The Role of Ideology in Constructing The Human Being
- :Ar-Risaleh Center
The Role of Ideology in Constructing The Human Being
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE BENEFICIENT THE MERCIFUL
Praise is to Allah the Lord of the worlds, the best blessing and the complete salutation are to the loyal chosen “Mustafa” and his pure progeny however; Man’s viewpoint about life, universe and his concepts in different fields, rather even his emotions and senses all of these centre around the axis of the belief which he adopts and which contributes in his ideological, ethical and social constructing, and directing his energies to words development and change.
If positive (unreligious) schools had achieved some success in the materialistic fields of civilization it has proved its failure in responding to man’s need for an honorable life free from the chains of indecency and profligacy. So moral corruption, ethical decline familial dissociation and ideological emptiness have been the most outstanding outputs of the materialistic civilization which Man has created on the ideological individual and social level of life.
The creator’s wisdom has required that He guides him to the roots and origins from which he draws his knowledge and the truths of this being so that he could reach through them to the right beliefs which are purified of blemishes and far from deviation due to the fact that Allah has bestowed upon him the pure nature as a cresset which guides him to the light, the light of the right Islamic belief which has enlightened with its brightness what is around it.
When one judges with his mind he finds that the Islamic belief forms complete system for human life with all of its stages and draws the way to all of its sides, harmonizes with human composition, ensures the accomplishment of the spiritual and materialistic needs of the individual in a balanced and precise manners and in a way which secures his dignity and personality.
On the bases of this belief the building of personality is founded, the personality of the individual, the society, and the Islamic state duties are specified, justice and equity are achieved, security and peace are settled, liability and solidarity originate, virtues and noble qualities nourish and man is built on all levels.
On the ideological level: the Islamic belief has rescued man from the world of legendry and ignorance to help him enter the world of knowledge and light, stimulating his potential energy to speculate and learn lessons from the evidences and proofs of Allah (be glorified) so it has cast away imitation in believing and connected between knowledge and faith.
On the social level: the Islamic belief has succeeded in elevating social relationships for from the bases of tribal spirit, color and wealth up to moral bases such as piety, virtue and human brotherhood, so Moslims had formed the best nation that humanity has seen after they had been separated and conflicting groups.
On the ethical level: the Islamic belief has succeeded in promoting the subjective motive which relies on the basis of believing the creator’s observation of all Man’s movements and stillness and what follows that from reward and punishment, this matter resulted in moderating the instincts and growing the tree of virtues and making them as a common ingredient of all Islamic laws.
The Islamic belief has also contributed in building the society economically, politically and educationally, so it represents the strong factor in the history of the Islamic civilization.
Thus, in order to raise the Moslim human being from the state of spiritual weakness, from the slipping into the holes of materialism and its temptations he should be reminded of the fruits of that belief, stabilizing his perscuation of its strength and suitability for all ages, using contemporary language, and inform that matches with the necessities of the modern age and mental analysis.
Our book clarifies to you these truths plainly, following intellectual research and analysis, using an interesting easy style and a straight scientific survey which lead ideas far from the holes of deviation and fantastic imagination, and direct them towards pure truths and brilliant evidences.
So, we thank Allah for what he has granted and praised Him for the success he bestowed and it is on Him we depend.
The most important thing for the human being in life is that he knows his beginning and end, the aim of his presence, from where he has come, to which place he goes finally and why has he been created?
These questions which man always puts forward to himself need definite answers in order that Man takes a position towards life in their lights which specifies his behavior, and builds a right satisfactory order to his society.
Positive belief has failed in giving the answer to man’s inquiries about his beginning and end, and the aim of his presence, one time by claiming that Man has been created by chance, another time by claiming that he has been created as a result of development of material…and other interpretations like these which don’t have any result nor value so as to know the truth.
Furthermore, they failed in drawing the outlines of the social order which can reform Man and make him happy.
While deviated religious belief have answered these questions with distorted and dull answers when they admitted initially the existence of the Creator but they likened Him to his creatures as they also failed to specify the most convenient order for humanity,
the Islamic belief has answered all that with the most sincerity and depth when it has announced that man has a wise powerful Creator, who is not known by senses and not compared with people, and that Man has been created for a sublime purpose which is worshipping Allah to reach through this worship to the loftiest degrees of perfection and eternity.
This belief also generates noble emotions and sentiments, which Islam adopts spreading and growing them up, in order to build the perfect human being in the intellectual social and behavioral dimentions, to construct the ideological personality which owns a purposeful intellectuality, straight behavior and a vocational direction on the contrary of the outsider character whose attention concentrates on itself, interests and wishes; therefore suffers from mental emptiness, psychological tension and lack of aimfullness in life.
We must refer that the Islamic belief is not like the beliefs of philosophers- as an intellectual theory- situated in the corners of the mind- rather it is a power which moves through the heart and is reflected positively on the spirit and senses, so he (who adopts it) rushes into the fields of strife and work, so it had been an active and motive power which changed the direction of history,
altered the features of civilization, brought about excellent social and intellectual conversions in man’s life and, achieved witnessed military victories. Hence, we found that the oppressed armless minority in Mecca could- thereby depending on their belief- withstand for thirteen years in confronting a tyranny like flood.
It is this belief which could draft for the Prophet (s.w.a.) an army of ten thousand men while he left Mecca hidingly and chased by its infidels. Those who had made war against him for along time couldn’t withstand against the creeping power of faith, so they surrendered to him, came to him submissively or they paid him the tribute humbly.
Moslems have owned the most powerful implements of victory, it is the belief which makes miracles, which made Hamza- the master of martyrs- leads the first cavalry squadron of thirty Moslems to confront three hundred cavalry fighters from Qureish on the shore of the Red Sea, the Moslem squadron have not come out for a mere parade rather they have been serious in confrontation and engagement with an enemy whose power is ten times its force.
It hadn’t happened through the history of the battles of Islam in which Islam achieved magnificent and successive victories that Moslems’ material power was equal to that power of the enemy.
