Prophetic Traditions are Contradictory among Ahl al-Sunnah
Some of the sunan may be ascribed to the Prophet (S), whereas in fact they being but heresies innovated by some of the Companions after his demise, compelling people to follow and adhere to, making to concieve that these sunan being the Prophet's acts and sayings.
Hence most of these heresies are known to be contradictory to the Qur'an, leading their (Ahl al-Sunnah's) 'ulama' to interpret, claiming that the Messenger has done this thing once and that one another time. An axample for this is their saying that he (S) has once prayed with basmalah and another time without it, wiping his feet once and washing another gathering his hands once and letting hem down another, to the extent that some of them have opined his doing so being deliberate for the sake of easiness for his Ummah, enabling every individual to select the practice that suits him.
It is a mere lie rejected by Islam which founded its doctrines on the word of montotheism and unity of worship, even in appearance and clothing. As it has nevr permitted the muhrim during the time of hajj to wear whatever he likes, in respect of form and colour, not allowing the one led in prayer (ma'mum) but to follow his imam in all movements and practice including standing, bowing, prostration and sitting.
This being false too since the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt (A) rejected such narrations, with disapproving any difference in rituals (ibadat) in regard of shape and content.
If we intend to refer to all the contradictions of Ahl al-Sunnah's traditions, we find them great in number, that covering them needs a seperate book, to be compiled later on.
We refer to some examples briefly to demostrate to the truth-seeker, the basis on which Ahl al-Sunnah have founded their school and doctrine.
It is reported in Sahih Muslim, and Sharh al-Muwatta' by Jalal al-Din al-Sayuti, from Anas ibn Malik that he said: I have prayed behind the Messenger of Allah (S), Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman never hearing any of them reciting: In the Name of Allah, Beneficent the Merciful.
In another narration, it is reported that the Prophet (S) has never raised his voice in reading the basmalah, and he (Anas) said: This hadith is reported by Anas Qatadah and Thabit al-Banani and others, all mentioning its chain of transmission and referrng to the Prophet ((S), but with a great difference in respect of its words, as some of them said: They have never raised their voice in reading it, some said that they used to raised their voice, some said that they used to begin their prayer with "praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all words".
He said: This being a confusion for which no proof (hujjah) can be established by any of the fuqaha'.275
Should anyone desire to know the real secret behind this contradiction and confusion, he can get this from the narrator himself, being Anas ibn Malik who used to be in the company of the Prophet (S) as he was his usher. This is feasible when noticing that he once narrates that they--the Prophet and Three caliphs --have never been reciting the basmalah, and another time says they have left it.
It is but the bitter and regretful fact, that was followed by most of the Sahabah in transmitting and narrating the hadith, according to the requirement of the politicl convinience, and in the way that pleases the rulers.
He has undoubtedly reported their non-reading the basmalah, when the Umayyads did their best to alter the Prophet's Sunnah entirely, whereas 'Ali ibn Abi Talib has been adhering to and reviving it. The Umayyad's policy was founded contradicting 'Ali (A) in all his practices, as he (A) has been known of raising his voice loudly in the silent prayers. This being not just a claim from our side or by the Shi'ah, as we have depended in proving our claim on the books and utterance of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah.
After the contradicting narrations of Anas ibn Malik, al-'Imam al-Nisaburi reports, in his book Tafsir Ghara'ib al-Qur'an, saying: "There is another charge, that Ali (may God be pleased with him) used to exaggerate in raising his voice in the basmalah, and during the Umayyads' reign they have exaggerated in preventing this practice, in an attempt to obliterate every trace for 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, so he (Anas) may have feared them and that is why his saying have been confused''. 276
A similar statement is reported to have been said by al-Shaykh Abu Zahrah when he said: ''There should have been an effect by the Umayyad rule leading to effacement of a lot of 'Ali's traces in adjudication and issuing verdicts (ifta~'), since it is unreasonable to cursse 'Ali from over the pulpits, while allowing --on the other side-- the 'ulama' to disseminate his knowledge and convey his fatawa and utterances to people, especially those ralated to the foundation of the Islamic rule''.277
Praise be for Allah Who has made truth disclosed through their 'ulama', who have confessed expressely that 'Ali used to exaggerate in raising his voice when reciting the basmalah.
