Last Wll Testament; Qasde Qurbat
- :Sheykh Abdullah Mamkani
Son, may Allah bless you in this world as well as in the next world. When obtaining ilm, keep your intentions pure. Keep your heart away from worldly selfishness and turn your soul towards obtaining strength of action. Keep away from evils.
Develop strength of character. Keep anger and evil desires in control. Always remember the following words of Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.): Who ever obtains ‘Ilm’, acts on it and teaches it to others, will be called ‘Great’ in heavens. It will be announced that this man learned for the sake of Allah, acted on it for the sake of Allah and taught it to others for the sake of Allah. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 35)
Ubad bin Suhaib has narrated from Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.): There are 3 types of students: The first type of student learns so that they spread ignorance and in–fighting. The second type learn for pride and conspiracy. The third type learn for ‘Fiqh’ and reasoning.
The first type of people brag about their ilm in gatherings and social functions, pretend about ilm, make a show of sincerity in public though in reality they are devoid of ‘Taqwa’ Allah will rub their noses and break their back. The second type who learns for pride and conspiracy will be polite with rich people, enjoy their hospitality and destroy their religion.
One who learns for pride and conspiracy will be polite with rich people, enjoy their hospitality and destroy their religion. One who learns for ‘Fiqh’ and reasoning will be always sad, worrying about the next world. He will pray in the darkness of night and shiver. He knows the people. He is not misled by those near to him. Allah has strengthened his ‘Arkan’. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 49)
Salim bin Kais has given reference of Amirul Momeneen (a.s.) about the following words of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that two types of thirst cannot be quenched: The thirst of one who seeks this world and thirst of one who seeks ilm. A person who is satisfied with ‘Halal’ will be safe otherwise he is doomed.
Whoever obtains ilm from it’s ‘Ehl’ and acts on it will be saved. If he obtain ilm with the intention of getting this world then he will get this world only. He will be deprived of everything in the next. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 46)
Abu Huzayfa has cited the following from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) that, one who obtains Ahadis with the intention of earning this world, will be deprived of the here after. One who desires blessings in the hereafter, he will get it in this world as well as the next world. (Usul-e-1, p. 46)
Hafas bin Gayas has quoted the following saying of Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) that whenever you see an Alim tilting towards this world, than be careful about your religion because every friend worries about his friend.
At another place, it is stated that, Allah (s.w.t.) sent the following message to Janab Dawood: Beware, Don’t make an Alim who is engrossed in this world, a medium between you and me. He will lead you astray from the path of religion. These type of Alims are robbers. My minimum behaviour towards them will be to destroy from their hearts the pleasure of my praise. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 46)
Sakuni has cited the following from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) that Mursal-e-Azam (s.a.w.) has said that; fakihs are the trustees of the prophets as long as they do not enter this world: He was asked: O prophet of Allah! How will they enter the world? He replied: By obeying the kings. When they do this, then be careful of your religion (Beware of them). (Usule-e-Kafi-1, p. 46)
Rabai bin Abdulla has cited from Imam Mohammed Baqer (a.s.) that whosoever procures knowledge to oppose Alims, to fight with foolish people and to draw people’s attention towards him, will go to hell on the day of judgement. Leadership is the right of those who deserve leadership. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 30)
Son, do not sin after procuring Ilm. Allah’s hujjat is very essential for an Alim. Allah only forgives those who are ignorant not Alims. (Sur-e-Nisa)
Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) told Ibne Gayas: Allah will forgive seventy sins of an ignorant person before forgiving one sin of an Alim. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 47)
(This does not mean that everyone should remain ignorant so that his sins are forgiven because not to procure ilm deliberately is also a sin. This is for those people who cannot study due to circumstances and they cannot reach those who are Ahle-Ilm - Jawadi)
Whenever you want to procure Ilm, then search for righteous, good and pious teacher, because there is always a danger from those who are not Muttaqi.
