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Mu'awiya and the Leaders of the Shi'a

After his Peace Treaty with Al-Hasan, Mu'awiya adopted a spiteful attitude towards the leaders of the Shi'a. Through that attitude he showed neither mercy, nor conscience, nor covenant. He hurt the leaders of the Shi'a, banished them, tortured them, and killed them. That is because he was afraid of their effective propagation. Now we do not intend to count what Mu'awiya had done towards the Shi'ite leader, nor do we intend to mention his strategic plans towards them. However, we, to indicate the extent of the honesty of this Umayyad (ie, Mu'awiya) towards his stipalations, will mention, in this chapter, some of his intentions and practices towards them. We have preferred few examples to many ones which we have chosen to leave or of which we have no knowledge. The history of these Shi'ite figures has suffered until now from the paucity of the justice of the historians. The dispraised fanaticism plays an important role in distorting the facts of this history that is full of prominent matters which are regarded as lessons for all generations. Moreover, the rulers spare no effort to direct the historians to write events and traditions as they want even if those events and traditions are concerning the Imams of the Shi'a, the Shi'ite leaders, and the common Shi'a.

In his book Tarikh, b. Arafa known as Naftawayh, who was a great traditionist, said: (A group of people) fabricated most traditions concerning the outstanding merits of the Companions (of the Prophet) during the days of the Umayyads to approach them. Through that they (ie, the Umayyads) thought that they would defeat the Hashimites."

Concerning the time of Mu'awiya, al-Mada'ini said: "Many fabricated traditions appeared, and false accusations spread. The jurist, the judges, and the governors adopted that.

"The most dangerous of all people in that were the hypocrite readers (of the Koran), and those, whom were deemed weak, who pretended piety, and asceticism. So they they fabricated traditions to find favor with their governors, to approach their board, and to get money, country estates, and houses. The those reports and traditions were transmitted to the religious persons who regarded lying and false accusation as illegal. So they accepted them and narrated them. They thought that they (ie, the reports and the traditions) were true. If they had known that they were untrue, they would have not narrated them, nor would have they adopted them."1

Ibn Abu al-Haddid said: Our shaykh Abu Ja'far al-Iskafi mentioned that Mu'awiya had appointed a group from the Companions (of the Prophet) and a group from the later (Companions of the Prophet) to narrate obsence traditions concerning Ali, peace be on Him, to defame Him and to renounce Him. Mu'awiya fixed wages for the to (achieve) that. So they fabricated what pleased Him. Among them were Abu Hurayra, Amru b. al-As, and al-Mughira b. Shu'ba. Among the later (companions of the Prophet )was Urwa b. al-Zubayr."2

I (i.e., the author) say: A neutral quick look and an accurate conclusion are enough for us to be satisfied with various, widerange, and arbitrary practices that destroyed both the Islamic traditions and the historical events in Islam to the extent that it is diffucult for the person who studies the early Islamic events to find an event safe from doubt. That is because these events were liable to the ambitious of the opposing trends.

Therefore we are in no need of collecting proofs and declarations concerning the spread of fabrication and many fabricators.3 That is because the best witnesses are those who bear direct witness to the thing. The matter of Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, with its conditions and results was among those matters that were liable to the play of those who have written about the. These matters have lost their early wonderful reality because of the effect of tis regretful play with or without intention. So the people had different ideas concerning these matters. Therefore the matter of Al-Hasan was an example of many matters in the history of Islam. History has wronged this matter and covered it with darkness.

When they (ie, the historians)write about the matter of Al-Hasan, they know his position in history, and they know that they write about one of the two unique persons (ie, Al-Hasan and al-Husayn) in all the world.

No wonder when the historians leave this important matter and write about matters that are not as important as the matter of Imam Al-Hasan!

Concerning the topic Mu'awiya and the Leaders of Shi'a, we do no think that we will get enough facts that satisfy the need of ht researcher, nor will we find exact figures that enrich the range of the subject. In other words all these facts and figures do not suite the speeche of al-Mada'ini and the datails of Salim b. Qays.

That is because the opposing manners and the hireling fabrications have dominated throughout history every thing of this type and everything of the authentic history of Shi'a.

Now, it is necessary for us to collect reports from here and there to show a historical picture, though horrible, about the crimes of the Umayyads.

The following is the sad list contains the names of the Shi'a from the Companions and the later Companions (of the Prophet). In the light of this list, we will study the answer of Mu'awiya to the fifth stipulation from the stipulations of the Peace Treaty. Then we will study gradually the cluses of the this stipulation in the chapters that follow.

1. Ibn Abu al-Haddid, Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol.3, p.161.

2. Ibid vol. 1, p. 358.

3. In his book (al-Ghadir, vol.5, pp. 185-329), the religious scholar al-Amini al-Najafi has colledted six hundred and twenty fabricators from those whom the people have regarded as narrators of traditions and history.

Adopted from the book: "Sulh al-Hasan (a.s.)" by: "Sheykh Radi al-Yasin"

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