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The Pledge of Allegiance - Part 1

The religion in Islam is what the Prophet, may Allah bless Him and his family, Propagated. For he (the Prophet): "Does not speak out of desire. It is naught but revealed." So the prophet had the right to nominate the Muslim successor for the succession. That is because the succession is the high responsible authority for the lawful. Therefore, Al-Hasan b. 'Ali was the legitimate successor whether the people pledged allegiance to Him or not.

The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, mentioned Al-Hasan within the chain of the names of the twelve Imams. The Prophet said many traditions concerning Al-Hasan and his brother al-Husayn. The Sunni scholars have reported these traditions.1 All the Shi'ite scholars have agreed on the report of these traditions In other words the two parties (Suna and Shi'a) have agreed on these traditions. Among these traditions are: "You (Al-Hasan and al-Husayn) are two Imams. your mother has the intercession."2 This (i.e al-Husayn) is an Imam, the son of an Imam, the brother of an Imam, and the father of the nine Imams."3

When Imam 'Ali got ill, he ordered his son (Al-Hasan) to lead the people in prayer. When Imam 'Ali was about to die, he entrusted Al-Hasan and said: "My son you are the trustee fo authority and of blood." Imam 'Ali made al-Husayn, Mohammed (b. al-Hanafiya), all his sons, the chiefs of his Shi'a (followers) and the members of his House bear withness for his bequest. Imam 'Ali gave Al-Hasan the Book and the weapon, then he said to Him: "My son, the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, has ordered me to entrust you and to give you my books and my weapon as the Apostile of Allah entrusted me and gave me his books and his weapons. Also he ( the Prophet) has ordered me to order you that when death comes to you give them (the books and the weapons) to your brother al-Husayn." Then Imam 'Ali turned to al-Husayn and said: "The Apostle of Allah has ordered you to give them to this son of you."4 The he took the hand of 'Ali b. al-Husayn and said: "The Apostle of Allah has ordered you to view them to your son Mohammed. Send Him the greetings of the Apostle of Allah and my (greetings).5

All traditions books have mentioned this tradition through authentic relaible ways on the authority of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. This tradition of 'Ali was appropriate for the expected conditions. The Imami Shi'a use this method to prove the Imamate. The Sunni scholars have reported successive Prophetic clearly reported the same traditions through their methods. They (the traditions) have limited the Imamate to twelve Imams who were all from Quraysh.6 Also they sometimes mention their names Imam by Imam to the last one of them, who is the awaited Mhadi (the rightly guided one), with whom Allah will fill the earth with justice when it is full of oppression and injustice.

Moreover, there are personal texts which the Imam said to nominate each other.

Then the supremacy of each Imam in knowledge, acts, miracles, and outstanding merits underlines both kinds of the above mentioned traditions.

As for the pledge of allegiance of people, it is not a condition in the Imamate of the Imam. In other words, people should pledge allegiance to those whom the Prophetic traditions have underlined. The Imamis regard pledging allegiance to other than the Imam as a correct act. It (pledging allegiance) is not accepted from anyoune but at the time of compulsion.

The conditions prevented the community from pledging allegiance to the nominated Imams but two of them, who were 'Ali and Al-Hasan, peace be on them.

After Al-Hasan, the formal succession started. Such a kind of succession was usurpted through the weapon or money. Namely, such a kind of succession occured as al-Ghaz'Ali said: "The people assumed the succession without any merits."7

It was better for the Muslims or the Muslim historians in particular to regard the end of Al-Hasan's succession as the beginning of the time of the kingdom. So they would be able to know that time clearly through its aspects, its policies, and its non- Islamic deeds. If they (the Muslims and the Muslim historians) had done that, they would have maintained the ideal, Islamic beliefs which that ideal succession followed. For they followed the example of the Prophet, may Allah bless Him and his family. Also they ( They Muslims and the Muslim historians) would have protected Islam from those kings who imposed their succession on Muslims. Unfortunately, the Muslim historians have called those kings successors while they (the kings) were not worthy of this title. For this reason, the mentioned historians have wronged Islam thought they wanted to do good for it.

I (the author) wonder: was it appropriate for the successor, who had to be like the Prophet in his words and acts, to perform the Friday prayer on Wednesday or to perform it again in the morning? Was it appropriate for Him to do Islamically forbidden acts? In other words, was it appropriate for Him to sell gold for that which is more than it in weight, to attribute the corrupt persons to the family of the Prophet, to murder the believing people, and to supply the unbelievers with money to wage war against his Muslim brother, and the like? So why had the historians not called such persons kings instead of calling them successor? Just imagine those persons who succeeded Mu'awiya. Did they not belong to the tree which Allah has cursed in the Koran? just imagine Yazid, Abd, al-M'Alik, al-W'Alid, and the like!

