Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.)
Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.)
Born at: Medina, First Day of Zee Qa'dah 173 A.H.
Father's name: Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.)
Mother's name: Najma Khatoon mother of Imam Reza (A.S.)
Died at the age 28, at Qum on 10th Rabi al-Thani, 201 A.H.
Buried in the holy shrine in the holy city of Qum.
Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) the Blessed and the Gracious Divine Lady from the Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) was born in the holy city of Medina on the First Day of the month of Zee Qa'dah 173 A.H. His holy father was Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.), the Seventh Holy Imam of the Shi'ites and Imam Reza (A.S.), the Eighth Holy Imam was her elder brother. Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) was the most learned scholar and very pious lady and was greatly revered by the Holy Imams (A.S.). She was buried in the holy city of Qum (Iran) and her holy shrine is every year visited by millions of the lovers of Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.).
The Learned Divine Lady from the Holy Ahlul Bayt (A.S.)
Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) was brought up in a very noble family.She was daughter of the Holy Imam[Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.)], the sister of the Holy Imam[Imam Reza (A.S.)] and the aunt of the Holy Imam[Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.)]. She was taught all the Islamic sciences by Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.) and Imam Reza (A.S.) and she transmitted Ahadith (traditions) from them. She became famous as Aalimah(the Learned Lady) and Muhaddithah (the Learned Lady who transmitted Ahadith).
The traditions quoted by Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) are among the most authentic traditions which are present in various books of traditions.
She was Masumah (the Immaculate)
Hadhrat Fatima bint Musa al-Kazim (A.S.) was most pious,noble and reverend lady. Like her holy grand-mother Hadhrat Fatima Zahra (S.A.) she was always busy in performing Salaat(prayers) and kept fast most of the days. She was greatly respected and revered by her holy father Imam Musa al-Kazim (A.S.) and her elder brother Imam Reza (A.S.). She become famous as Masumah (the Immaculate) during her lifetime. Imam Reza (A.S.) has said about Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) that "Whoever performs the Ziyarah of 'Fatima Masumah' in Qum is like the person who has performed my Ziyarah".
Karimah-i Ahlul Bayt (A.S.)
Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) is also considered as Karimah-i Ahlul Bayt (A.S.) because she was very kind and gracious. Thousands of miracles has been recorded at the holy grave of her and the rightful wishes of the believers are fulfilled by her and incurable patients are miraculously healed by her. Imam Jafar Sadiq (A.S.) has quoted "By the intercession of Fatima Masumah (S.A.) all my Shias will enter the paradise".
Demise of Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.)
In the year 200 A.H. a year after the forced migration of Imam Reza (A.S.) from Medina to Marw in Khurasan by the reigning Abbasid caliph Mamun, Hadhrat Masumah accompanied by her brothers left Medina for Khurasan to meet her elder brother Imam Reza (A.S.). When they reached Saveh in central Iran they were attacked by the Abbasid army and many of his brothers were mercilessly martyred.Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) during her stay in Saveh was poisoned by a lady servant on the orders of the Abbasid commander.
Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) became severely ill and in this condition she migrated to Qum where she was warmly welcomed by the Shias of the city. The effect of poisoning increased during her short stay in Qum and she attained martyrdom on 10th of Rabi al-Thani 201 A.H. Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) had great longing to meet her brother Imam Reza (A.S.) but due to her sudden death she could not meet him. Imam Reza (A.S.) was deeply grieved when he came to know about the demise of her beloved sister Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.).
The Merits of the Ziyarah of Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.)
There are many traditions from the Holy Imams (A.S.) recommending the Shias to perform the Ziyarah of the holy grave of Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) in the holy city of Qum.
1- Imam Reza (A.S.) said "Whoever performs the Ziyarah of Fatima Masumah(A.S.) will be awarded heaven".
2- Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.) said "Whoever performs the Ziyarah of my aunt[Fatima Masumah (S.A.)] in Qum will enter paradise".
3- Imam Reza (A.S.) said" Whoever performs the Ziyarah of 'Fatima Masumah'with the knowledge of her status will attain paradise.
The Holy Shrine of Hadhrat Fatima Masumah(A.S.) in Qum
The construction of the present Bargah (Holy Court) and the holy shrine of Hadhrat Masumah in Qum, was started in the middle of the third century A.H. and continued during the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries A.H. (mid 9th century through 12th century A.D.), when it was completed with a dome and vault.