Rather Moslems’ power had been- as for the number and equipments- no more than a fifth of the enemy’s victory hadn’t been achieved except through their dependence on the great moral reinforcement which the Islamic belief grants for the Moslem fighter without ignoring the role of the continual divine support and some other material factors and conditions.
Thus we find that belief is the basic power in all of the battles of Islam and the central factor in achieving victory in all fields.
In order to motivate the Moslem individual and to put him on the way of civilizational development he should be reminded of the civilizational achievements which the Islamic belief has granted to Moslems who preceded him;
it is true that Moslem has not lost his belief completely but his belief has lost its activity in his heart and lost its social radiance in his behavior because of the factors of the invasion to which he had been subjected and because of the factors of moral decay and retardation which blew away his society as a direct result of his drawing for from the values and instructions of Heaven.
What we must emphasize here in this framework are the following:
Firstly: we must familiarize the Moslem with his right- belief by taking its knowledge from its pure sources.
Secondly: we must stabilize his certainty of its rightness and competency for the modern age and show the points of its superiority to other beliefs.
Thirdly: we must strive to renew the role of the belief in building Moslem individual in order that it is manifested in his intellect as a deep faith, in his behavior as good deeds and virtuous morals as it was interacting in the spirits of Moslems previously bringing about donations and struggle.
For this aim we have issued this research which deals with the role of belief in the intellectual, social and psychological construction of Man and its reflections on the moral of Moslems and their behavior. We also shed light on the great role which the school of “Ahlilbait” (A.S.) had played in preservating belief and contronting the attempts of superficializing knowledge to which the Moslem had been subject throughout successive political eras.
We must mention that we have followed the “traditional procedure” and have depended-basically- on traditional sources. From Allah we ask support and success.
The first Topic: liberating Man’s mind:
The view of the Islamic Ideology relies the fact that Man is an honored creature: (And surely we have honored the Sons of Adam and We carry them in the land and the sea and We have given them of the good things and We have made them to excel by an appropriate excellence over most of those whom We have created) [17-7-].
He is the “Chaliph (i. E representative) of Allah on earth, he has the abilities which enable him to ascend to high degrees in sublimity and elevation: “And when your Lord said to the angels I am going to create in the earth a Kaliph, they said! What! Wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy Holiness? He said; surely I know what you don’t know.” [2:30]
Likewise, He can stoop and demean himself till he reaches the rank of animal: “He clung to the earth and followed his law desires so his parable is as the parable of the dog, if you attack him he lolls out his tongue and if you leave him alone he lolls out his tongue…” [7:176].
“Then he falls down more and more till he reaches the rank of a solid body! “Then your hearts hardened after that so that they were like rocks rather worse in hardness” [2;74].
So the Islamic ideology faces in consideration takes the strong and weak sides together in the human being as Man has been described in the Holy Book as has been created weak, dismayed and rash, he is surely in ordinate, and that he oppresses and is ignorant- 1
On this basis the Islamic legislation does not attempt to overburden him by heavy incumbents which exceed his psychological and bodily abilities, Allah (be exalted) has said:
“Allah Does not impose on any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability” 2
The prophet (s.w.a.): “Nine things from my nation are not requited: the mistake, forgetting, the thing to which they are obliged, what they do not know, what they do not endure, what they do under necessity jealously and evil omen, and thinking with a sense of misgiving about creation unless it is uttered” 3
He also said “The pen had been lifted (i-e it doesn’t write) from three persons “the mad person who has lost his mind till he restores it, the sleeping person till he wakes up, and the young boy till he reaches sexual maturity” 4
The Islamic belief, then, considers the sides of weakness in man as a natural state caused by his human construction and it does not consider it as very complicated to the degree that Man loses with it his ability to build and move, and to choose freely.
More than that the Islamic belief has attempted –while its motivating to construct and develop human being-to agitate in him a deep feeling of the positive side in his presence.
Sin is accidental:
From another side, the Islamic ideology considers sin as an accidental matter to human being and not on original subjective matter. So when Man falls into the holes of sin he is not changed into a devil whose develish nature prevents from returning to the vastnesses of humanity, rather Man remains a sinful person who can strive to repent, correct his fault and can rise from his misstep.
This is the secret of the greatness of the Islamic view point to man as it doesn’t put him under the mercy of the feeling of an imposed original sin as Christianity does, rather it tries to save him from the mud of sin and make him know his ability to progress, remind him always of Allah’s pardon and His vast mercy and not to feel disappointed of it.
There is no “confessional chair” in Islam as it is there in Christianity, rather the leaders of religion and theologians attempt to veil the defects and sins of people as much as possible because Allah loves concealing sins.
It is related from Assbagh Ebin Nabaatah that he said: A person came to Ameeral Mu’amineen and said: O Ameeral Mu’amineen, I have committed adultery so purify me (i-e punish me), Ameeral Mu’amineen turned his face away from him then he said to him: “Sit down, then Ali “A.S.” turned to his people and said: Poes the one of you fail to conceal his sin when he commits it as Allah Has concealed his sin?!…” 5
Man is an honored creature:
From another side the Islamic ideology attempts to make Man feel-always- that he is an honored being who has his important position in this universe through the duty of “Caliphate which he should adopt and he has nothing to do but to carry out the duty of caliphate” (Allah’s representativeness on earth in the best way, to thank his Creator for his honor, enabling and guidance to the right religion.
A person asked Ameeral Mu’amineen (A.S.) about his love to meet Allah (be glorified), he said how do you love the meeting of Allah? He (Ali) said “When I found that He has chosen foe me the religion of His angles, apostles and prophets I knew that He has honored me with this does not forget me so I loved his meeting,” 6
The Islamic ideology played an active role in liberating Man on different axes:
Firstly: It has freed man from political dictatorship.
No one in Islam can dictate to another person, nor is there any exploitation of a class or a nation over an other one (religion has been along the Islamic history one of the most prominent factor of the appearance of liberation movements whatever the view point of the researcher towards religion he can not exclude the religious factor and its influence in building the revolutionary awareness during this era of Islamic history.
