The Pledge of Allegiance - Part 2
- :Sheykh Radi al-Yasin
This praise of al-Husayn is unique. Also his style is oratorical. We have never read such a kind of style. For Al-Hasan as you see, has not mentioned the known qu'Alities of the great late Imam. People have used to hear these qu'Alities during such a ttitudes when great men are praised. People have used to praise geat men to show their noble qu'Alities such as knowldge, patience, eloquence, bravery, generosity, lineage, nobility, faithfulness, refusal, and he like. Among the great men was 'Ali who astonished the praisers. Therefore why did Al-Hasan peace be on Him, refrain from following the known method in praising the geat ones? I (the author) wonder: Did not strong shock result from his father's death prevent his from that? In other words, Al-Hasan, was an eloquent orator, He was the son of the most eloquent person in oration. Therefore why did he not mention his father's known qu'Alities? Dod he intentionally use this style? So Al-Hasan was the most eloquent orator in using appropriate words for such an occasion. Besides he was the longest of them in oration though his words were short.
Yes, Al-Hasan praised his father in the manner which no one had used before Him his history. He mention certain qu'Alities to praise his father. The qu'Alities were not appropriate for anyoune in history except 'Ali. Namely, no one of great men has such qu'Alities. Therefore they are 'Alid traits.
Al-Hasan mentioned the Divine qu'Alities of his father. He wanted to indicate that there was no one like his father througout history.
Imam 'Ali was a man. However, the early people were not like Him, nor were the later ones. He was a human being. However, he was between Gabriel and Micheal. His spirit was taken up (to Heaven) on the night on which the Koran came down to the earth. He spend all stages of his life with a close angle, a sent prophet, and a sent down Book. He was with the Apostle of Allah. He was ready to sacrifice his life for Him. So the noble qu'Alities in this world are not important in comparison with the Divine ones. For this reason, Al-Hasan did not mention the noble traits in this world when he praised his father.
Now, you may agree with me on this unique style which Al-Hasan used to praise his father, peace be on them. Namely, he used the most eloquent praise and the most appropriate style for the late Imam at that time.
This is one of Al-Hasan's oratorical attitudes that indicate his close relation to his father and his grandfather, may Allah bless them and their families. Al-Hasan, the Successor, peace be on Him, delivered many sermons afte his fathe's death. For the people pledged allegiance to Him. Moreover, he faced many critical situations.
''Ubayd Allah b. Abbas b. Abd al-Mutt'Alib, Al-Hasan's cousin, stood by the pulit in al-Masjid al-Jami that was full of people. He was waiting for the people to stop weeping after Al-Hasan's praise for his father, peace be on Him.
Then ''Ubayd Allah said the following words with his sounding ingerited voice that boomed in the earth as it boomed in the sky. From the firts day, he propagated the message of the sky in the earth: "This is your Imam. He is the grandson of your Prophet and trustee of authority of your Imam. So pledge allegiance to Him. With Him Allah guides those who will follow His pleasure into the ways of safety and brings them out of utter darkeness into light by his will and guides them to the right path."
Many people remembered the tradition of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, till the day when Imam 'Ali dies. The tradition was concerning the succession of Al-Hasan after his father. So the people said: "What dear is he (Al-Hasan) with us! What obligatory is his right on us! What appropriate is he for the succession!" Then they rushed willingly to pledge allegiance to Him.
That (the pledge of Allegianed) was on the twenty first of the month of Ramadan, on the day when his father (peace be on Him) died. in the year 40 A.H.1
In this manner, Kufa was the first to pledge allegiance to Al-Hasan, peace be on Him. Then Basra and al-Mada'in pledged allegiance to Him. Then all Iraqis pledged allegiance to Him. Then Hijaz (Saudi Arabia) and the Yemen, headed by the great leader Jarya b. Qaddama, pledged allegiance to Him. Then Persia (Iran) pledged allegiance to Him with the help of its leader Zyyad b. 'Ubayd. Moreover, the great figures of the Emigrants (muhajirin) and of the Supporters (Ansar) pledged allegiance to Him. Generally speaking, no one refused to pledge allegiance to Al-Hasan, peace be on Him, by Mu'awiya and his followers. So Mu'awiya led his followers to the way of misguidance. Besides other persons adopted a neutral attitude, so they were called al-qu'ad (the neutral).
The religious succession was achieved according to its general phenomenon through the free pledge of allegiance. This was the second pledge of allegiance in the history of the family of Mohammed, may Allah bless Him and his family. So Al-Hasan's Imamate came to the Muslims through the holy way through which Prophethood came to them before half a century. So Al-Hasan's Imamate had a close relations to the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family. For it is regarded as continuation for the Prophetic mission through which the people were guided. In othe words, the new Successor (i.e, Al-Hasan) was ideal materially and spiritually.
According to these outstanding merits, Al-Hasan, peace be on Him, was the most approriate person for the succession as the poet said:
He obtained the succession because it was predetermined for Him.
As Musa (Moses) came to his Lord due to predetermination.
After the people had pledge allegiance to Imam Al-Hasan, peace be on Him, he started his new time through the outstanding merits of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt) and their clear right to authority. Then he told the people about the expected dangers from which Islam would suffer. The following is some of his eloquent speech: "We are the victorious party of Allah. We are the close family of the Apostle of Allah. We are the good, pure members of his House. We are one of the two valuable things (al-thaqalain) which the Apostle of the Allah left behind Him in his commuity. The other is the Book of Allah, in which are the details for everything. False shall not come to it from before it nor from behind it. So reliance is on us in explaining it. We do not depend on doubts in explaining it. Rather we are certain of its faces. therefore obey us, for our obedience is obligatory. It is as obligatory as the obedience to the Apostle of Allah Allah, the Great and Almighty said: "O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and those in authority from you; then if you quarrel about any thing, refer it to Allah and the Apostle. Then He said: 'And if they had referred it to the Prophet and to those in authority among them, those among them who can search out the knowledge of it would have known it.
In the end of his speech, Al-Hasan peace be on Him said: "I warn you not to listen to the temptation of the Satan, for he is a clear enemy for you. Therefore you will be like his followers to whom he said: No one of the people can overcome you this day, and surely I am your protector; but when the two parties came in sight of each other he turned upon his heels, and said: Surely I am clear of you, surely I see what you do not see. So On the day when some of the sign of your Lords shall come, its faith shall not profit a soul that did not believe before, or earn good through its faith."2
Then Al-Hasan, peace be on Him, got off his pulpit to regulate the governors to appoint the commanders, and to take care of the affairs.3
1. Ibn Abu al-Haddid, vol. 4. p.11. Other than b. Abu al-Haddid, has mention Abd Allah in stead of his brother 'Ubayd Allah.
In Chapter "Leadership and War" we will mention that Abd Allah was not in Kufa when the people pledged allegiance to Al-Hasan, peace be on Him.
2. Hisham b. Hasan has repoted this sermon. He sai: "It (the sermon) is some of his (i e. Al-Hasan's) sermon after pldege of allegiance to Him. See Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10 p. 99. Also see al-Mas'udi.
3. Most historians have reported this text.
Adopted from the book: "Sulh al-Hasan (a.s.)" by: "Sheykh Radi al-Yasin"
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