Rafed English

Ideal Islamic Order

From early days, the Prophet gradually established an Islamic system of governance and a way of life. In its first years, the nascent Muslim community in Medina had to contend with a number of attacks and onslaughts by the Quraysh and their allies. The Prophet used every opportunity to teach the Muslims the right code of conduct for a Muslim in times of war and peace; from personal and ethical qualities they must aspire to, to social, political and fiscal policies.

On the political front, the Prophet enjoined the community to avoid wars and violence as far as possible, and it should only be the absolute last resort, when all other avenues have been exhausted. The Prophet Muhammad went out of his way to avoid conflict and violence, and it is recorded that in the ten years that the Prophet was in Medina and despite the many battles that the Muslims were drawn into, a total of some 800 were killed on both sides throughout the period. The Prophet instructed his army against destroying houses or pillaging or cutting down fruiting trees. He ordered them not to draw their swords except in dire need. He used to rebuke some of his generals and physically put right their mistakes.

Another social-political principle instilled by the Prophet Muhammad was that "Land belongs to Allah and whoever develops it" 10. This had a very significant impact on the development of the country both socially and politically, not to mention the economic progress and revival it entailed.

Another socio-economic policy was established by the Prophet's declaration "I am responsible for them" 11. He who dies and leaves family who do not have enough to make ends meet, then the Prophet would be responsible for them and they should go to him. On the other hand, "he who dies and leaves a wealth behind, it is for his heirs" 12. All that wealth is for the family he leaves behind, i.e. no inheritance tax in Islam. But this policy did not stop there, and it went further when the Prophet announced that if a person dies and leaves a debt behind, then he [Muhammad, and subsequently the leader of the Islamic state in general] is responsible for paying it 13.

The Prophetic legislation also addressed the interest of the non-Muslims living under the Islamic state, referred to as dhimmy; literally means "the responsibility of" [the Islamic state]: "He who hurts a dhimmy, then indeed he has hurt me" 14. Such laws, and the peaceful liberation of Mecca, encouraged many to come and live under the Islamic State, for there was at least economic and security guarantees for them and their families, present and future. People started to embrace Islam as a way of life en masse. Thus came the divine revelation:

>By the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful, When came Allah's succour and the conquest, And thou saw the peoples entering into the religion of Allah in troops - So glorify the praise of thy Lord and seek His forgiveness, indeed He is relenting. 15

Notes:

10. al-Kafi, by al-Kulayni, vol. 5, p279

11. Wasa'el al-Shica, by Muhammad Hasan al-Hurr al-cAmeli, vol. 26, p251.

12. al-Kafi, by al-Kulayni, vol. 7, p 167.

13. al-Kafi, by al-Kulayni, vol. 1, p 407.

14. Bihar al-Anwar, by al-Majlesi, vol. 22, p 486.

15. The Holy Qur'an: The Succour (110)

Adopted from the book : "The Prophet Muhammad; a Mercy to the World" by : "Ayatullah Muhammad Sadiq al-Shirazi"

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