Abbizer’s and Alhussain’s (A.S.) revolutions had been nothing but a starting point of a concious tendency to correct the deviation in the history of Islam. In spite of all deviation from which Moslems had suffered along their long history they hadn’t lost in any era of this history a strong revolutionary tendency which strives to restore Islam to the runs of life to eliminate oppression, exploitation and to restore the rights of the Moslem and his dignity”. 7
The Islamic ideology has released Man from “defying people” such as worshipping monarchs and dynasties. This habit was prevented by some ancient nations like ancient Egyptians. Islam has abolished the theories of discrimination against any one on the basis of race or language or color or wealth or power. The measure of superiority is restricted within moral matters which are piety and virtue, Allah “be exalted” Has said: (O you men!
Surely we have created you of a male and a female and made you tribes and nations that you may know each other, surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the one among you most pious! Surely Allah is knowing aware) 8
Islam has preceded the French revolution in announcing the doctrine of liberty with ten centuries.
Ameeral Mu’amineen Ali (A.S.) says in one of his sermons (O people, Adam has not born a slave or a girl maid all people are free…) 9
But Islam has not made this granted freedom for Man unlimited so that man is free to do whatever he wishes. Rather it set controllers and curbs for freedom least it results in anarchy.
Hence, the difference between the Islamic ideology, which connects human freedom with slavery to Allah and the conscious and voluntary submission to His authority and between the legislation which throw Man in amazement that doesn’t accord with his ability and his nature.
From this, there must be a balance between freedom and servitude, there is no a balance in this concern which releases Man’s energies and preserves his nature at the same time but what we find in Islam; a servitude to Allah and liberty from other servitudes, these slave’s freedom does not become complete except through his servitude to Allah, his servitude to Allah does not become complete except through his freedom from worshipping other than Him, so there is a clear balance and consistency between the social side and the tiducial side in the character of Moslem through the way of freedom as Islam views it. 10
In the light of what has preceded, the ideology settles a basic truth which is the essence of the true freedom is the servitude to Allah because it means the freedom from all deviated authorities while in the servitude to Allah there is not any disgrace for human’s dignity rather it, on the contrary, consolidates his character and protects his dignity.
The prophet “s.w.a.” has been proud of his being a slave of Allah, he liked to be called the slave of Allah and refused the exaltation, which may lead to the false deity, as it had happened to “Ahlil Kitaab” (Christians and Jews) in spite of Allah’s warning them not to raise the personalities of their prophets, Allah said: “O followers of the Book! Don’t exceed the limits in your religion and don’t speak (lies) against Allah but speak the truth the Messiah Isa son of Maryam is only an apostle of Allah and His word, which he communicated to Maryam and a spirit from Him…” 11
The School of “Ahlil Bait” (A.S.) refuses strongly the idea of apotheosizing people through concentrating on the feature of servitude for sometimes…
Ameeralmu’amineen Ali (A.S.) said “I am the slave of Allah and the brother of His prophet” 12 Alimaam Alreza (A.S.) said: “I am proud of being Allah’s slave” 13. The idea of apothessizing people has been prevailing among other nations then it sneaked to the followers of heavenly religions and mixed with the beliefs of some of them.
Christianity for example claims AlMasseiah’s deity, Judaism claims that Auzair is the son of Allah!
Therefore Imam Ali’s wisdom and foresight becomes clear in his concentration on the feature of “servitude” and his challenge to withstand all the claims of exaggeration which attributed him to deity. It is narrated in “Hadeeth” that “some people came to Ameeral mu’amineen (A.S.) and said: Salutations be to you, our God! He called them to repent but they didn’t, he dug for them a hole, he kindled fire in it then he dug another hole beside it and connected them when they didn’t repent he threw them down in the hole and kindled fire in the other hole till they died. 14
In this concern he said: “In me two kinds of men perished an exaggerating lover and an extravagant hater” 15
Secondly: The Islamic ideology has released Moslem from his lusts after it has connected his heart with Allah and the next abode and it didn’t connect him with his wishes and caprices. The Islamic ideology has supplied the Moslem’s mind and will with the protective immunity from deviation or preferring the transient world to the remaining everlasting life. The spirit –according to Ahlilbait’s instructions- is the place of danger, so it took most of their attentions.
Thus, we find that the speech about the “spirit”, the necessity of controlling it, occupies a vast area of Ameeral Mu’amineen’s sayings, maxims and preachments, he didn’t miss any chance without speaking about the “soul” because it is the pivot of the mill in building the human being.
The Holy Qur’an has told us: “Allah has never changed a favor which He has conferred upon a people until they changed their own conditions” 16, so what is noteworthy is that Imam Ali (A.S.)-during the days of his just government- was ordering his governors and leaders to take control over their wishes, although he has chosen them precisely from virtue and that most of them had a recommended merits,
from alter he (A.S.) wrote to Alashtar when he appointed him as a governor of Egypt: “this is what Abdullah Ameeralmu’amineen ordered Maalik bin AlHaarith Alashtar…he ordered him to fear Allah and to prefer His obedience… he ordered him to break his devotion to lusts…as the spirit longs for evils, except what Allah’s mercy helps…so take control over your wishes, keep your wishes back of what is not permitted to you as taking control of the spirit is the equity of what she loves and hates and feel sympathy to your subject. 17
From a commandment to Shureih Ibna Haani, one of his millitary leaders when he appointed him on the vanguard of his army to Alsham: “…know that if you don’t hold yourself back from so much of what you like your wishes will guide you to so much damage. So would you prevent yourself and deter it ...” 18
From a letter he wrote to Muaweia, he uncovered to him the secret of his mutiny against the legal leadership i-e his psychological deviations, he said to him- your spirit (wishes) has driven you in evils, pushed into sin, has led you to perils and has guided you through rough passageways” 19
Psychological deviation has serious consequences especially from those who take power without legality and qualification.
