Menstruation (Haydh) is a kind of blood, which is normally discharged every month from the womb of women for a few days. When menses is discharged the woman is called 'Haa'idh' menstruated.
440. Menses is usually think and warm and its color is either black or red. It is discharged with a pressure and a little irritation.
441. The blood seen by women after age of 60 years is not classified as menstruation. And as per recommended precaution, women who are not from the clan of Quraish, if they see blood between the age of 50 and 60 years, having the same signs as those of menstruation, they should combine the 'dos' of menstruated and 'dos'ts' of menstruated.
442. Blood seen by a girl who has not yet completed 9 years of her age will not be classified as mensruation.
443. It is quite possible for a pregnant woman or a breast feeding mother to see the menstruation and the rules which apply to a non-pregnant woman also apply to a pregnant one, except that if a woman who has conceived sees blood with the usual sings of menstruation 20 days after the commencement of her habitual period then it is necessary for her, on the basis of precaution, to refrain from the acts which are forbidden to a menstruated woman and to perform the obligations of a menstruated woman.
444. If a girl does not know whether she has completed nine years of age or not and if she sees blood which does not bear any sign of menstruation, then that blood is definetely not menstruation sure. This absolutely certitude will determine that she has completed her nine years.
445. If a woman who is doubtful as to whether or not, she has completed 60 years of age, sees blood, which she cannot decide whether it is of menstruation or not she should decide that she has not completed 60 years.
446. The period of menstruation is not less than 3 days and not more then 10 days and if the period during which blood is discharge falls short of 3 days even by a small measure of time, that blood will not be considered as menstruation.
447. The blood of menstruation flows continously for the first 3 days. Therefore, if blood is seen for 2 days and then interrupted for 1 day and then seen again for 1 day, it will not be menstruation.
448. In the initial stage, it is necessary that blood flows out, but it is not necessary to be seen flowing out during all the three days. It is sufficient for the blood to be internally present. So, if a woman is clean for a brief period during the first 3 days (as is common among all or some women) even then the blood discharged will be menstruation.
449. It is not necessary that a woman should have bleeding on the 1st and the 4th night, but it is essential that bleeding should not discontinue on the 2nd and the 3rd night. For example, if bleeding commences on the morning of the 1st day and continues till sunset on the 3th day, it would be considered as menstruation. Similarly, if blood is sen from the middle of the 1st day and stops at the same time on the 4th day the same will apply.
450. If a woman sees blood continously for three days, and then it stops for a brief period before it is seen agan, and if the total number of days in which blood was seen and is which it stopped does not exceed ten, then the days in which blood flowed will be counted as of menstruation, and in the between period of respite will be of oligatory precaution, during which she will do all that she should do whnd she is pure, and also refrain from all those acts whic are forbidden to the msntruated one.
451. If blood is seen for more than three days and less than ten days and she does not know whether the blood is fo a sore or a would or of menstruatoin, she should not treat is as menstruation.
452. If a woman sees blood about which she is unable to discern as to whether it is the blood of would or of menstruation, she should continue to perform her acts of worship, except when her preceding condition was that of menstruation.
453. If a woman doubts whether the blood she has seen is of menstruation or menstrual irregular discharges, she should treat it to be menstruation if it bears the properties of menstruation.
454. If a woman is unable decide whether the blood she has seen is of menstruation or of virginity, she should examine herself i.e. she should insert cotton in herself and wait for some time. If she finds that only its sides have been stained with blood then it is virginal blood, and if the blood has soaked the entire piece of cotton thn it is menstruation.
455. If blood is seen for less than 3 days and then stops and starts again for 3 days the second blood will be menstruaton but the first blood will not be considered as menstruation even if it is was seen during the days of habit.
Rules for the Haa'idh "Menstruation woman"
456. Acts which are prohibited on a woman who is in a state of menstruation:
* Prayer and other similar acts of worship for which the Ablution, dry Ablutin or bath is necessary. However, there is no harm in her performing the acts of worship for which Ablution, dry Ablution or bath, are not obligatory (e.g. prayer of dead).
* All those acts are forbidden to a sexual polluted person (see rule no. 361).
* Having sexaul intercourse; it is prohibited for a man as well as for a woman even if only the penis glans may penetrate, and even if semen may not be discharged. In fact, the obligatory precaution is that the male should refrain from the insertion even to an extent of lesser than th point of circumcision. Anal intercourse with the wife is forbidden regardless of whether she is in menstruation or not.
457. Sexual intercourse is illegal also when a woman may not be very certain of being a state of menstruation, but the sacred laws guides her to treat herself as such. So, when a woman sees blood for more than ten days, and, as will be explained later, she has to resort to the habit of her relatives for determining the period of menstruation, her husband will not be permitted to have sexual relations with her during those days.
458. If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife when she is menstruated, he should seek Divine forgiveness and the recommended precaution is that he should give a ransom. Rules regarding the rasom will be explain later.
459. With the exception of actual sexual intercourse with a menstruated woman, there is no harm in all other forms of courting, wooing and kissing etc.
460. Expiation for sexual intercourse with a menstruated woman is gold coins weighing 3.457 grams if carried out in the early days, 1.729 grams for the middle days and 0.865 grams for the final days of the period of menstruation. For example, if menstruation lasts for 6 days and her husband has sexual intercourse with her during th 1st and 2nd days or nights, he should pay gold weighing 3.729 grams, and during the 3rd and 4th days and nights he should pay gold weighing 1.729 grams and for the 5th and 6th days and night he should pay gold weighting 0.865 grams.