Son, read Munyatul Murid by Sahahid-e-Sani (a.r.). In this book there is a detailed description of relationship between a teacher and pupil. No deed is praiseworthy without manners and respect. Respect all Alims especially your teachers. Teacher is in the place of your father. (Ishna ashariy, p. 81)
Sabit bin Dinar has cited from Hazrat Imam Sajjad (a.s.) that whosoever guides you in Ilm, it is his right that you respect him, you listen to his lecture very attentively, you should not raise your voice over his voice, you should not talk of others in his presence nor backbite. If someone speaks bad about him then you should defend him. You should cover his defects and declare his virtues. You should not mix with his enemies. If you do all these, then angels will also say that you have procured ilm for Allah and not for public.
The right of the pupil over his teacher is that the teacher should look after his pupil. Allah has made the teacher his guardian. He has opened his treasures for him. If, during studies, he behaves well, does not get angry, then Allah will give him more. If he refuses to impart knowledge, rejects his request, then it is incumbent upon Allah to snatch away the glitter of his ilm and obliterate the respect, which the people have for him. (Behar - 5, p. 24)
Suleman bin Jafari has cited from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) this narration from Hazrat Ali (a.s.) that it is the right of an Alim that you should not ask him too many questions, and you should not tug at his clothes. When you enter the assembly of people, besides saluting everybody, do special salam to him, sit in front of him and not behind him. Don’t make gestures with your eyes or hands. Don’t talk too much. Don’t harass him by sitting for too long. Their example is that of a date tree. One sitting below the tree waits patiently for the fruits and takes whatever he gets. (Usul-e-Kafi-1, p. 37)
Son, may Allah count you amongst ‘Religious Alim’. Act on whatever ilm you have obtained. The popularity of ilm is because of its implementation. An Alim who does not act is like a tree without fruits.
Beware, never stop acting on your ilm because knowledge Becomes useless without actions. Someone has rightly said that it is the responsibility of every Momeneen to act but the responsibility is very severe on an alim. It is for this reason that the wives of the prophet (s.a.w.) earn greater reward for their obedience and get more punishment for their sins. Reward and punishment may vary according to circumstance prevailing conditions.
Salim bin Qais has cited from Amirul Momeneen (a.s) the following saying of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that alims are of two types. Some alims act on their ilm and are saved, some alims do not act on their ilm and are doomed. Those in hell will be disturbed by the foul smell emitting from alims who did not act.
The most unlucky alim will be the one who will go to hell because of his inaction while those who followed his guidance and advice will go to heaven! Beware of becoming a slave to your desires and excessive hopes. Slavery to desires, stops you from the right path and excessive desires make you forget the hereafter. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 44)
Ismail bin Jabir has narrated from Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) that ilm is enjoined with action. Whosoever obtains ilm should act on it. Ilm demands action. If there is no action, ilm is frittered away. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 44)
Abdullah bin al-Qasam al Jafari has narrated from Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) that an alim who does not act on his ilm, his guidance and advice will flow down the heart as water follows down from a mountain stone.
Ali bin Hashim bin Burid has stated that a man came to Hazrat Imam Sajjad (a.s). he asked him a few questions. Hazrat (a.s.) replied to all the questions. Than he wanted to ask some more questions. Hazrat (a.s.) said : It is stated in the Bible that before obtaining more ilm you should first act on the ilm which you already have. Ilm without action is the cause of kufr and he strays away from Allah. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 42)
In some of the sermons of Amirul Momeneen (a.s.), it is said that act on your ilm so that you are guided. An Alim without action is like an ignorant man who never gets out of his ignorance and is always confused. This type of alim and ignorant man both will be doomed. So beware do not have doubts otherwise you will become kafir.
Don’t be lazy about right and truth otherwise you will be the loser. ‘Right’ is that you should learn ilm and religious ilm is that you should not go astray. Order your ‘Nafs’ to obey Allah, Don’t fool’ Nafs because it is a sin. One who obeys ‘Allah’ is happy while one who sins is disappointed and unlucky.