“Ahlilbait” with their known infallibility were asking Allah to help them take conrol over their wishes in order to teach and refine others” some of what is cited in a supplication of Imam Zeinala’abideen (A.S.) “…And weaken our strength to do what enrages you to us, do not let our souls alone with its choice as it chooses false option except what You help, longs for evil except what you lead with Your mercy”. 20
from all that we deduce that Man cannot be built except by taking control over the soul “wishes” about which we will speak later.
Thirdly: the Islamic ideology has released Man from worshipping nature and sanctifying its phenomenon, and fear of it, Allah says: “of His signs night and day, sun and moon don’t kneel to the sun and to the moon ...” 21
Man has passed through the stage of confusion, inquiry and fear of the phenomenon of nature about him, he does not know any thing of its secrets and changes of its conditions so he began to sanctify it and sacrifised to it generously thinking that- he can feel safe of its bursting volcanos, destructive earthquakes, sweeping floods and its burning thunder bolts.
So the ideology worked towards purifying minds of their veils, opened the vast way to make use of nature and to make peace with it when it removed the thick veils between Man and nature, it has became clear to him that nature and what it includes of creatures and happiness are all emanated from Allah (be exalted),
they are exploited creatures to serve him, he (Man) has nothing to do but to make use of them, think of them and their origin in order to reach through them to the Creator: “will they not then consider the camels, how they are created? And the heaven how it is reared aloft, and the mountains how they are firmly fixed and the earth how it is made a vast expanse? 22
We must point out here that the procedure of the ideology in building human being is a “comprehensive procedure” it arranges Man’s relationship with himself, his creator, and nature around him. Every establishment or development in the relationship between man and his Creator will be reflected positively on the relationship between Man and nature, which is drudged by the hands of Allah.
So it grants the faithful man with blessings and benevolences. Hence the prophet “Hood” asked his people –who had deviated from the procedure of Heaven so it didn’t rain for three years till they were about to perish- to ask Allah’s forgiveness for their past sins and to repent to Him by correcting their course and arranging their relation with Allah (be exalted) then their relation with nature will be organized and it will grant them with rain and benevolences he said to them: “And, O my people’ ask forgiveness of your Lord, then turn to Him, He will send on you clouds pouring down abundance of rain and add strength to your strength, and don’t turn back guilty” 23
So, real worship should be to Allah alone, fear should be of guilts, which cause Allah’s rage and revenge, so He uses nature as a means to punishment, as Allah Has drowned pheroons into the sea, send the destructive wind which damaged the people of Aaad. Hence we find that most of the punishments which afflicted infidels had been fulfilled by the powers of nature which reveals to us the correlative relationship between Man an nature,
in this concern Imam Al-Baaqir says: “we have found in the Book of the prophet (S.W.A)…when people abstain from praying “Zakaat” earth abstains its blessings such as plants, fruits and metals” 24 His son Imam Alsaadiq (A.S.) says “when adultry spreads out earthquicks appear, when “Zakaat” is not paid cattle perish, when judges decide unjustly rain doesn’t come down from heaven ...” 25
In brief, human fear must coneentrate on sins and misbehavior, which cause the destruction of societies and prevent heavenly blessings. As to the fear of nature, the belief that some of its phenomenons are evils which don’t harmonize with the worldly prevalent order firstly and with its wisdom and justice secondly it is originated from their limitedly narrow viewpoint to these issues.
Had they looked out to these incidents in the framework of the universal common order they would have given in to the idea that they are all good things. At the first look these incidents appear to be evil and disastrous, but he who contemplates deeply finds that they are motives for good and reform and they are not outside wisdom, justice and order.
Dealing in detail with the subject of the philosophy of evils and aflictions in this world is related to the (Scholastic theology) but what is connected with our research we reemphasize that the Islamic ideology has restored the molding of man’s mind towards the nature around him in a way which makes him much freer, more interacting and feeling in peace with it.
Fourthly: releasing Man from legendries and myths in belief and behavior in order to eradicate the fantastic deterrents, which prevent the right use of the energy the mind. Man in the pre-Islamic era e.g. had been regarding a good or a bad omen of the movements of bird, so he went optimistically to do some thing when bird takes the right direction and retreats and gives up the work when the bird takes the left direction. The class of parsons and diviners occupy the position of forefront in the social ladder and were cheating people by claiming that they know the unseen.
Telling bad omen were chaining people with the ropes of fanaticism and prevent them from work and traveling, also the use of “azlaam” i-e if one wants to do something he takes three arrows writing on one of them (do) on the second (do not do) and leave the third free he stretches his hand to take one of them,
if the first comes out he advances to his work, when he hits the second he does not do this work if the third comes out he repeats once again! Magic also has been prevalent among people foreshadowing a serious evil, the Islamic ideology made war against these phenomenons, it has been a cause for opening the minds and elevation of spirits and to bring people out of the darknesses of illusion and legendry to the light of science and truth.
The prophet (S.W.A.) said: “ he is not of us who sees an evil omen or is told about evil omen, and he who foretold or was foretold, or made magic or was made to him 26. He (A.S.) also said that He who gives up his work because of bad omen is a polytheist. 27
Al Imam Alsaadiq (A.S.) said: “ bad omen is as you consider, if you regard it unimportant it becomes as such, if you regard it serious it becomes as such, if you regard it nothing it becomes as such too” 28
From another side the Islamic ideology released the Moslem’s mind from the deductions of soothsayers as it considered a soothsayer like a foreteller, both of them try to restrict Man’s movement in life and to cheat his mind.
It is related from Abdilmalik bin A’ayon that he said: I said to Abiabdula (A.S.): I have been afflicted with this science-he means divinations- so when I look in the horoscope and I see the horoscope of evil I sit down and don’t go and if I see the horoscope of good luck I go to fulfill what I need he said to me: do you gain your need? I said: yes he said to me burn your books” 29
We must state here that the Divine school of Ahlilbait (A.S.) does not criticize the stars as a natural science Man can discover by it the features of the sky which shadows him in order to discover through that the greatness of the creator, but it finds fault with these who claim that they know through them (stars) the unseen future.
