Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) and Defending Islamic Beliefs
- :Al-Balagh Foundation
When atheistic, philosophical and ideological currents surfaced, and at a time when vague doctrines, inconsistent with monotheism, emerged as an immediate result of the works of the straying philosophical schools such as "hyperbolic", the Imam (a.s.) acted in defence of pure Islamic beliefs. He centered his efforts on explaining Islam's beliefs and pointing out the straying views and beliefs in their light. For this purpose, he taught his students, like Hisham bin al-Hakam, the science of Islamic beliefs, reasoned argument, and philosophy, with special care.
And so his students played a great role in defending monotheism in the face of deviant beliefs, such as those of fatalism and free will, incarnation and hyperbole.
By reading attentively, Imam's dialogues, arguments, and the contents of his sessions with the holders of the new, non-Islamic views, one can find this truth as plain as daylight. One can also grasp the true meaning of monotheism and its originality, The Imam (a.s.) tirelessly fought both the atheists like al-Disani and Ibn Abi al-Awja, and the hyperbolists, who pretended to be the defenders of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.), but conferred on them divine and godly qualities.
The Imam (a.s.) renounced those who renounced monotheism, exactly as his forefathers had done. Historians wrote about these non-Islamic beliefs, and the attitude of Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) towards them.
Sadeer is reported to have said: "I said to Abu-Abdullah (a.s.) that a group of people claim that you are deities, citing this noble verse: "And He it is Who is God in the heavens and the earth;..." Holy Qur'an (43:83) 'O Sadeer; replied the Imam (a.s.): "My hearing, sight, skin, flesh, blood and hair are disowning these people. Allah also is free from obligation to them. These do not follow the faith of mine and my forefathers. Allah shall certainly be furious with them when He brings us together on the Day of Judgement.
It is worth mentioning here that many of such groups tried to exploit the name of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.), and cover their non-Islamic beliefs. But by the grace of Allah, the majority of these groups ceased to exist. At the present time, the standard of Ahlul-Bait is still hoisted by their followers, who walk in their footsteps, and embrace monotheism, the original pure one, as was preached first by thc Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.).
These followers have their school of thought which is widely espoused by Muslims in Iran, Iraq, Azarbayjan, Turkey, Lebanon, Arabian peninsula, Pakistan, Indonesia, Afghanistan, India, America, Canada, Australia, among other countries of the Islamic world. Ht is called Ja'far School of Thought, being attributed to Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.). They follow him and the other Imams of the Prophet's household (a.s.). They are called the twelve-Imam Shi'ites as the Imams of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) are twelve.
The followers of Ahlul-Bait's school of thought, the Ja'fari school, completely adhere to this original Islamic line, They are distinguished by their refusal of some of the bases on which the fuqaha of the other four schools of thought, in deducing the religious opinions or decrees, depend such as syllogism, appreciation, accepting a certain action on the ground of being useful. These bases are not agreed upon by the Islamic schools of thought.
They consider the Qur'an and the sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w.) the two key sources of Islamic legislation. In deducing Islamic decrees they give the reason and consensus among the fuqaha a secondary role, which makes the deduced decrees within the framework of the Book and the sunnah.
The Ja'fari School of thought believes in keeping the door of decree-deduction wide open. Jaf'ari scholars, philosophers and fuqaha contributed widely to Islamic thought and Shari'ah sciences. The great Islamic historian, Agha Buzurg al-Tahrani (d. 1389 A.H) compiled a book in 25 volumes, and 11,573 pages, of large size, containing only the named of the books authored and compiled by Ja'fari Shi'ites in the different fields of Islamic thought and sciences, The book is called Al-Thari'ah ila Tasanif al-Shi'ah (The Means to the Books of Shi'ites).
Najaf, the famous Sacred Iraqi town, is ranked as one of the greatest and oldest seats of Islamic knowledge. To this town, the great scholar Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin al-Hassan al-Toosi (d.460 A.H.) went, nearly a thousand years ago, and founded the theologian school which is still disseminating Islamic knowledge and graduating, fully fledged fuqaha, philosophers and great religious leaders. In addition to this, there are other schools in the cities of Qum, Mashhad, both in Iran, and Karbala, in Iraq and many schools in other parts of the Islamic world.
Adapted from the book: "Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.)"
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