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Hadith-e-Ghadeer: Tradition of Ghadeer-e-Khumm



The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) said,

"Of whomsoever I am the Master; this Ali is his Master too. O Allah! Love those who love him and be an enemy to those who are inimical to him." There is unanimity of the whole community of the Shia and Sunni scholars over the authenticity and correctness of this tradition. When the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) reached a place called Ghadeer Khum on his return from the farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Widaa), he ordered the caravan to be halted and commanded that a pulpit be made from camel saddles. This was because he wanted to make an important announcement and a mammoth crowd awaited some important proclamation. As soon as the pulpit was ready, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) ascended and announced the above tradition verbatim. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) proclaimed, "Of whomsoever I am the Master, this Ali is his Master too. O Allah! Love those who love him and be an enemy to those who are inimical to him."

The following great companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) heard this hadith from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and confessed to it: Khuzaima bin Thabit, Sahl bin Sa'ad, Adi bin Hatim, Uqbah Amir, Abu Ayyub Ansari, Abul Haitham bin Tayhan, Abdullah bin Thabit, Abu Ya'la Ansari, Noman bin Ajlam al-Ansari, Thabit bin Wadiya Ansari, Abu Faddalal Ansari, Abdul Rahman bin Abde Rab, Junaida bin Junda, Zaid bin Arqam, Zaid bin Sharahil and others, Jabir bin Abdullah, Abdullah bin Abbas, Abu Saeed Khudri, Abuzar, Jubair bin Matam, Huzaifa bin Yaman, Huzaifa bin Aseed and Salman al-Farsi.

This tradition is reported by these great companions and recorded in books like Tarikh of Ibne Athir page 307 and Usudul Ghaabah, volume three. Also on page 321 of the same book volume three, page 308 of volume one, page 283 of volume eight, page 274 volume three. Also refer to Seerah-e-Halabi, volume three, page 40, Yanaabiul Mawaddah, Sawaaequl Muhreqah. And this hadith has been recorded in all the Sihah and accepted by their writers to be reliable. Specially Sahih Muslim, Nisaai, Tirmidhi, Ibne Maajah, Ahmad bin Hanbal and others.

Let us now pay some attention to the explanation of this hadith: Did the holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) announce that of his own accord or was it commanded by Allah? Indeed, the Messenger of Allah never said anything of his own will, but that it was expressly commanded by Allah. Thus the above command was as per the order of Allah. Now was this announcement based on wisdom? Indeed all the divine commands are based on wisdom. Thus this was also a wise and important command.

However it would not be correct if it is to be limited to the love and affection to Ali (a.s.) because the verse of Mawaddah clearly orders the love for all the members of Ahle Bait (a.s.). There are also numerous prophetic traditions that support the verse of Mawaddat and openly announce the necessity of loving the Ahle Bait (a.s.). This particular hadith is an express command to the people. Yes! From the context and matter of the hadith, it is known that in every matter whatsoever, the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) is a master; Ali (a.s.) is the master too. For, at the outset of his speech, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had posed the question,

"Do I not have more rights over you (the believers) than you have over yourselves?"

And at the end of the hadith, he (s.a.w.a.) said, "One who considers me as his master, Ali is his master too." Thus, it is clear that the aim of holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in this hadith was to announce the Wilayat (mastership) of Ali (a.s.) for all the people who considered the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to be their master (wali). We shall again refer to this hadith under the discussion of Caliphate.

Adapted from: Analysis of the History of Aale Muhammad (pbuh)" by: "Qadi Bohlool Afandi"

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