One of the witnesses which reflects Ahlilbait’s striving to release Moslem human being from the habit of soothtelling which remained to a late centuries, what Ameeralmu’amineen said to some of his companions when he decided to setup to confront “Khawaarij” as it is said to him! If you setup in this time we fear that you will miss your aim through the science of stars.
He (A.S.) said: “Do you claim that you guide to the hour where every one set up would avoid evil? And you threaten of the hour where every one sets up would suffer damage? He who believes you, then, has accused Qur’an of telling lie and has dispensed with depending on Allah in getting the wanted and getting of evil…. Then he (A.S.) turned to people and said:
O people’ beware of knowing the science of sooth telling except what is used to know the directions in land and sea- till he said to them- go on depending on Allah (be exalted). 30
Mind has an important significance in the Islamic religion. It is a source to attain the right belief, it is one of the evidences of deriving laws (i- e- “ijtihaad”) the honored prophet (S.W.A.) said: “every thing has a prop the prop of religion is mind” 31
From another side mind composes the prop of the faithful human being, the prophet (S.W.A.) said “he who has a mind has a religion and he who has a religion he entered paradise” 32
The texts of “hadeeths” which deal with drawing attention to the role of mind reached hundreds we can discover, through a general look at these texts, that the procedure of Islam in giving mind its actual role passes through two stages, it begins with releasing it then it shifts to direct its energies.
Liberating the mind: This is the first step of the mentioned Islamic procedure which we can discover through the texts that have been directed to give up the bonds which enchain mind and confine its real activity and so lead it to serious errors. This can be found in two clear examples:
The first: is giving up blind imitation: its examples in the Holy Qur’an are very much, we can read them in many verses and scenes..
While Qur’an emphasizes that they have not the smallest proof of what they believe of worshipping idols and false creeds it concentrated that all of their plea is that they have found their fathers worshipping these idols so they adhered to that… “Nay! They say: we found our fathers on a course and surely we are guided by their footsteps” 33
Then it emphasizes that this is the habit of this kind of people who has shut all the vents on his mind… “And thus we did not send before you any warner to a town but those who led easy life in it said: surely we found our fathers on a course and surely we are followers of their footsteps.” 34Thus Qur’an recounted their plea twice in two successive verses to show the disintegration it contains and the inherited rooted ignorance in which they are drowned to the limit that they do not listen to any right call nor obvious proof rather they have no more than repeating their plea “Have you come to us to turn us away from what we found our fathers upon” 35
Even though a challenger came to them showing that what they follow is an error (He said: what! Even if I bring to you a better guide than that on which you found your fathers?” 36
Even with such evocation they do not search for a proof nor do they open a vent to discussion, rather they insisted on their first fogy nature, “Surely we are unbelievers in that with which you are sent” and “They said that on which we found our fathers is sufficient for us” 37, Qur’an repeats its condemnation of those in other positions because Qur’an confronts in its epistemic project theories that have been consolidated and taken roots wit successive nations and it is not far that there would be extended to the future of nations too.
This theory has exceeded the excellent of knowledge and beliefs to the spheres of behavior and interactions. “And when they commit an indecency they say: we found our fathers doing so” 38 and “They say: Nay, we found our fathers doing so” 39
Then Qur’an states the punishment which waits those people who took this course pointing out that people must beware of such a course…” so we inflicted retribution on them, then consider how was the end of the rejectors” 40
DIRECTING THE ENERGY OF THE MIND:
After Islamic ideology has released human mind from the chains which capture it, its ends it out onwards directing its energies through drawing attention and pondering over the universe and life in order to establish a complete building religiously and for this world…
We can state some groups of the Qur’anic verses which direct the mind towards several vast horizons, some of them are as follows:
Firstly: pondering on the evidences of Allah (be exalted) in horizons and souls:
“Most surely in the creation of heavens and earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand. Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord Thou hast not created this in vain! Glory is to Thee: save us then from the chastisement of the fire” 41
“And in the earth there are signs for those who are sure and in your own souls too will you not then see?” 42
“Say look what is there in heavens and earth ...” 43
“Let Man then think over of what he has been created” 44
“Let Man then look at his food” 45
“Will they not then consider the camels, how they are created and the heaven how it is reared aloft and the mountains how they are firmly fixed. And the earth how it is made vast expanse, therefore do remind for you are only a reminder” 46
What is noticeable here is Qur’an’s great attention to mention the scenes of the universe through repeating their show in more than one “Surah” i-e (chapter) in different ways and its call for the human being to ponder on and contemplate them, to mediate on the run of its happenings, the most important of that Qur’an made this universe as starting point to reach to Allah (i- e to deduce His existence and to know Him) the creator and originator.
It is narrated from the prophet (S.W.A.) that he was reciting “most surely in the creation of heavens and the earth and he alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand, those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! Thou hast not created this in vain Glory be to Thee, save us then from the chastisement of the fire” 47, he says “woe to him who reads it without contemplating it” and in another narration “woe to him who chewed it between his jaws without contemplating it”.
And it is related to Ameeral muamineen Ali (A.S.) that he said: “when the prophet (S.W.A.) wakes up at night he cleans his teeth then he looks at the sky then he says “most surely in the creation of heaven and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand, those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth our Lord: Thou hast not created this in vain Glory be to Thee save us then from the chastisement of the fire” 48
The purified Imams (A.S.) used the way of setting the proofs of the existence of Allah through intellectual contemplation of the universe and what precise order and wonderful harmony it contains which is the proof called by scholars “the proof of order”.
Ameeral mu’amineen Ali (A.S.) said: Had they thought of the greatness of His power and the plentiness of benevolence they would have returned to the path and feared the chastisement of burning but minds are ill, hearts are disordered. Do they not see the small-created things He has created, how He had consolidated its creation, mastered its composition, opened to it hearing and sight and made to it bones and skins!
Look at the aunt in its small body, delicate form which is difficult to be seen by the eye and to be recognized by realizing mind, how it has crept on its land and stored its sustenance…if you think of the runs of her food, its upper and lower part, what its balley includes of epigastriums” its head of eye and ear you will be full of amazement at its creation and feel tired of its description…
So look at the sun and the moon… the burst out of these seas and the plentiness of these mountains, the length of these deserts and the diversity of these languages and tongues.
