Rafed English

Obligations of Tawaaf

322. The obligations of tawaaf are:
to begin and end the tawaaf with the Hajar al-Aswad,
the House should be on the left hand side [of the Haajj],
Hijr Isma'el should be within the [circular route of] tawaaf,
to keep clear of the House,
[the circular route of] the tawaaf should be between the House and Maqaam Ibrahim, as a precaution, if it is not too much of a problem,
the number of rounds [of the tawaaf],
continuity,
 
1. To begin and end with Hajar al-Aswad
323. It is not correct to begin the tawaaf from other than Hajar al-Aswad nor is it to end it at other than the Hajar al-Aswad.
324. For establishing the correct beginning and ending with the Hajar al-Aswad, it is sufficient to be generally in line with it when beginning a cycle or ending one, and it is not necessary to be very precise about the first part of the body being in line with the first part of the Hajar.
325. If one stood in line with the Hajar al-Aswad, with the Hajar on his left hand side, and [began] the first cycle of the tawaaf, and went round the Kabah until he reached the Hajar al-Aswad again, this round trip constitute as one cycle around the Kabah, the like of which one must perform seven cycles in total, and it is not necessary for one to do more than that.
2. To make the House to be on his left hand side
326. The tawaaf would not be correct if one does not allow the Kabah to be on his left hand side, if one does the opposite, i.e. to allow the Kabah to be on his right hand side [when performing the tawaaf], his tawaaf would be null and void.[25]
327. It is sufficient for the House to be on his left in general, as accepted by common perception, and it is not necessary for him to watch the minarets [as an aid to keep in line], and slight deviation does not invalidate it [the tawaaf].
328. [In the process of the tawaaf,] if the House turned out to be on his right hand side, or he faced it, or if his back was to the House, even for one step deliberately or by oversight that step, or any more than that, would not be correct, and he is obliged to repeat the steps that were taken in the incorrect position or direction if it is possible for him to do so as necessary, and nothing prevents him from this attempt, and if something did prevent him, it would be preferable for him to do as much as he can. However, if due to overcrowding he was deviated slightly for one or two steps, such that his left shoulder was not in the direction of the House, it is unlikely that this would be objectionable.
3. Including Hijr Ismael
329. It is obligatory to include Hijr Ismael inside the [circular route of] tawaaf. Hijr Ismael is the burial place of the prophet Ismael, his mother Haajer, and a number of other prophets peace be upon them.
330. It is obligatory to make Hijr Isma'el on his left, for if one performed the tawaaf by going between it and the House, by making the House on his left and the Hijr on his right, that would invalidate his tawaaf and he must repeat that cycle only.
4. Keeping clear of the House
331. The tawaaf is not correct if it is done inside the House. However, if one performed the tawaaf on the wall of the Hijr or on the shadhrawaan of the Kabah, which are the remaining section of the foundation of the old building after the new building was erected, the tawaaf would be correct. There is no objection if one touched the wall of the House or the Hijr with his [left] hand [in the process of the tawaaf].
332. If he performed part of the tawaaf incorrectly, he is obliged to amend and rectify the incorrect part, if he was not excused, say through ignorance by being moqassir, but if he was excused, say through ignorance by being qaasir, it would be preferable for him to do so.
5. Performing the tawaaf between the House and Maqaam Ibrahim
333. As a precaution, and without undue difficulty, one should not include Maqaam Ibrahim inside the circular route of the tawaaf, but leave the Maqaam on his right and the House on his left, and the tawaaf path in between, observing a distance from all sides [of the House], which is estimated to be around 30 feet approximately.
334. It is permitted to perform the tawaaf around the sacred Kabah at a distance greater than 30 feet if it proved difficult to meet that requirement. It is also permitted to perform the tawaaf on the first floor of Masgid al-Haraam, or on the second floor (the roof level) of the Masgid if it was too difficult to do so on the ground floor, and the tawaaf around the Kabah would be correct, like when there is a great mass of pilgrims performing the tawaaf.
6. The number of rounds [of the tawaaf]
335. It is obligatory that the number of cycles of the tawaaf around the sacred Kabah is seven rounds, [beginning] from the Hajar al-Aswad and [ending] at the Hajar al-Aswad, nothing more or less.
336. If one adds to or deducts from the tawaaf at its beginning or during the course of the tawaaf, as a precaution the tawaaf would be invalidated in all respects.
337. If the addition was a small amount, before the start of the tawaaf, then there is no objection to it if it was in preparation for the tawaaf.
338. After completing the seven laps of the tawaaf, if by oversight there was an increase of less than one complete cycle around the Kabah, it is mandatory to abort the extra cycle, but if this increase was one complete cycle or more, as a precaution, he should complete the tawaaf, i.e. by performing another six laps so that a tawaaf of seven laps is completed. The second tawaaf would be regarded as nafilah (extra). He should perform the prayer for the first tawaaf before the say, and perform the prayer for the second tawaaf after the say.
7. Continuity in tawaaf
339. Continuity is a requirement in the obligatory tawaaf, which means that one should perform the laps of the tawaaf continually and not to do anything between the tawaaf cycles that would contradict that continuity in the obligatory tawaaf. Continuity is not a requirement in the mostahab tawaaf.
340. If some rounds were missed or corrupted from the tawaaf, but he was still in the process of tawaaf, he should then complete the tawaaf by performing the required rounds. By doing so he would have satisfactorily completed the tawaaf, regardless of whether the corruption was deliberate or due to an oversight, or whether this was before reaching the halfway stage or after, or whether the tawaaf was obligatory or mostahab.
341. If some rounds were missed or corrupted from the tawaaf and he engaged in an act that contravened the continuity [of the tawaaf], if the tawaaf was an optional one, he should complete the tawaaf, and it is considered valid. If the tawaaf was obligatory, and the corruption was due to an oversight and not deliberate, if he had completed four rounds, on the basis of this [four rounds] he should perform the missed or corrupted round(s) as soon as he remembered this. If he had not done four rounds, he should restart the tawaaf again.
342. If he forgot to do some rounds of the tawaaf, and did not remember the failure until after leaving Makkah, and it is not possible for him to return [to Makkah], he should appoint someone to perform the missing rounds on his behalf if he had done at least four rounds of tawaaf, or the entire tawaaf if he had not done [four rounds].
343. If one doubted the [number of rounds of] tawaaf, his tawaaf is invalidated and should restart the tawaaf anew, regardless of whether the doubt
arose by the Rukn or before,
or [it was about being] six or seven rounds [have been accomplished],
or five and six rounds or less than that,
or whether there has been any addition or not.
 
