Imam Ali (as) and the great Conquest of Mecca
In the same year the Prophet conquered Mecca by his good management without killing or bloodshed.
Mecca was the place where Mohammad and his companions were badly harmed by the idolaters of Koreish since the beginning of the Prophethood and it was a safe place for his enemies to plot against him for more than ten years. Now it became in the Prophet’s control.
According to the agreement made before, neither the Muslims nor the idolaters should assist or interfere in the internal affairs of the confederate tribes of each other but they had helped their confederates against the Prophet's allies and consequently many of them were killed.
They asked the Prophet for help to avenge themselves upon the idolaters.
On the other hand the people of Koreish had repented of their behavior because their acts were opposite to the agreement between them.
Therefore in order to restrain the Prophet's anger and to strengthen the previous relations, Abu-Sufyan, the chief of Koreish, whose hostile behavior had troubled the Muslims more than ten years, made his mind to go towards Medina to apologize in the presence of the Prophet and meanwhile to give the Muslims a guarantee against any attack.
The Prophet (s) remained silent and did not show any response. Then Abu-Sufyan came out of the mosque and set out straight to Mecca.
Now the Prophet, with the intent of conquering, Mecca had to notify the Muslims of a public mobilization and for this purpose he sent a word to them saying: “Every one, who has faith in God, has to arm himself secretly and to be ready for the war.”
Thereafter many watchmen were put in some places to have control over the roads so that nobody could carry news to Mecca.
Four thousand well-armed men gathered in Medina and a force of six thousand men from different tribes joined them along the way.
The people of Mecca were quite unaware of such an army that was headed by the Prophet himself and was going to occupy there.
Now Abbas, the Prophet's uncle, who was so respected by Koreish, had left Mecca towards Medina. It happened that he met the Prophet in the midway. He had to be in Mecca because would spy for the Prophet and thereafter he went along with the Prophet.
The Prophet led the Muslims forward until they became near Mecca. In order to frighten the people of Mecca the Prophet ordered his soldier to set fire to some firewood on the hills.
Abbas separated from the Prophet to seek after someone, who could alarm the people of Koreish about the powerfulness and greatness of the Prophet's army and to report to them that submission would be the only remedy.
At the same time Abu-Sufyan was out of Mecca for inquiring into the circumstances of the town. Abbas recognized his voice when he was talking with another man. Abbas called him and said to him quietly: “There are ten thousand armed and armored persons escorting the Prophet. They are at call and ready to devote themselves heartily for the sake of Muhammad. Surely Koreish is not able to stand against them. As you see many dangers impend upon your tribe. You would better go to declare the shahada before the Prophet now.”
Abu-Sufyan accepted it reluctantly but he began to shudder with fear all this while. Abbas, in order to terrify him, took him through the crowd to see the greatness and the glory of the Prophet's army. Finally they were admitted to meet the Prophet. After some words between them Abu-Sufyan eventually submitted.
Hereupon the Prophet declared: “Whoever takes refuge in Kaabah or in Abu-Sufyan’s house will be safe. Those, who lay down their arms and announce their impartiality, will be in safeguard by the Muslims.”
Although Abu-Sufyan pretended that he was a Muslim, but in fact he had no faith in Islam. The Prophet made use of that to conquer Mecca without bloodshed because the idolaters of Koreish would never take any decision independently without Abu-Sufyan’s consultation.
At any rate he went on the errand to put up his perceptions for discussion with Koreish. At first, they did not think that it was true and they reproached him. They insisted on standing against the Muslims but when they received the same news from the others, they submitted to the truth.
At last the Prophet (s) rode on his camel, surrounded by five thousands armed men, and arrived at Mecca with magnificence beyond description.
The people of Mecca had such weak morale that no one could resolve on standing against the Muslims.
Now the Muslims occupied the town, which was the center of polytheism and idolatry for a long time. The Prophet, after a short rest, proceeded on pilgrimage to the great mosque of Kaabah (al-Masjid al-Haram). He, at the first instance, broke up the idols one by one by his lance. Ali (s) helped him all the while. Some big idols were planted above the Kaabah. Ali (s) was ordered to stand up on the blessed shoulders of the Prophet to throw them down.
Certainly Ali was the only one, who won the honor of standing on the shoulders of the Prophet (s). Then the Prophet faced the people and said: “You did evil to me.
You denied my mission. You brought me many troubles and forced me to leave my home for Medina. You very often did not let me be safe. You incited different tribes as well as the Jews to fight the Muslims and many of them were killed before my eyes.
Now those present people began to recall their offences. They were talking to themselves: “Certainly he will put us all to the sword or we may be jailed and our wives and children may be taken as captives.”
They were immersed in such thoughts when suddenly the Prophet (s) broke the silence and said: “How do you think about me and what do you say now?”
The whole people, as one man, replied: “We think highly of you and we do not know any thing except goodness and favor of you. You are our great and dear brother.
The Prophet, who was kind by nature, said: “Now I say just what my brother Josef (the prophet) said to his cruel brothers (as the Holy Qur’an says): (He said: (There shall be) no reproof against you this day; Allah may forgive you, and He is the most Merciful of the merciful). 12 I already notify you to go on your living. Now all of you are free.
In order to beware that his relatives and kinsmen might misuse his position, the Prophet delivered a short speech among the members of his family. He condemned injustice and unjust discriminations and alluded to the necessity of spreading justice and equity among all the classes of people. He said: “O sons of Hashim, 13 I am the messenger of God to all human beings. No family relation has any effect on one’s punishment on the Day of Resurrection. Everybody will be answerable for his own acts. Being of my relatives won’t be of any use for you.”
12. The Holy Qur'an 12:92.
13. It was the great grandfather of the Prophet (s).
Adopted from the book : "Imam Ali (a.s.); Sunshine of Civilized Islam" by : "Muhammad Huseyn Tahmasebi"
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