So woe to whom he denies the predeterminer and rejects the designer, they alleged that they are like plants without a planter and there is no maker for their different images while they didn’t give any proof of what they claimed and no inspection in what they adopt…
“And can there be a building without a builder or a crime without a criminal!” 49
From another side the Holy Qur’an draws forth in the minds the motives of sincere and fruitful thinking through what it displays of knowledge, one time it uses the interrogatory question, such as His saying (Be Glorified) “What! Did you then think that we had created you in vain” 50, and by disavowal of shallow conceptions another time such as His saying (be Glorified) “And we didn’t create the heavens and the earth and what is between them in vain* we didn’t create them both but with the truth but most of them do not know” 51
It is known that according to the school of “Ahlilbait” (A.S.) thinking of the kingdom of the heavens and earth is a kind of worship, rather the best degree of worship. Imam Alsaadiq says: “the best worship is the continuous thinking of Allah and His omnipotence” 52
The followers of this high school and its disciples were making much of this intellectual worship which plays a very important part in constructing the human being and enables him to reach very high Gnostic degrees. For example most of Abbizar’s (may Allah be mercy with him) worship was thinking and taking lessons, his mother was asked about Abbizar’s worship she said: “During his day time he was thinking away from people” 53
It must be known that the general view point about being to which the two “rare things” (Althaqalain) guide –The Qur’an and “Ahlilbait”- is the origin from which all intellectual behavioral view points stem and it is the foundation of the diversion of civilizations and cultures.
Secondly: meditating on the laws of history: the Islamic ideology has called us to ponder on the incidents of history with a shrewd sight, an inspecting intellect in order to discover the reasons which had led societies to destruction, the flourishment or down fall of civilizations, Allah Has said: “indeed there have been examples before you, therefore travel in the earth and see what was the end of the rejecters” 54
Allah (be glorified) also said: “Do they don’t consider how many a generation we have destroyed before them, whom we have established in the earth as we haven’t established you and we sent the clouds pouring rain o them in abundance and we made the rivers to flow beneath them, then we destroyed them on account of their faults and we originated after them another generations” 55
Allah (be glorified) also said: “And certainly we did destroy generations before you when they were unjust, and their apostles had shown them clear argument and they wouldn’t believe; thus do we recompense the guilty people.” 56
It is a call which insists on people to move the wheel of their minds, to look in the history of their ancestors least they become like strayed herd that moves without a shepherd towards the unknown, it is a call with a drawn procedure in order to benefit from the practices of previous civilizations and to study the reasons of their down fall,
especially that history repeat its courses, Allah (be glorified) Has said: “Such has been the course of Allah with respect to those who have gone before and you shall not find any change in the course of Allah” 57 we have to state here that,
“The role of religion and its responsibility in Man’s life is to create the environment of appropriateness and harmony between Man’s thinking and behavior with the courses of Allah (i- e the laws Allah Has set in this universe to move with their course) and to direct the run of Man’s life to the current of these divine course which Allah Has set as an order for his creatures and creating in this universe.” 58
So religion directs Man’s thinking towards the deep aimful look. Certainly there is a big difference between the superficial unsophisticated look to life and history and the deep examining look which is not satisfied with noticing the thing or the incident but it penetrates into its depths and observes its necessities and evidences in order to deduce the historical law which is applied to it, for example a tourist may pass through the pyramids of Egypt so he feels astonished at the marvelousness of its construction, and its highness and enjoys the beauty of its outer appearance and every thing ends.
As to the conscious thinker who is armed with belief, when he passes through the pyramids so many questions rise into his mind: about Man’s abilities, the injustice which was prevailing during those days through the phyrons’ exploitation of a great number of people to work in building these pyramids and what they had suffered of tiredness, weariness and chastisements. He also deduced the phyroon’s wrong concept of death and resurrection. Rather the believer, after having those pieces of knowledge deduces the beneficent lesson as he looks to their wreckages so he wonders where are their inhabitants and what was their fate?!
Therefore Ahlilbait (A.S.) draw the attention to the importance of the aware note and the deep look which is not restricted to the external matters it penetrates through the depths and sizes the dimensions they include as well as and implicational or correlative significances.
It is narrated from Alhassan Alsaiqal that he said: I said to Abi abdulah (A.S.): thinking for an hour is better than worshipping for a night? He said: Yes, the prophet (S.W.A.) said: thinking for an hour is better than worshipping for a night.” 59
When Ameeralmu’amineen passed by the ruins of Almadaaen he gave his companions a lesson about the example of history in which, he (A.S.) said: those people had been heirs then they became testators, those people violated the immunities of Allah so they had been afflicted with His revenge, so do not violate Allah’s immunities so that you suffer His vengances” 60
And He (A.S.) said: So take lesson from what the previous arrogant nations afflicted with of Allah’s agony, assaults, combats and examples ...” 61
Imam Ali (A.S.) went farther than that when he pointed out that the historic law is applied to all people, in every time and place and that it is not restricted to destroying infidels and the arrogant, rather it is applied to believers too, if they do not adhere-practically- to the Devin procedure in life and when they deviate from the right path when they disagree and dispute and controvers. In this concern he says:
“And reflect on the circumstances of the believers before you how were they in the state of examination and misfortune…so look in their circumstances when their wishes were unified and had the same aims; so look then their last circumstances when disagreement and dispute took place their wishes and hearts changed, they disputed and conflicted making war against one another, Allah has taken the cloth of His honor out of them and deprived them of His benevolence, there remains with you the stories of their narrations as lessons to their seekers” 62
Some of his golden will to his son AlHassan (A.S.) in which he urges him on thinking of the circumstances of ancient nations which is called today “the philosophy of history” it is stated: “O my son’ although I haven’t lived as long as those before me had lived, I pondered on their actions, thought of their narrations, walked in their ruins till I have become one of them rather I have become –because of what I knew of them…as if I lived with their first till their last ...” 63
Thirdly: Thinking about the wisdom of the legislation:
The aim of that is to affirm Moslem’s certainty of his legislation, its rightness and stating its applicability to every time and place in order that the clouds of suspicions, aroused by the enemy of Islam, fade away. If some of Islamic legislations are obligatory which call the Moslem to submit to them, and there is no benefit from pondering on them such as the worshipping matters; yet there are some legislations in Islam which have social dimensions, and the Qur’an has revealed to us the concealed wisdom of their legislations as there is social benefits related to the individual and the society as well such as His saying (be exalted): “And there is life for you in the law of retaliation, o men of understanding that you may guard yourselves.” 64
And His saying (be exalted) ‘Allah doesn’t want to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor on you” 65
The “Sunnah” also has uncovered so may sides of the wisdom of the legislation. For example, Imam Ali Ibna Moussa Alrezza (A.S.) wrote to Mohammad Ibna Sinaan answering some of his questions: “Allah Has prohibited killing the human being because it leads to corruption and perhaps their extinction and chaos of order…Allah Has prohibited adultery because it leads to many kinds of corruption such as killing others and intermixing of peoples’ decendence, leaving children without bringing –up, the corruption of heritage …and other sides of corruption like these” 66
Fourthly: directing the mind to consider, to be deliberate in one’s opinion and to be independent in thinking and determination:
The Prophet of Allah (S.W.A) said:
“Don’t be blind imitators who say: when people do good we do good and when people oppress we do so but strive to do good when people do good and not to oppress when people do so” 67
Allah Has said: “Do they not then reflect on the Qur’an? Nay there are locks on their hearts.” 68
Here is a serious call to consider and think by first disapproving those shallow -minded, absent –minded, and stubborn people firstly, then secondly through severe scolding of those kinds of people.
