), when he wanted to send a troop, he would summon them and bid them sit by him. Then he would say: 'Go in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah and according to the creed of the Messenger of Allah. Do not handcuff or tie up (prisoners) and do not mutilate (even the dead) and do not use treacherous means and do not kill old men or children women. Do not cut down trees unless you are forced to do so.

If any Muslim man be he lowly or lofty should look towards one of the Polytheists then he should be given sanctuary so that he might hear the words of Allah. If he follows you then he is your brother in faith and if he refuses then grant him sanctuary and seek succour in Allah."

Also related from Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

"When the Prophet (S) assigned a leader to an expedition squadron, he would enjoin upon him God fearing piety for his own person and for his companions generally. He would then say: 'Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight those who disbelieve in Allah. Do not use treacherous means, do not plunder and do not mutilate. Do not kill children or hermits and do not set fire to date palms or drown them with water.

Do not cut down a fruit-bearing tree and do not burn crops for you never know when you might be in need of them. Do not slay animals whose meat is edible except what is necessary for you to eat.

If you should meet an enemy to the Muslims then invite them to one of three things. If they respond to you accordingly then accept them and refrain from any action. Call them to Islam and if they enter Islam then accept them and refrain from any action.

Having accepted Islam, then invite them to emigrate to the lands of Islam 24 and if they do this then accept them and refrain from any action. If they refuse to emigrate and favour their own homes and refuse to enter into the land of the hijra (i.e. the land of Muslim emigrant) then they will have the station of the Bedouin Muslims and have the same rights afforded to them as the Bedouin Muslims. They will not have rights of a share of booty until they emig rate in the way of Allah.

If they refuse these two things then call them to pay the Jizyah from their wealth and in a state of humiliation (to contribute to their protection by the Islamic state). If they pay the Jizyah then accept it from them and refrain from any action. If they refuse then seek succour from Allah Almighty against them and fight them in the way of Allah to the utmost.

If you lay siege to a fortress and the people therein wish you to let them surrender on the basis of the rule of Allah then do not accept that. But rather let them surrender according to your terms and condition, then judge what you will regarding them according to the criteria you know best.

For if you let them surrender according to the rule of Allah you will not know whether you will be able to fulfil the rule of Allah regarding them or not. If you lay siege to a fortress and the people wish you to let them surrender on the basis of the covenant and assurance of Allah then do not agree to this. Rather let them surrender on the basis of your own covenant and guarantee and that of your fathers and your brothers. For if you break your covenant and the covenant of your fathers and your brothers it will be easier for you on the Day of Resurrection than if you had broken the covenant of Allah and His messenger."

Related from Imam Saadiq (A) from his father, from his forefathers, from Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) who said:

"The Messenger of Allah (S), when he sent out an army or a raiding party would enjoin God fearing piety upon its leader personally and on the rest of the Muslims who were with him. He (S) would say: 'Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah . . . and do not kill children or the elderly or women (meaning as long as they do not fight you), and do not mutilate and do not tie up or handcuff, and do not use perfidious means."

Related by al-Sukuni, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said :

'Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S) forbade the letting loose or deploying of poison in the lands of the Polytheists.'

Related from Ja'far ibn Muhammad , from his father, from his grandfather 'Ali ibn al-Hussein, fro m his father from Imam 'Ali (A) who said:

'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'In battle do not kill (anyone) except those who have exposed themselves to the blades. (i.e. those who have come to fight with you.)

Related in the book Da'aim al-Islam that the Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'Do not kill children or the elderly or women.'

Related in a hadith is that Sa'd ibn Mu'adh judged regarding the clan of Qureidah "that their fighters be killed and that their children be captured. He ordered that the male amongst the captured to have their garments removed. Whoever's had grown was considered to be a fighter and whoever's had not gro wn then he was considered to be one of the children" 25 . The Prophet (S) accepted this.

Related from Imam Saadiq (A) who was asked: 'What is the meanin g of the Prophet's saying: 'The lowliest of them strives for their protectorate.' He (A) answered: "If a Muslim army were to lay siege to a group of Polytheists and a man looked out from the fortress and said: 'Give me sanctuary so that I may meet your leader and discuss with him.' If then the lowliest of the Muslims gives the pledge of sanctuary then it is binding also upon the most high-ranking of them."

Related from Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

'If a group laid siege to a city and the people ask for sanctuary but they are told 'No', but they thought that they have been told 'Yes' and come down to them then they have sanctuary.'

Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) said:

'If someone promises another a truce on his blood then betrays th at truce then I disa ssociate myself from the killer even thou gh the o ne killed may be destined for the fire.' In the covenant of Amir-ul-Mu'mineen, Imam 'Ali (A), to al-Ashtar (May Allah have mercy upon him) states:

directly, as well as aiding their enemies against them. In the year 5 Hijra (after the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madinah), all the different Polytheist groups and clans started to mobilise their forces against the Muslims in order to finish them off, once and for all. The subsequent battle that took place between the confederation of the various clans and the Polytheist groups, and the Muslims became known as the Battle of al-Ahzab (the Confederates).

Leading up to the battle, and after seeing the size of the mobilised forces against the Muslims, the Qureidah clan considered it to be a good opportunity to join ranks with the confederates against the Muslims, in order to succeed in obliterating them.

Therefore the elders and warriors of the clan decided to break th e agreement they had signed with the Muslims and side with Polytheists against them. According to the agreement, this act in itself constituted a declaration of war by the Qureidah clan against the Muslims. At the end of the day, the Muslims were the victors of the Battle of al- Ahzab.

According to the agreement, the Muslims had the right to wage war against the Qureidah clan, but instead asked the Qureidah clan for their suggestion as to how to settle this matter. They proposed that a third party judges this matter and his judgment would be final. The Muslims asked the Qureidah clan to propose a candidate that might be acceptable to both sides.

The Qureidah clan proposed Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, the Muslims accepted the proposed candidate. Sa'd ibn Mu'adh was known to be have been a long time friend of the Qureidah clan, and he was known to have accepted Islam. He was then invited by both sides to make judgment on the matter, according to the agreement between the two parties. He accepted and made the above judgement.

"Do not reject outright a truce called for by your enemy and in it is the pleasure of Allah. For the truce is an occasion of respite for your troops and a rest for you from your worries and concerns and a security for your lands. But remember be on your guard to the utmost after making a truce, for it may be that the enemy seeks to draw close to you in order to take you unawares. Therefore be judicious and do not give them the benefit of the doubt.

If you should form a treaty between you and your enemy which gives him your protectorate and word of honour, then honour this treaty, proclaim your word of honour and make yourself as a shield guarding what you have given, for there is no commandment of Allah (Almighty is He) more acknowledged in the eyes of the people despite the difference of their ideas and opinions than the honouring of pledges. Even the Polytheists have practised this amongst themselves because they realise the evil consequences of treachery.

Do not betray your covenant and do not break your contract and do not double cross your enemy for Allah has made His covenant and protectorate a sanctuary for his servants through His mercy and none but the ignorant wretch would go against Allah in this way. Therefore there should be no interpolation, forgery or betrayal in this matter.

Do not formulate a treaty in which there is room for ambiguity. When the treaty has been ratified and concluded do not try to take advantage of any grammatical errors that may be in it.

Do not let a critical situatio n arising from the treaty of Allah cause you to rescind it without just cause, for your patience in this situation seeking relief from it and the best outcome is better than treachery the dire consequences of which you fear and that you will be overcome by, and liable to that (treachery) and therefore be called upon by Allah to account for it and hence you will not be able to seek forgiveness for it in this world or in the hereafter."

Related from Imam 'Ali (A) who said:

'The Messenger of Allah (S) gave a sermon in the mosque of al- Hanif saying: 'May Allah have mercy on the person who hears this speech and remembers it and then passes it on to one who has not heard it. For many a person who bears knowledge is not a scholar but may transmit that knowledge to one more knowledgeable than him. The heart of the Muslim will never cheat after the knowledge of three thing s: Dedicating one's actions to Allah only, giving good counsel to the leaders of the Muslims, and being bound to the fact that the Muslims are a brotherhood. For with unity, the call of the Muslims will be overwhelming (on the non-Muslims).

The blood of Muslims is equal, the lowliest of them may offer their protectorate, for if any of the Muslims should give sanctuary to any of the heathens then this is binding.'

Also related from Amir-ul-Mu'mineen 'Ali (A) who said:

'If a Muslim should make a gesture of truce or sanctuary to any of the Polytheists and he descends (from a fortress) accordingly then he has the truce.' Related from Imam Saadiq (A) who said: 'Truce is allowed in whatever language it may be in.'

Related from Amir-ul-Mu'mineen 'Ali (A) who said: 'Fulfil your promises if you make a promise.' He (A) also said: 'If any Muslim makes a gesture of truce to any of the enemy then he has a truce.'

Related from Imam Saadiq (A) who was asked about two towns in enemy territory each with their o wn king. These towns fight one another and then make peace. Then one of the kings betrays the other and comes to the Muslims and makes a truce with them on the condition that they raid the other city. Imam Saadiq (A) said:

'It is not fitting for the Muslims to use treachery or to order others to be treacherous, nor to fight alongside those who are treacherous. They should fight the Polytheists whenever possible (according to the specifie

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