Abdullah bin Maymun bin Kaddah has narrated from Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) that a man asked Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.): O prophet of Allah, what is ilm? He (s.a.w.a.) replied : Silence. Second question: After that? He (s.a.w.a.) replied: ‘To remember’. Again he asked: After that? The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied: Act on it. Last question ! After that? He (s.a.w.a.) replied ‘Propagate, Propagate’. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 48)
Haris bin Mugira has narrated from Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) the explanation of the Ayat Innama Yakshallah…… that an Alim is one whose words and deeds complements each other. Otherwise there will be contradiction between words and action.
Son, inculcate the above mentioned qualities of an Alim in yourself. Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) has stated that: Obtain Ilm, decorate yourself with ilm. Behave politely with your students as well as with your teachers. Beware don’t become a tyrant Alim because this makes right (truth) useless and destroys it.
In ‘Sahih-e-habli’ Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) has stated a saying of Amirul Momeneen (a.s.) : I will give you the sign of a real faqih. A real faqih and religious alim is one who does not make people lose hope from the blessings of Allah and also does not make people unmindful about the punishment of Allah; does not give permission to sin and does not depend on any thing else except the Holy Quran.
There is no goodness in the ilm in which there is no useful lesson and there is no benefit in it’s reading, in which there is nothing to think and ponder. Such prayers are useless in which there is no fear of Allah. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 36)
Muawiyah bin Wahab through Hazrat Imam Sadiq (a.s) has cited the saying of Amirul Momeneen (a.s.) that: O seeker of Knowledge! There are three signs of an Alim ‘Ilm’, 'Hilm’ (politeness) and ‘Silence’, there are three sign of so-called Alims they fight with their superiors through sin, they suppress those under them by tyranny and they help tyrants. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 37)
At another place, it is stated that the heart of an alim is devoid of ignorance and treachery.
Abu Baseer has said that he had heard from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) the saying of Amirul Momeneen (a.s) : “O seeker of knowledge! There are many blessing of ilm which you should remember. Its head is full of politeness, its eyes are devoid of jealousy, its ears are understanding, its tongue is truthfulness, its memory is anxiousness, its heart is good intentions, its intelligence is understanding of things and deeds, its hands are blessing, its legs are ‘Ziarat’ of alims, its courage is safety, its wisdom is ‘Taqwa’,
its center is ‘Najat’, its benefit is ‘Aafiyat’, its mount is faithfulness, its weapon is to speak slowly, its word is ‘Reza’, its army is debate and discussion, its wealth is good manners, its collection is to desist from sin, its food is good deeds, its place of rest is mutual relations, its argument is righteousness, its companion is love of righteous people. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 42)
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said that the best vazir of Imam is ‘Ilm’ and the best vazir of Ilm is Hilm (politeness) and the best vazir of Hilm is kindness and the best vazir of kindness is patience. (Usul-e-kafi - 1, p. 48)
Son! Beware, if you do not have knowledge, then don’t say anything. Hazrat Imam Sadiq (a.s) told Mufazzal : Beware of two traits in which there is destruction of man : Religious rituals through Batil (falsehood) and to give ‘Fatwa’ without ilm.
It is stated by Hazrat Imam Muhammad Baqer (a.s) that: Whosoever gives ‘Fatwa’ without ilm and guidance, the angels of mercy and punishment both will curse him and he will be responsible for deeds of all those who follow his ‘fatwa’. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 42)
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said that one who gives ‘Fatwa’ without understanding and knowing ‘Nasikh’, 'Mansukh,’ ‘Mohkam’ and ‘Motashabeh,’ will be ruined and he will ruin others. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 42).