We conclude here that the reason which led 'Ali (A) to raise his voice loudly in reading the basmalah, lies in the fact that the precedent Caliphs have left it either deliberately or forgetfully, the practice that has been followed by people rendering it a followed sunnah, which definately invalidates the salat (prayer) if left deliberately. Otherwise al-'Imam 'Ali has not resorted to exaggerate in raising his voice in reading it even in the silent prayers.
Then what we sense from Anas's narrations is only sycophancy with the aim of pleasing Banu Umayyah, who have flattered him, giving him abudantly and building for him splendid palaces. All this being due to his opposition and hatred agains Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali (A), which has been manifested cleary in the story of the roasted fowl, when the Prophet (S) said: "My God, send me Your most beloved creature to share me in eating this fowl, thereafter 'Ali came and asked permission to enter, but was repelled by Anas three times. In the fourht time, the Prophet came to be aware of the matter, whereat he said to Ansa: What made you do the thing you did? Anas replied: I hoped that the one you meant be one from among the Ansar.278
Enough be for this Sahabi to hear the Prophet implore his Lord to send him His dearest creature, a prayer that was granted by Allah through 'Ali's coming. But Anas's detestation (against Ali) made his falsify the truth, repelling Ali with the claim that he (Anas) has been summoned by the Porphet (S), for three consecutive times, since he never killed His Messenger. In the fourth time, Ali has broken into the house, and the Prophet (S) asked him: What kept you from coming in O 'Ali? He replied I have to see you but was repelled by Anas three times. The he (S) turned his face toward Anas and asked him: What made you do do O Anas? He said: O the Messenger of Allah, I have heard your supplication and desired that he (one you invite) be one of my folk.
We are then told by history books that Anas has kept on detesting al-'Imam 'Ali (A) throughout all his life, though it was himwho has been asked by 'Ali on the Day of Rahbah to testify the hadith of al-Ghadir, but he has concealed the testimony, wheareat 'Ali (S) has invoked evil upon him, after which he turned to be leprous. How can't Anas be among the opponents of 'Ali (A) while he hates him and shows inclination toward his enemies through proclaiming disavowal from him.
Thus his narration regarding the basmalah came to be full of loyalty for Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, when he said: "I have prayed behind that he has never accepted to pray behind Uthman, meaning that he has never accepted to pray behind Ali. It is exactly the case desired by Mu'awiyah and his followers, being the elevation of the remembrance of the three caliphs and effacement of Ali's remembrance with preventing the mention of his name.
Since it has been proved though the Imam of the Prophet's kindered and their followers (Shia'h) that Ali (A) used to raise his voice in reciting al-Fatimah and the nest surah, and by ahl al-sunnah wa al-jam'ah that he used to raise his voice even in the silent prayers, so it is confirmed to be the right sunnah. Whoever forsakes it has in fact forsaken an obligatory act and invalidated his prayer, as contradicting the sunnah I but a deviation (dalal), and whatsover the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsover he forbids you, abastain (from it)
Then we raise several points against the sahabah's narrations which contradict the Prophet's sunnah, of which some examples we have mentioned earlier, and some others we shall cite later on. That which concerns us here is to know that ahl al-sunnah wa al-Jam'ah follow the example of the Companions' sayings and acts.
First: Their believing tht their sayings and acts constitute and binding sunnah.
Second: Their miscalculation that all is said or done by the Sahabah cannot be contradictory to the Prophetic Sunnah, as the Sahabah used to judge according to their opinions and ascribe everything to the Prophet (S), aiming at influencing the people's minds and be safe from opposition of those who disagreed with them.
