Hajj al-Tamattu' Rites
- :Al-Balagh Foundation
The best time of Ihram, is the eighth of Dhul-Hijjah (Yam al-Tatwiiya). But this date may be preceded by three days or be delayed to noon of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah. Ihram starts in the holy city of Mecca and preferably at the Holy Mosque. The pilgrim should make his/her intention as follows:
WI begin Ihram of Hajj al-Tamattu seeking Allah's nearness Subsequently the pilgrim starts Talbiyah (saying of labbaik) after donning the attire of Ihram. A person after finishing Ummrah al-Tamattu and leaving aside Ihram, should not leave Mecca because of a need and if the need arises, it is obligatory to wear Ihram for the Hajj al-Tamattu in Mecca and leave Mecca in the state of Ihram and in the same state of Ihram, return for the Hajj.
2. Staying at Arafat:
Arafat is the name of a valley in which the pilgrim stays on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah. It is an area of more than two square miles and is approximately 12 miles outside Mecca. The pilgrim should stay at Arafat on the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah, from noon till sunset. Kindly note that it is forbidden to leave Arafat before sunset be it intentionally or unintentionally. The pilgrim should also make the intention of seeking Allah's nearness, so if the pilgrim spends the whole time in sleep or in unconciousness, the staying will be invalid and the type of pilgrimage is changed to Umrah al-Mufredah. Thus Hajj al-Tamattu should be performed the following year. The obligation and definition of staying in Arafat is precisely the absolute staying in that noble place, whether you reach there by walking or sitting in or on a means of transportation.
3. Staying at Muzdalifah:
On the night of the Eid (festival), and while leaving Arafat after sunset, the pilgrim sets out for Muzdalifah (the name of a place also called Al-misha' r al-Hararn. The obligatory time for this is between the whiteness of dawn and sunrise.
Staying in Mash'ar is a form of worship in which the intention is obligatory. If you pass through the valley of Mash'ar before the rising of the sun, you have committed a transgression but without redeeming it. It is permitted for the following (those who meet difficulty because of the large crowd on the morning of Eid) to leave Muzdalifah before dawn:
1. People who do not have the strength like women, children and old men.
2. People who have an excuse like fear or sickness.
3. People who are the guides to the above-mentioned people and must watch out for or take care of them.
4. The Obligations of the Pilgrim in Mina:
The pilgrim, after leaving Muzdalifah, should set out for Mina to perform the following three acts:
1. Pelting in Jamrah al-A-qabah:
It is (the largest symbol of the devil which is situated on the outskirts of Mina towards Mecca), and should be thrown with seven pebbles on the tenth day, and the followings should be observed:
a. Throwing of the pebbles must be accompanied by the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
b. The number of pebbles must be seven.
c. Pebbles must be thrown separately (one after the other) i.e. it is not permitted to throw several pebbles at a time.
d. Pebbles should reach the place and whatever does not reach, does not count.
e. The time of throwing is from the rising of the sun of the Eid day, till the sunset of the same day.
Note: It is permissible to those who meet difficulty (in throwing the pebbles at the exact time) or fear for themselves because of the large crowd (like women, the old men, sick and the weak), to do it on the night of Eid.
f. Pebbles must be from the sacred area; and those outside (the sacred area) are not acceptable.
g. Pebbles should not have been used previously (even if they were used in the preceding years).
h. It is recommended that the pebbles be collected in Mash'ar.
i. Throwing must be done with the hands.
j. A person must be sure that the pebbles should hit the mark.
k. Another person may act as a representative (in throwing the pebbles) for children, the sick and those who, because of an excuse, cannot themselves go to the place for the throwing of the pebbles.
l. A person who is excused from throwing the pebbles in the day time, can do so at any time during the night.
2. Offering the Sacrifice at Mine:
a. It is obligatory for the pilgrim to slaughter an animal at Mina with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
b. For the sacrifice, one of four types of animals must be used: Camel (not less than five years), cow (not less than two years), sheep (more that one year) or goat (more than two years). Among them, the camel is the best.
c. The animal should be healthy, free of defect (not sick. blind, lame, too old or very lean).
d. If the pilgrim is unable to buy the sacrificial animal, instead one must fast ten days (three in Mina and the other seven in his/her homeland).
3. Shaving (Halq) wad cutting some hair or the nails (Taqseer):
a. Shaving is preferred (for men), particularly for the one who is performing Hajj for the first time. Some jurisprudents consider shaving (for men) as obligatory; but (for women) shaving is not permitted. instead, she must cut only a bit of her hair or nails.
After performing the above mentioned obligations, everything which was forbidden for the pilgrim during Ihram, becomes lawful except using perfumes and having sex if one is married.
5. The Acts in Mecca:
After the performance of the rituals on the tenth day in Mina, the pilgrim has to go to Mecca for day of Eid to perform the following:
1. The circumambulation of the Hajj. It is exactly like the circumambulation of Umrah and should be done with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
2. The rituat prayer (two rak'as) of circumambulation of the Hajj should be done behind Ibrahim's station, preceded with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
3. The Sa'y (going and coming) between Safa and Marwah with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
6. The Circumambulation of Women:
It is similar to the circumambulation of Umrah, done with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
7. The Ritual Prayer of the Circumambulation of Women:
It is obligatory to perform the two raka's prayer behind Ibrahim's station with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
the circumambulation of women and its prayer are obligatory for both men and women. If they perform it not, both women for men and men for women do not becomes permissible. This however, is not a pillar of Hajj and nonperformance does not invalidate the pilgrimage.
8. Spending the Night at Mimi:
After performing the pilgrim has to go back to Mina and spend the 11th and 12th nights of Dhul-Hijjah at Mina with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness.
The pilgrim can leave Mina after the noon of the 12th day. Should he/she stay at Mina till sunset, one is obliged to spend the 13th night and pelting Jamarat on that day becomes obligatory.
9. Pelting the Jamarat:
The last compulsory duty of the three Jamarat should be performed on the 11th and 12th of Dhul-Hijjah with the intention of seeking Allah's nearness. If one spends the 13th night this makes pelting the Jamarat necessary on the next day.
1. The first Jamarat should be pelted first and then the middle one, and lastly the Jamarat al-A qabah.
2. The pilgrim should throw only seven pebbles, following the same rules of the day on which the offerings are slaughtered.
Adapted from the Book: "The Hajj as Worship and Education" by: "Al-Balagh Foundation"
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