Son, remember, if you do not know anything, then say openly and frankly that you do not know, don’t say ‘Allaho Aalam.’ Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) has said that by saying ‘Allaho Aalam’, doubt is created in the mind of the listener that possibly you know while by saying ‘I do not know,’ it becomes clear – you are speaking honestly. (Usul-e-kafi)
At another place it is stated that if an alim does not know a problem he can say ‘Allaho Aalam’ but an ignorant man has no right to say it (because he is not qualified to do research, so he should clearly state his ignorance.) (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 42)
At one place, it is stated that: Keep silent and behave with restrain about an order of which you are ignorant. Ask about it to ‘Saheban-e-Ismat’ (Masooms). They will lead you to the right path, clear the darkness and clarify the truth. Allah has ordered that ‘whatever you do not know, ask ‘Ahl-e-Zikr’, and Alims’. (Sur-e-Namal, Ayat 43)
Beware don’t act without ilm. By acting without ilm, man is lead astray. The more he moves forward, the more he is misled away from right (truth). (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 43)
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has stated that one who acts without Ilm spoils the work instead of doing it properly. Son, keep company of those alims who practice what they preach, love them. Those who love are counted along with their beloved by Allah. A person who likes the deed of a community is considered a partner in their deeds. (Tafseer-e-Safi, p. 56)
Imam Sadiq (a.s.) told Abu Hanifa : Become an alim or a seeker of ilm or a friend of ilm. By becoming an enemy of an alim you will be ruined. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 34)
There is a famous tradition from Imam Sajjad (a.s.) that a person who desires the company of Alims and who is pious, is dear to Allah.
Give 'Ilm’ to one who deserves it. Teaching Is ‘Zakat’ of Ilm.
Janabe Isa (a.s) said in a sermon to the people of Bain Israel : Beware don’t speak words of wisdom in front of illiterate people because it is a tyranny on ‘Hikmat’. If you hide ‘Hikmat’ from those who deserve it, then it is a tyranny on them.
Son may Allah keep you alive and give you ‘Tawfiq’ to be contended with whatever He gives. Beware learn all the ilms as much as necessary, spend the rest of the time in learning ‘Fiqh’. The love of ilm is the secret of ‘Amal’ (deed) and ‘Amal’ is related to ‘Fiqh’. It is by ‘Fiqh’ that you understand ‘Amr’ and ‘Nahi’. Allah’s Ehkam is the best information in this word. It is through ‘Ehkam’ that you can prosper in this world and the hereafter and through it there is the perfection of humanity.
In Ma-abinul Usul’, the author has said very beautifully : Allah has created all things with some purpose. He has made human being “Ashraful Makhluqat” (best of his creation), so the purpose behind this must also he Ashraf (best). It is clear that the purpose behind it is definitely not to harm human beings. Only an illiterate and ignorant can do such a thing. Since Allah is Alim and Gani, the purpose behind the creation is to benefit him, The worldly benefit is not the benefit in the real sense. So we conclude that the real purpose is the benefit of the next worlds. Everyone will not get this benefit.
For this, you ought to have ‘authority’, and you cannot get “authority” without Amal (Deed)’ and ‘Amal’ is derived from ‘Ilm’. so it is essential to have Ilm for the benefits of the hereafter. There is no greater ilm than the ilm, which gives you these benefits. Therefore Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) has said to Aban bin Taghlab that : I wish I could whip my companions so that they obtain religious education.’ (Maalimul Usul-2, p. 21)
Ali bin Hamza has cited this tradition from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s.) : Learn religious education. One who does not learn religious ilm is ignorant and uncouth. Allah has made learning religious education compulsory and made its propagation absolutely necessary. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 31)
Mufazzal bin Umair has cited the following tradition of Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) that: Whosoever does not obtain religious education will not be blessed on the day of judgment. His Deeds will not considered pure and sacred. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 33)
Ibrahim bin Abdul Hamid has cited the following from Hazrat Imam Musa-e-Kazim (a.s.) that Mursal-e-Aazam (s.a.w) entered a mosque and he saw a person surrounded by many people. He asked ‘what is this? The people said’ “He is Allama.’ The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) asked ‘what do you mean by Allama?’ The people replied “ he has good knowledge of Arabian dynasties, history of Arab wars, arabic poetry etc.” The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied : “Beware, this is such a type of ilm which is neither beneficial nor harmful.