461. If it is not possible in gold coins, he should pay its equivalent value. And if the price of gold has undergone a change at the time he wishes to pay the Expiation to the poor, as compared with time when he had sexual intercourse, he should pay at the prevailing rate.
462. If a man has sexaul intercourse with his wife in the first, second and third stage of menstruation he should give expiation for all the three totaling 6.051 grams.
463. If a man has had repeated sexual intercouse with a menstruated woman he should pay expiation for each time.
464. If a man realizes during the course of sexual intercourse that the woman has become menstruated, he should withdraw from her immediately, and if he does not do so the recommended precaution is that he should pay expiation.
465. If a man commits fornication with a menstruated woman or has sexual intercourse wiht a menstruated woman who is not his Mahram' under the impression that she is his wife, the recommended precautin is this case, too, is that he should pay expiation.
466. If a man has sexual intercourse with a menstruated woman on acdount of ignorance or because of having forgotten the rule, he need not pay expiation.
467. If a man has sexual intercourse with a woman with the belief that she is menstruated, but it transpires later that she was not menstruated, he need not pay expiation.
468. As will be explained in the rule relating to divorce, if a woman is divorced while she is in a state of menstruation, the divorce is void.
469. If a woman says she is menstruated, or claims to have become purified from menstruation, her statement should be accetped, provided that she is not known to be unreliable.
470. If a woman becomes menstruated while she is in prayer, her prayer will be void.
471. If a woman doubt while offering prayers whether or not she has become menstruated, her prayer is in order. However, if she realizes after offering prayers that she had actually became menstruated during the prayer, her prayer will be void.
472. After a woman becomes purified from menstruation it is obligatory for her to take bath for the prayers and other acts of worship, which require Ablution or bath or dry ablution. The rules for this bath are the same as for the bath of major pollution. And it is better that before that bath she should perform Ablution.
473. After a woman has become purfied from the menstruation, and before having done bath the divorce given to her will be in order, and her husband can also have sexual intercourse with her. Though; it is better to have sexual intercourse after the woman has washed herself. However, the recommended precaution is that the man should avoid having sexual intercourse with her before she has done the bath. However, until she has had bath, other acts like staying in a mosque and touching the writing of the Qur'an, which were prohibited on her at the time of menstruated, do not become allowable for her.
474. If the woman does not have sufficient water for the Ablution and bath, and if it is just enough for the bath only, she should perform the bath, and it is better that she should perform the dry ablution in place of ablution. And if the water is sufficient only for the ablution performance, she should perform the ablution and perform the dry ablution instead of bath. And if she does not have water for either of them (ie for ritual bath or ritual Ablution) she should perform dry Ablution for ritual bath only. It is recommended that she performs one more ablution instead of ritual ablution also.
475. There is no Quadha' for the prayer, which she left during her menstruation period, but she should give Quadha for the obligatory fasts missed by her due to the menstruation period. This includes even those fasts, which has been oliged upon her on the fixed days becuase of a vow, but she could not keep because of menstruation.
476. If the time for prayers sets in and a woman knows, or considers it probable, that if she delays offering prayers whe will becomes menstruated, she should offer prayers immediately.
477. If a woman delays offering prayers on exact time allowing a lapse equal to the time requied for offering one prayer together with Ablution or dry ablution, and then she becomes menstruated, she will have to give Quadha for that prayer. And in calculating the time, the extraneous things like praying quickly or slowly and other matters have to be considered individually. For example if woman who is not a traveler delays her prayer of midday, the Quadha will be obligatory for her if the time equals to performing four bows of prayers along with Ablution or dry Ablution passes away from the exact time of midday and then she becomes menstruated. And for one who is a traveler the passage of time equals to performing two bows along with ablution or dry ablution is sufficient.
478. If a woman is purified from menstruation when the time for prayers is nearing its end, and has at her disposal time, which suffices for the bath and performing one bow or more, she should offer the prayers and if she fails to do so she should offer its Quadha.
479. If a menstruated woman finds that she does not have sifficint time for bath, but she can offer prayers within the prescribed time after performing dry Ablution, the obligatory precaution is that she should offer that prayer with dry ablution, and even if she did not offer that prayer it will be obligatory for her to offer its Quadha. Again, if dry Ablution is incumbent upon her due to other reasons, like, if water is harmful for her, she should perform dry ablution and offer that prayer, and if she does not offer it, she will have to give its Quadha.
480. After becoming purified from menstruation, a woman doubts whether or not she has time left for the prayers, she should offer the prayers.
481. After becoming purified from menstruation a woman does not offer prayers under the impression that she does not have time to make necessary preparations for prayers and to offer even one bow, but understands later that she did have time for the purpose, she should offer Quadha.
482. It is recommended for a menstruated that when it is time for prayer, she shall purify herslf by washing away blood, and changing the pad. Then she should perform ablution or dry ablution, whichever is applicable, and ist at the place meant for prayers facing Quiblah and busy herself in recital, supplication and praising (Salawat).
483. It is disapprove for a menstruated woman to read the holy Qur'an, or keep it with herself, or touch with any part of her body the space between its lines. It is also disapprove for her to dye her hair with "henna" or any other thing like it.
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