Allah Has also said: “Say: Bring your proof if you are truthful” 69
So there is no value of a claim without a proof, and if Al-Zamakhsharri had seen in that text the most destructive call for the course of imitators”. 70 It has what is more than that for the (word) maybe directed to those accustomed to imitations but this Qur’anic verses is applicable to the whole of human thinking with all of its parts and sides, as thinkers may fall in- and so often they had fallen in- serious errors because of their dependence on some general concepts which they thought to be axioms that do not need a proof while they had been no more than imaginations emanated from fantasies or falling short of mind.
This happens so many times with the errors of disputants, rather it sometimes happens with those engaged with practical sciences when they consider some deductions to be scientific affirmed laws while they are deductions based on incomplete notices.
Hence we feel a wider range of the Qur’anic call to advance the complete proof for every concept and case weather they are in the mental or practical sciences.
It is doubtless that the field of thinking and contempt acting is as wide as the wideness of knowledge and attitudes, and here we state two important effects:
One of them is general such as the generality of the mentioned Qur’anic text: although it aimed generally at the imitative mind like the people who are dominated with imitation in their faiths and attitudes.
The second effect, which was seen as a special kind of imitation, is the blind imitation of some people, who have gained an affirmed high positions in peoples’ hearts, whereas the role of mind and its function in thinking, viewing and criticism has vanished, as if those people had become in them-selves the measure for right, so it is not right to weight their speeches and actions or to be subjected to judgment and criticism.
This kind of imitation which had been and still the source of so many kinds of dangers in beliefs and attitudes… Ameeralmu’amineen uncovered the secret of the error in this imitation and showed the right way to learn knowledge, this happened when some people were astonitioned at seeing Talha, Zubair and A’aisha standing in one line against Ameeral mu’amineen, so he denied that people like those agree on some thing wrong,
so he mentioned that to Ameeralmu’amineen (A.S.), and he (A.S.) replied beginning his answer with the source of false imagination then shifting to give him the right method in knowledge, he (A.S.) said: “You are deceived, Allah’s religion is not known by men, rather by the evidence of rightness: so do know the right then you know its followers” 71
Fifthly: directing Man to attain science and knowledge:
It is indisputable that the Islamic religion urges on attaining science and knowledge. He who contemplates on the verses Qur’an finds that repeated clearly or by hint: “Say are those who know and those who do not know alike?
Only the men of understanding are mindful” 72.
“Allah will exalt those of you who believe, and those who are given knowledge, in high degrees, and Allah is aware of what you do” 73
“Say: O my Lord’ increase me in knowledge” 74
“Those of His servants only who are possessed of knowledge” 75
because of the importance of knowledge Allah Has taken the covenant of “Ahlilkitaab” to reveal it to people and not to monopolize it: “Allah Has made a covenant with those who were given the Book you should certainly made it known to people and don’t hide it” 76
After the verses of Qur’an there come the “hadeeths” of the prophet (S.W.A.) and his purified progeny (A.S.) as they lead to this direction, and state that knowledge is the pillar of religion and the life of Islam is in it.
They prompt to gain it, uncover its merit, so the ink of scholar is superior to the blood of martyrs, and the superiority of a scholar to a worshiper is such as the superiority of the moon to other stars. In this concern the prophet (S.W.A.) says:
“Seeking knowledge is prior-with Allah- to prayer fasting “hajj” and striving in the path of Allah” 77
it is enough to quote Ameeralmu’amineen’s (A.S.) saying:
“The value of every person is what good he does” 78; it gives evidence to Ahlilbait’s prompt to get science and knowledge.
Look closely at the excellent comparison which Imam Ali (A.S.) made for Kumail Ibn Zeyaad Alnekhaei about the superiority of knowledge to funds and money He (A.S.) says: “O Kumail’ knowledge is better than funds, knowledge guards you while you guard funds and money becomes less when you spend it while knowledge flourishes when you spend it and the favor done by wealth vanishes with its vanishing.
O Kumail bin Zeyaad’ attaining knowledge is a religion followed, with it one can achieve the course of Allah’s obedience in his life, and the good remembrance after his demise, knowledge is a governor while money is governed.