There are different types of alims : Mohkam Ayat, Aadil Fazira and Mustakim sirat. Anything else is superficial. (it means that Allama is one who is expert in these three ilms, which are called ilms by shariat. In addition to these, a good poet, a good writer a good thinker, and a good philosopher cannot be called “Allama” – Jawadi)
Hazrat Imam Mohammad Baqir (a.s) has said : The finished achievement of a man is to obtain ‘Religious Ilm’, to be patient during calamity and to search for financial means. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 32)
It is stated by hammad through Hazrat Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (a.s) that when Allah wishes to bless any body He gives him religious education. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 32)
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said that Aalims are the trustees, followers are the forts and oasis are the leaders.
Son, remember the discussion about ilm is prayer. Don’t neglect it. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has said : Discuss religious topics, meet each other and talk about it. The hearts shines by listening to tradition. Heart also gets rusted like a sword. Tradition remove the rust and sharpen it. (Usul-e-kafi-1, p. 32)
Hazrat Imam Mohammad Baqir (a.s) said : Allah blesses one who keeps alive Ilm. ‘It means that discuss religious topics with ahle-e-deen and Ahle Taqwa (those who are pious).
May Allah guide you to words religious Ilm and good deeds. If circumstances demand that you do business, if you don’t do it you are liable to incur loss for yourself and there is a possibility of your committing sins (then definitely do business) but in doing business don’t neglect your religious studies. Spend some time for business and some time to obtain Ilm. The essence of tradition and experience is that by running around more, income does not increase nor it decreases by spending some less time. (Mustadrak Wasaelush Shia - 2)
Beware don’t spend your whole life in business, there by neglecting the procurement of ilm. Doing like this is like following the habits of animals. As a matter of fact, it is very unfortunate that man does not understand his responsibilities. His recitation and Duas are just fluttering of lips which have no meaning.
It is appropriate and necessary that ‘Majlis-e-Husain’ (a.s) should be made the basis of life. There is ‘this world’ and hereafter both in it. It has worldly benefit and you also obtain religious ilm.
(Alas, in this age, lectures are devoid of ilm. Now it is not necessary to have religious ilm for Zikr and lectures).
Be careful that the tongue remains pure of lies and allegation. Without proper research, don’t say anything in the name of Aeima-e-Masoomeen (a.m.s.). In reciting ‘Masaeeb’ depend on trustworthy tradition. Don’t ever think that by reciting more ‘Masaeeb’ there will be more weeping. Wailing and crying happens due to its effect on the heart and not by creating traditions. The best way to arouse the feelings is by first reciting the high status and wonderful deeds of Ahle Bayt (a.s) so that their greatness and personalities are made known, then their calamities and sufferings should be described. This will have an immediate effect on heart.
Beware even after attaining a high position in Ilm. Don’t desire leadership or power, It is like putting yourself in trouble and destroying your ‘Deen’. I am telling you this from experience. After becoming a leader, if you keep speaking the bitter truth, then you will not have peace of mind and people will start abusing you. If you act as per the wishes of the people, then, you will suffer in the next world.
Run away from leadership as if you are running away from a lion because there is no benefit in a thing, which keeps you away from Ibadat. In my whole life, I have not come across such a leader who acts honestly and has not become a victim of public criticism. People think it fair to attack his wealth and honour. They even consider it legitimate to abuse him. Not only that, they treat him as ‘Kafir-e-Harbi’.
Beware, don’t create tools for leadership nor hatch plots for it. By doing these things, you will bring harm on yourself and you will be deprived of happiness in this world and your religion also will be effected. Yes, if leadership comes automatically, then accept it but be careful about ‘Nafs’ every moment of your life because there is danger of ‘Nafs’ (desires) and the possibility of falling prey to your desires. Advantages are less and disadvantages are more. Those who can save themselves are few and those who fall from grace are many. There are few ‘danger spots’ for ‘leadings Alims’ which need to be pointed:
Adopted from the book : "Wasiyatnama; Last Will Testament" by : "Sheykh Abdullah Mamkani"
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