All these acts should urge Muslims to support Islam. They should not attribute to the Islamic authority but those ideal Imams who followed the example of the Prophet, may Allah bless Him and his family.

As we have said that Al-Hasan was the most similar person to the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, in form, manner, and nobility.8 He had the visage of prophets and the glory of kings. He is the lord of the youth of Paradise in the hereafter. The lord in the hereafter must be a lord in this world. His grandfather the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, surnamed Him the absolute lord.

We have known that Al-Hasan was the nolest person in ancestry. He was the best of men in father, mother, uncle, aunt, grandmother, and grandfather, as M'Alik b. Ajlan described Him during the meeting of Mu'awiya.9

As Al-Hasan had these noble traits and a textual nomination, then why did not people not pledge Allegiance to Him? Why did they not let Him assume the high religious position (i.e, the succession)? If it is difficult for us to understand the Imamate and the succession through these excellent abilities and outstanding merits, then which qu'Ality can replace them all and help us understand the Imamate or the succession?

Al-Hasan, peace be on Him, came out to meet the people. He was indifferent to their attitude towards Him. Thus he stood on the pulpit of his father peace be on Him to praise Him. He said:"There has died to night a man who was the first among the early (Muslims) in (good) actions. Nor did any later (Muslims) attain his level in (good) actions. He used to fight alongside the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family and protect Him with his own life. The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family, used to send Him forward with his standard while Gabriel supported Him on his right and Micheal supported Him on his left. He would not return untill Allah brought victory through his hands. He, peace be on Him, has died on this night on which Jesus, son of Mary ,was taken up (to Heaven), on which Joshua, son of Nuh, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Moses, peace be on Him, died. He has left behind no gold and silver except seven hundred dirhams of his stipend (ata) with which he was intending to buy a servant or his family."10

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1. al-Qunduzi, Yanabi al-Mawadda, vol. 2, p. 440. Ibn al-Khashshab, Tarikh. Ibn al-Sabbagh, al-Fusul al-MuHimma. Al-Hafiz al-Kunji, la- Bayan. As'ad b. IbraHim b. Al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-Hanb'Ali, al-Arab'iniya, al-Hafiz al-Bukhari, (Khaja Basra) Fasl al-Khitab.

2. Al Shibrawi, al-Shafi'i, al-Ithafbi Hud al-Ashraf, (Egypt), p. 129. al-Safuri al-Shafi'i, vol. 2, p. 148.

3.Ibn Taymiya, al-Minhaj, vol. 4, p. 210.

4. al-Mas'udi, Hamish b. al-Athir, vol. 6, 61.

5. Usul al-Kafi, p. 151. Kashf al-Gumma, p. 159.

6. In his book called al-Sahih, vol. 2, p. 119 chapter: People were the Followers of Quraysh, MUslim has reported on the authority of Javbir b. Samra, who said: "I (ie, Jabir) heard the Apostle of Allah may Allah bless Him and his family, saying: The religion will last till the hour (i.e. the Day of Judgement) starts, and there will be twelve Imams over them (people), who are all from Quraysh." A similar tradition has been reported by: al-Bukhari, al-Turmidhi, al-Hamidi, and the like.

7. Farid Wajdi, Da'irat al-Ma'arif, vol. 3. p. 231.

8. al-Mufid, al-Ireshad,p. 167. al-Ya'qubi, al-Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 201.

9. One day Mu'awiya said to the boble people from Qiraysh and othes: "Tell me about the best person in father, mother, uncle aunt, grandmother, and grandfather," So M'Alik b. Ajlan stood up. pointed to Al-Hasan and and said: "That is! His father was 'Ali b. Abi T'Alib. His mother was Fatima, the daughter of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless Him and his family. His uncle was Ja'far, al-Tayyar (the one who flies in the gardens) His aunt was Umm Hani the daughter of Abu T'Alib. His uncle was al-Qasim the son of the Apostle of Allah His aunt was Zaynab the daughter of the Apostle of Allah. His grandfather was Allah's Apostle. And His grandmother was Khadija bint (the daughter of) Khuwaylid." (al-Bayqahi, vol. 1, p. 62).

10. al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 190. Ibn al-Athir, vol. 2, p. 190. Maqatil al-T'Alibiyyin.

Adopted from the book: "Sulh al-Hasan (a.s.)" by: "Sheykh Radi al-Yasin"

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