O Kumail, the treasurers of funds perished while they are alive, while Scholars are alive as long as there is time, their bodies are absent and their statues in the hearts are present.” 79
Because of this rich epistemic sustenance the Moslem set off, being released from the shackles of ignorance and retardation, to the wide horizons of knowledge so he began to contemplate the universal phenomenon discover the secrets of nature through the empirical manner to which his ideology had directed; and this is the procedure on which modern science has been built.
Gebb says in his book “The modern directions in Islam”: “I think that it is agreed on that the detailed precise observation which Moslem researchers practiced had helped to achieve the scientific development in the material field, and that through these notices the empirical procedure had reached Europe in the middle ages” 80
Man has the right to be astonished at the greatness of the Islamic ideology which had brought in that civilizational revolution in the souls of the desert inhabitants till they have become the pioneers of the whole world in science and knowledge and other sides of civilization and culture.
It worthies stating that the ideology connects knowledge with faith, as knowledge without faith is like a plant without fruit. Knowledge calls to faith and faith prompts to knowledge. To separate one from the other leads to serious dangers. The martyr Murtaza Mutaharri says:
“Historical practices proved that separating knowledge from faith had resulted in damages which couldn’t be made up, faith must be known in the light of knowledge faith draws for a way from legends in the light of knowledge. By separating knowledge from faith, faith changed into languidness and blind fanaticism,
moving Quickly round itself without reaching anywhere. In the place which is empty of science and knowledge the ignorant believers are turned into a tool at the hand of the big hypocrites and this was what we had seen of the examples of “Khawaarij” in the first period of Islam and the following ages in different forms.
Knowledge without faith is a torch at the hand of a thief at midnight to steal the best merchandise, so the person of knowledge without faith today doesn’t differ from the ignorant person without faith yesterday in the least difference concerning the nature of manners, practices and their essence” 81
So knowledge needs faith as the body needs spirit because knowledge alone is unable -by its nature-to build the perfect human being, pure scientific education builds a half human not a perfect human, it can make a human being who may be powerful and able but he is not necessarily virtuous, it creates a human being with one dimension which the material dimension. As to faith it molds one’s personality in its different dimensions.
Europeans’ deception by science has reached the limit of deification and worshipping although they did not perform its rituals in their churches and because religion depends on unseen foundations outside the extent of material they considered it to be an unscientific phenomenon.
On this basis the disease of separation between religion and knowledge appeared, this is a strange inclination to Islam “Nothing gives more evidence to this cohesion between religion and science than this urgent call by religion to get knowledge and to get more of it in all stages of the age and in all circumstances… and from this high evaluation of knowledge and Scholars by religion.
If there had been a conflict between religion and science in some eras of history, as it happened with the history of Christianity, that conflict had no connection with religion. Rather it had been a sort of deviation from religion, and religion is not responsible for the deviations people commit by its name” 82
It is sorrowful that some voices rise here and there calling to separate religion from knowledge on the pretext that Europe had shun religion then it developed and we adhered to religion we failed. The minds of those people are either incapable of realizing the function of science which is a tool to uncover the objective truths and to give a neutral,
precise and deep interpretation of the reality, or that those minds are ignorant of the Islamic procedure which doesn’t cease to inspire people to get knowledge. Most probably that they are mercenaried minds echoing the allegations of the grudged enemies of Islam and they overlook the serious spiritual results which stemmed from separating science from religion:
“The clearest example of that is the age in which we live, the age in which the scientific and material development has reached its summit, and in which humanity had reached its lowest point in brutal fighting and enmity which severs the relations of humanity and makes it live in a lasting horror and fear of destruction, as it also has reached the lowest level in their depiction of the aims of life and the raise d’être of humanity restricting them to lust and enjoyments, reaching its lowest level -as a result of that thinking- of moral corruption and sexual disorder from which the animal abstains.” 83
So the procedures of education bear a big obligation to the Islamic ideology for its insistence on the role of faith and knowledge in building Man’s personality. By separating knowledge from faith Man becomes like a magnetic needle swinging between the north and the south; therefore he needs a power which can stimulate a revolution in his conscience and give him a moral course that can actualize his humanity, this is a task which science can not perform without religion.
The Islamic ideology had played a big role on the level of the social and educational building, one can state it in the following points:
Firstly: Agitating the social feeling:
Man before Islam was concentrating upon himself in his social behavior, he sets up in his communications with others through the view point of his desires and interests, driven far away with his selfishness. He had fallen down in his social behavior to the degree of burying his newborn gird alive for fear from poverty and starvation. This matter required the divine intervention to rescue the innocent souls from this ugly social habit, Allah (be exalted) says: “Don’t kill your children for fear of poverty” 84
The thing which draws one’s attention mostly is that pre-Islamic man who was moving around himself and his interests had become after his interaction with the elixir of belief ready to sacrifice himself and every precious thing he has for the sake of his religion and society, the horizons of change in his spirit had reached the level at which he prefers the interests of his society to his own interests.
The level of altruism which the “Ansaar” (proponants) showed to the “Muhajireen” (emigrants) is very clear to every one, as they shared them with every thing they possessed even with their homes and wares, this level of alturism had not been restricted to some individuals, rather it represented a social phenomenon that the history of humanity had not witnessed its like at all. In this phenomenon Qur’an verses were revealed from Heaven blessing this compassion, commemorating a society qualified with it as an example of social coherence and brother hood…Allah (be exalted) Has said:
“It is for the poor who fled, those who were driven from their homes and their possessions, seeking grace of Allah and His pleasure and assisting Allah and His Apostle: these it is that are the truthful, and those who made their abode in the city and faith before them love those who have fled to them and don’t find in their hearts a need of what they are given, and prefer (them) before themselves though poverty may afflict them, and whoever is preserved from the niggard liness of his soul, these it is that are the successful ones” 85
Islam pulls down foundations in the social pre-Islamic building which consolidate the classical and tribal partition, which consisted of two basic classes, the class of the nobles and the class of slaves. The class of nobles should remain as such: wealths are collected at their hands! They monopolize stature and prominence.
Whereas those of the class of slaves should remain as self moving in the orbit of their Lord…so Islam tore out these bases and established other bases that put people equal in one level
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