History of Aale Muhammad (pbuh) and Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.)
Imam Hasan Mujtaba was born to Fatima Zahra (s.a.) in the second year of the Hijri. His kunniyat (agnomen) is Abu Muhammad. Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) said that in his natural disposition, Hasan is very much like his noble grandfather, the Prophet of God (s.a.w.a.). The holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has repeatedly said, "These two sons of mine (viz. Hasan and Husain) are the leaders of the youths of paradise."
But here we will not mention the holy verses or traditions showing the grace and honor of Imam Hasan. How can we do so when nearly one-fourth of the holy Quran shows the excellence and nobility of the holy family of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)? As has been stated repeatedly, our aim has not been the enumeration of such virtues. Our only intention is to examine the rights of the holy family of the great Prophet (s.a.w.a.) who were the pillars of Prophethood. So, brevity is the need of the hour. Yes, when Amirul Momineen (a.s.) was martyred, as per his will, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain (a.s.) buried him (a.s.) secretly in a particular place. Thereafter the Muslims paid allegiance to Imam Hasan Mujtaba (a.s.) and accepted him as a caliph.
Here we feel it is necessary to mention the difference between Imamat and Caliphate, which is indeed great. Imamat is different from the apparent caliphate. Likewise the apparent caliphate is other than the divine Imamate. The apparent caliphate was available to thousands of persons but Imamat is a distinction confined only for the twelve infallible persons, viz. Ali and his eleven holy descendants (a.s.).
Yes, the Muslims did pay allegiance to the Holy Book of God and to tradition and way of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) with a vow to fight against the enemies of Islam from the side of Imam Hasan (a.s.). But the Imam was aware of the consequences. He also knew the non-resoluteness and instability of the Muslims in his time and their retreating from the battlefront in difficult situations. An army of forty thousand had gathered for censuring Mu'awiyah, who was the enemy of truth and was out to disobey Imam (a.s.). They advanced to reach "Madaaen", but then the army became disorganized and the Imam (a.s.) was injured at the hands of an evil opponent. The miserable conditions and the pitiable situation that prevailed compelled the Imam (a.s.) to give up the apparent caliphate. For, he knew that if they fight with the enemy with such a disorganized unit, possessing no morality whatsoever, there was a danger of the destruction of all the members of the holy family and their supporters. So he left the apparent caliphate to the enemy.
Mu'awiyah did not comply with even one of the terms of the treaty that he had signed with Imam Hasan (a.s.). The most important condition of the said treaty was that after Mu'awiyah, the caliphate should return to its original place.
That Mu'awiyah would not abide by this condition was obvious. Hence, on Amr Aas's instigation, he invited Imam Hasan (a.s.) to the Masjid and requested him to sit on the pulpit. The intent behind the deed was to show Imam Hasan's (a.s.) concurrence to the caliphate of Mu'awiyah. But, as expected, the Imam (a.s.) of the time would not speak such incorrect things. Therefore, Imam Mujtaba (a.s.) accepted the de facto caliphate of Mu'awiyah on the pulpit. He also declared that the caliphate and its inheritance belong to the holy family and also explained his helplessness, which led to the treaty with Mu'awiyah. He said that if he fights with Mu'awiyah, all the members of the holy family would be totally wiped out and that all of his supporters would also die. He declared that Mu'awiyah is not worthy of caliphate. He is a usurper. Hearing these words, Mu'awiyah and his supporters were enraged. They pulled the Imam (a.s.) from the pulpit and felled him. His head collided with a pillar and was injured. Ever since that day, Mu'awiyah decided to finish this dear son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
Ibne Aasaal Nasraani was the private physician of Mu'awiyah. He prepared poison from diamond. Mu'awiyah sent him to Marwan Hakam and ordered him to poison Imam Hasan (a.s.). Marwan beguiled the evil Jo'dah, the wife of Imam Hasan (a.s.), gave her the gold and poison sent by Mu'awiyah and assured her that she would be married with Yazid, as promised by Mu'awiyah.
The depraved Jo'dah took that oppressive poison and gave it to the Imam through his food. Consequently the Imam remained painfully ill for forty days and ultimately passed away from this world.
This is the respect paid by the Ummat to the memorial of God's Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
Imam was poisoned on a number of occasions but when it did not work, the oppressors prevented him even to remain in his house. He was forced to migrate from Madinah. He had to go to Mosul and Syria repeatedly but Mu'awiyah and his helpers who were rebellious and mischief-makers sent insurgents after him and finally poisoned him. Consequently, the poison ripped apart the holy heart of the dear son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).
The curse of Allah is on the unjust. 10
What is truly shocking is that some of the earlier Sunni scholars support a tyrant like Mu'awiyah and fabricate pretexts for his evil and ugly deeds. They also, through such infidelity, praise Yazid and absolve Mu'awiyah. They failed to comprehend that they would not get any benefit through such deeds either in this world or in the Hereafter.
We have mentioned, in our book Irshaad-e-Hamzavi our arguments and conclusions regarding the nature of Mu'awiyah, his qualities, his misdeeds, his movements, his innovations and inventions in religion, etc. At the time of his demise Imam Hasan was 46. He expired in the 49th year of the hijrah era. The children of Imam Hasan Mujtaba were as follows: Hasan Muthanna, Qasim, Zaid, Al Husain and Umar. In his posterity were the only sons of Hasan Muthanna Abdullah, Ibrahim and Hasan Muthallath. Their mother was Fatima binte Imam Husain (a.s.). Apart from them, from Umme Valad, he bore Ja'far and Dawood. Those who had children are Zaid. Amr had no issues. Husain had a daughter whose name is Fatima and the mother of Ismail, the son of the late Imam Ja'far Sadiq (a.s.).
Adapted from: Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (pbuh)" by: "Qadi Bohlool Afandi"
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