In 447 A.H., Mir Abul Fazl Iraqi, the Vazier of Tughril Beg constructed a magnificent dome on the grave of Hadhrat Masumah (S.A.) and the height of that dome was 14 metres. In 925 A.H., Shah Baigi Begum the daughter of Shah Ismail, the Safawid ruler of Iran renovated the dome and illuminated it with intrinsic mosaic tiles.
The holy shrine was greatly expanded during the Safavid period. Shah Ismail ordered the construction of the northern ivan. During the reign of Shah Tahmasb I, 939 A.H. (1532 A.D.) and Shah Abbas II, 1055 A.H. (1654 A.D.), the buildings of the (Astaneh) were completed and some important decorative works were undertaken, which have been continued ever since.
The main structure of the holy shrine consists of the old and new courtyards, a mirror-decorated ivan, a number of Mu`azin`s cages, a portico, a sepulcher, the holy burial chamber, the Holy Tomb(Zareeh), Masjid-i-Bala-sar, Ladies Courtyard (Sahn-i-Zananeh), an ivan, the golden dome, and several golden, silver and inlaid doors.
There are a number of verse inscriptions in the holy shrine, composed by Muhtasham Kashani, Fath Ali Khan Saba, and Shurideh Shirazi. The tileworks of the holy tomb of Hazrat-i-Masumeh, which have been accomplished during the years 605 to 613 A.H. (1208 to 1218 A.D.), bear the following designs and colors.
On the tomb, there are 15 pieces of enameled tiles covering a space of 2.95 meters long and 1.20 meters wide. The sides of the tomb are covered with three kinds of tiles, namely enameled tiles with curved sides, full star-shaped (Kuakabi) tiles, and enameled tiles on which the latter are installed.
There are three inscriptions on the tomb: the first is a relief inscription in Naskh style and is vermilion in color; the second, also vermilion, is in Kufic script; and the third is golden and in Naskh calligraphy. The background is azure, golden, brown or silver, and is further adorned with various ornamental motifs.
According to the inscriptions, the tiles of the Holy Sepulcher have been donated by Muzaffar ibn Ahmad ibn Ismail and the calligraphers Muhammad ibn Abi-Tahir ibn Abi-Hussain and Abu-Zaid have been responsible for the inscriptions, the former having also undertaken the manufacturing of the tiles.
The Holy City of Qum
The holy city of Qum in central Iran, 150 km to the south of Tehran became one of the first bastions Shi'ism and till the present day it is the leading centre of Islamic seminaries where more than forty thousand scholars and students are learning Islamic sciences in the numerable Islamic seminaries present in this holy city. At present about two hundred Islamic research and cultural centres are active in this holy city.
In the year 83 A.H. the Arabs belonging to the Ash'ari tribe migrated and settled in this region and laid the foundation of this city. From the beginning of its establishment the city of Qum became the dwelling place of the Shias and by the end of first century Hijrah more than 6000 Shias settled in this city. The Shias of this city revolted against the Umayyad caliphs and after the inception of the Abbasid caliphate in 132 A.H. they also opposed the Abbasid caliphs.
In the year 200 A.H. Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) took refuge in this city and Her Holiness expired in the year 201 A.H. and was buried in this city. The sacred grave of Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) became the pilgrimage centre of the Shias and this city became famous as Qum-i Muqaddas. Since then it also emerged as a leading Shia learning centre in the world. The holy shrine of Hadhrat Fatima Masumah (S.A.) and the city's reputation as a centre of theological education of the Shias contributed most to its fame.
The city was patronised by the Shia Buyid (Buwayhid) rulers and during that era many leading Shia theologians emerged from this city. The holy city of Qum was also patronised by Timurids, the Qara Qoyunlu and Aq Qoyunlu sultans and the Safawid rulers showed great respect to the holy city of Qum.
During the stay of Ayatullah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi in this holy city in the first half of twentieth century Qum established itself as the leading Shia theological centre in the world and most of the leading Maraje(the Grand Ayatullah) of the Shias reside and teach Islamic sciences to the scholars in this holy city.
In June 1963 Imam Khomeini (R.A.) started Islamic movement against the rule of Shah from the holy city of Qum. The uprising of people of Qum in January 1978 convulsed the whole of Iran and led to the victory of Islamic revolution and the establishment of Islamic Republic in Iran in February 1979.
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