On Whom The Fast Is Wajib (Compulsory) ?
It is incumbent upon every adult person of sane mind to fast every day throughout the month of Ramazan, provided that:
1. He or she is not travelling.
2. He or she is not suffering from any illness on account of which the fast may be injurious to his or her health.
NOTE : Travelling means going from one's place of residence to any place situated at least 8 farsakhs away (about 27/5 miles), with the intention of staying for less than ten days.
If a person starts on a journey after the time of Zohar prayer, he should continue to fast for the rest of the day. If a person arrives home or at a place where he intends to stop for ten days or longer before mid-day, then, provided he has not had anything to eat or drink or done anything which breaks the fast from the time or "Sahar," he may make the Niyyat (intention of fasting) and keep fast on that day.
If during the month of Ramazan the devotee is disabled from fasting on any day or on a number of days for any valid reason (e.g. travelling or illness) it is wajib (compulsory) for him to observe the same number of fasts after the month of Ramazan as soon as the disability has been removed.
Women must omit the fasts during the monthly period and at the time of child-birth (discharge during the period after child-birth.As soon as the period ends, they must take the bath (ghusl) and resume the fasts.
If a woman is feeding (suckling) an infant, and it is reasonably apprehended that the infant would be deprived of its due nourishment, then she must not fast.
Fasts not observed due to any of the above causes should be made up later.
Abstention: During the period of the fast the devotee is required to abstain from:
Eating and drinking
Immersing the head in water.
Taking an enema.
Taking an injection.
The fast becomes void by any of the above mentioned acts.
If a person deliberately does any of the acts by which a fast is broken, then not only must the person osberve the "qaza" (i.e. make up for the broken fast) but also fast for sixty days as kaffara (penalty), or feed sixty poor persons.
Before beginning the fast the devotee must eat or drink something. It is not permissible to continue fasting day and night so as to join one fast with another without partaking of food.
In case of doubt and difficulties arising out of the broad principles of fasting, it is advisable to take the advice of the Mujtahid under whose guidance the person is.
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