The only opposer being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (A), who used to stive hard, during his caliphate time, to restore people to the Prophetic sunnah through his sayings, acts and adjucication. But all this was as they have buside him in fierce wars, one after the other al-Jamal, Siffen and al-Nahrawan, and then they have assassinated him while being in the prayer niche.
Then the caliphate was seixed by Mu'awiyah, whose only concern has been concentrated upon extinguishing God's light, so he tried all his best to obliterate the Prophet's Sunnah that was revived by al-Imam 'Ali (A). Then Mu'awiyah has restored people to the Caliphs' heresies (bida'), especially those ones enacted by him, beside reviling and cursing 'Ali (A) so that no one could remember him but only with shameful remembrance.
Al-Mada'ini has reported that some companions have come to Mu'awiyah saying to him: "O Amir al-Muminin, 'Ali is dead, and nothing is left before you to fear, would you abandon cursing him? Mu'awiyah replied: Never, by God, till the old become aged and the yound become old upon following this practice.
Al-Mada'ini says: So they (the Umayyads) continued this habit for generations, teaching their children at day-schools, and their wives and slaves to follow the suit. Mu'awiyah has attained great success in his scheme, as he managed in secluding the Islamic Ummah (except a little number) from its true guardian and leader, compelling the towards harbouring hostility against him and declaring freedom from him. Morever he has cheated them by obscuring truth with falsehood, making them to believe in their being the true Ahl al-Sunah, and that whoever befreinds Ali being Kharijite and heretic.
While seeking God's nearness be attained through slandering and cursing al-'Imam 'Ali (A) from over the pulpits, so what about the Shi'ah who have followed him? They have been deprived their dues from bayt al-mal, their houses have been burnt, they have been crucified on trunks of trees, and buried alive. No might or power is but from Allah, the Sublime the Great.
I view Mu'awiyah as only a ring of a chain of the great conspracy, and one of its chapters, but he has excelled others in obliterating the realities and reversing them upside down, and restorting the Ummah to the Pre-Islamic period (Jahiliyyah) under the garb of Islam.
It is to be noted that he has been more sagacious than the precedent caliphs, as he used to be a skilled actor fulfilling his role very well. Sometimes he would weep to affect the attendants, making them to believe in his being one of the solemn ascetics and devotes, and other times he would show hard-heartedness and arrogance to the extent that the attendants believed him to be the biggest athiest, and the bedouin believed him be the messenger of Allah!
Through the following letter sent to him by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and his reply to it, we can recognize his cunningness and sagacity, beside other facts necessary to be mediated by researchers.
275. Tanwir al-hawalik, a sharh for Muwatta Malik, vol. i, p.103.We say: Praise be to Allah that a witness from among of them (opponents) has testified about the confusion of the ahadith among them and their contradiction, and that, as confessed by him, no hujjah can be established for an y of them, but it be with the Pure guidance Imams (A), who have never differed in anything.
276. Al-Nisaburi, Tafsir ghra'ib al-Qur'an, with a marginal note of Tafsir, vol. i, p.77.
277. Al-Shaykh Abu Zuhrah, Kitab al-'Imam al-Sadiq, p. 161.
278. It is reported by al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, saying: It is sahih according to the condition laid by the two Shaykhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim); Sahih al-Tirmidhi, vol. ii, p.299; al-Tabari, al-Riyad al-nadirfah, vol. ii, p.160; Ta'rikh Baghdad, vol.iii, p. 171; kanz al-'ummal, vol.vi, p.406; al-Nahj, vol. i, p.283.
Adapted from the book: "The Shi'ah; The Real Followers of the Sunnah" by: "Dr. Muhamad al-Tijahi al-Samawi"
Share this article
- Prev: The Qur'an and Sunnah in Ahl al-Sunnah's Perspective
- Next: Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr's Letter to Mu'awiyah