As a precaution he must complete the tawaaf based on the minimum [number of rounds], and then restart the tawaaf.
If the tawaaf was an mostahab one nafilah he should complete the tawaaf based on the minimum [number of rounds] and he does not need to restart [the tawaaf].
344. If he doubted the number of rounds he had done after [finishing] the tawaaf, or if he doubted their correctness, and this doubt arose after he finished his tawaaf, he should ignore that doubt, assuming the correctness of his tawaaf. Similarly if at the end of the seventh round he doubted if this was the seventh or eighth round or more, the doubt is void, and his tawaaf is correct.
345. As far as the tawaaf is concerned, the ruling of uncertainty [concerning any aspects of tawaaf] is the same as that of doubt.[26]
346. In the case of doubt, it is permitted to confirm the number of rounds done by relying on two aspects; 1) testimony of two just witnesses, or 2) trust of a reliable and truthful individual, a single individual would be sufficient, with no distinction between the individual being a man, woman, or child, nor being a committed Muslim or not.
347. If he doubted [the number of rounds he has done] during the tawaaf, and then started a new tawaaf, and during the new tawaaf remembered the number of rounds of the first tawaaf, if the first tawaaf was complete, then he aborts the new one, and if it was incomplete, he should perform the necessary rounds to complete the tawaaf, and it is not necessary for him to complete the new tawaaf.
348. If while performing the payer of the tawaaf, he realized that he had not completed the tawaaf, he [should] abort his prayer, and complete his tawaaf, regardless of whether he had exceeded the halfway stage of the tawaaf or not, or whether he had started the prayer due to ignorance, oversight or forgetfulness. However, if he realized this after the prayer [of the tawaaf], he must complete the tawaaf, and as a precaution repeat the prayer [of the tawaaf].
349. If he started the say and then realized that he had not completed the tawaaf, he should abort the say and return to complete his tawaaf, even if the remainder of his tawaaf was more than half. He should repeat the prayer of the tawaaf as a precaution. He should then return to complete his say even if the remainder of his say was more than half. However, it is mostahab recommended for him to perform the tawaaf and say anew.
350. If during the tawaaf, it was time for the obligatory prayers, it is recommended for him to stop the tawaaf, even if he had not reached the halfway stage, perform the obligatory prayers, and then go back to complete the tawaaf.

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