Designation of Ali as successor to the Prophet
- :S.M.R. Shabbar
Adopted from the book : "Story of the Holy Ka’aba And its People" by : "S.M.R. Shabbar"
In history there were numerous occasions when the Holy Prophet designated Ali as his Deputy and successor after him. From the moment of Zulasheera to the time of the conquest of Khyber and the occasion of the battle of Tabuke the Holy Prophet made it abundantly clear that no one deserved more than Ali to be his Deputy and successor. But at the time of Ghadeer this was clearly ordered by Allah through a clear verse revealed on the Prophet. The Verse said,
"O’ apostle; proclaim the whole of that which hath been sent down to thee from thy Lord, for if thou dost it not, it will be as if thou hast not at all performed the duty of His Prophethood. And God will protect thee from evil men, verily God guideth not the unbelievers.” ( Sura 5 : V.67.)
The occasion was after the last pilgrimage in 10th Hijri. The Prophet delivered his Sermons on Mount Arafat, had the final rounds of the Kaaba and left for Madina. More than 120,000 pilgrims were coming out with him from Makka going to the North. Half way through their journey where the routes were separated for various pilgrims, the Holy Prophet ordered the whole caravan to halt. All those who went ahead were called back and for those who were behind they waited for them to arrive. The place was Ghadeer, near the pool of water. That is why it was named Ghadeer-e-Khom. When all assembled at this place the Holy Prophet stood up on top of the pulpit and said, "O’people, shortly I shall be called towards my creator where I shall have to give an account as to how I have conveyed His message to you and you in your turn will be asked as to how you have accepted and carried out the teachings. Now tell me what you will say”. Thereupon all the pilgrims declared as one man, "O’Apostle of God, we testify and declare that you have conveyed the message of God fully, you have strived your utmost to guide us to the Right Path and taught us to follow it. You were most kind to us and you never wished for us but our good, may God repay you for all that." After that the Prophet said, "Do you not testify that there is no god but Allah,that Muhammad is His creature,His servant, and His apostle, that there is the Heaven and the Hell,that death will over take every one of you,that you will be brought back from your graves that the Day of Judgement will surely dawn and human beings will be resurrected from their graves to account for their deeds. The whole crowd declared in unison, "We believe and testiy all this." Hearing this the Apostle declared, "I am leaving amongst you two most important things worthy of obedience, the Qur’an and my progeny (Ahlulbayt). Take care how you treat them, they will not separate from each other till they reach me at the fountain of Kauser.” Then he said, “ The Almighty God is my Lord (Maula) and I am the Lord of all muslims and have more right and power on their lives than they themselves. Do you believe in this assertion of mine?" They all in one voice replied “ Yes O’Apostle of God. Three times he asked the same question and three times he received the same affirmative reply. At this solemn affirmation he said, “Hear and remember that to whomever I am Lord or Maula, Ali is the Lord and Maula to him. He is to me what Aron was to Musa. The Almighty God be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foe, help those who help him and frustrate those who betray him. While saying this he raised Ali High over his shoulders in order to be seen by all the muslims assembled there. Thereupon the Holy Prophet received the final revelation: "This day I have perfected your religion for you and have filled up the measure of my bounties upon you and I am pleased with Islam to be your Deen,"(religion) (Sura 5 :V 3 ).
After performing this ceremony and receiving the above revelation the Holy Prophet came down from the pulpit and ordered a tent to be erected. In this Ali (AS)was made to take his seat and all muslims were ordered to pay homage to him and address him as Amirul Momeneen (Lord of the faithful) The first person to congratulate and address him as such was Omar Ibne Khattab saying, “I congratulate you, O’Ali, today you have become my Maula and Lord and Lord of every muslim man and woman. 1.
The event of Ghadeer was on 18th of Zilhijja 10th Hijri, immediately after the last pilgrimage by the Holy Prophet. He then arrived back in Madina and lived only for 70 days after the event.(130 Prominent Companions of the Holy Prophet narrated this Hadith including the first three Kholafa-e-Rashidoon)
The year 11th AH was the saddest year for Ali.(AS) He lost two of his best friends. One of whom he loved and venerated like a father, like a master and like a dearest friend, the Holy Prophet(SA) who died on 28th Safar 11th Hijri, exactly 70 days after the event of Ghadeer. His death followed by the death of his dearest companion his wife Fatima, the Lady of Light.
Immediately after the death of the Holy Prophet who was buried by Ali (AS)with the help of his uncle Abbas and all the family of Bani Hashim, the news was given to Ali(AS) about the events at the Saqeefa that Abubakr was made Caliph. Abu Sofian heard the news came to Ali(AS) and told him that his Right was taken away from him. If he wishes, Abu Sofian would fill the city of Madina with horsemen to defend Ali’s Right of Khilafat. Ali’s reply was typical, he said,” since when you have become friends of Islam”, you want to create serious dissension amongst the muslims. You have always tried to harm Islam I do not need your sympathies or help.” Ali realized that any serious dissension at this stage would harm the cause of Islam. He had before him the example of Hodaibiya and he had been foretold by the Holy Prophet of all that would happen. Allama Ali Ibne Mohammed (630 AH) in his book Usdul Ghaba Vol iv page 31 says, The Holy Prophet had told Ali, your status is like that of Kaaba. People go to Kaaba but that August house never approaches anybody. Therefore after my death, if people come to you and swear the oath of allegiance you accept it and if they do not come to you then you do not go to them.”
Ali’s love for Islam was so intense, he could not,for the sake of wordly rule, endanger Islam. He knew fully well that a civil war at this stage would give chances to the jewish tribes of Banu Nuzair and Banu Qoraiza on the one side, and the Byzantine armies in thnorth with the Munafiqoon (hypocrites) the new converts on the third side to simply take advantage of the situation. When they would find the muslims busy killing each other they would literally cut them to pieces and Islam would totally disappear as a message of peace. Ali’s utmost desire was to see Islam and the Arabs in one piece and wanted the enemies of Islam to realize that Islam was strong enough to defend itself as “Deen”. even after the demise of the Apostle of God.,He had another important job to complete that is the completion of the collection of Qur'an with its Tafseer (explanations) according to the instructions of the Holy Prophet. Qur'an as a bwas already completed by the Holy Prophet, many copies were made and circulated among the muslim communities all over the Islamic world. What Ali did in the next six months after the demise of the Holy Prophet was to collect all the explanations of the various verses, reasons behind their revelation and their full context. This monumental job he completed in six months and brought before the muslims in the city of the Prophet.Unfortunately this was ignored by the ruling party and Ali(AS) took it back with him.Their comment was "this is too bulky and people will not understand it.”
The original remained with Ali (AS) all his life and then passed on to his son Hasan (AS) and then to Hussain (AS) which then continued with the Ahlulbayt of the Prophet. It is now with the 12th Imam (AS).
During the time of the three Kholafa, although Ali (AS) did not take part in any of the battles, he was always available when they sought his advice on religious matters. His position as the jurist was on the top of the list among the companions of the Holy Prophet. Omar Ibne Khattab the 2nd Caliph had given clear instructions that when Ali was present in the mosque of the Prophet no one should take precedence over him in answering questions on religious matters. In one such encounter during the time of the 2nd Caliph, a group of Jewish scholars approached the caliph and said, “ We have a few questions. If we get the answers to these questions correctly, we will accept the Islamic faith. “Ask whatever you want to ask," said the caliph. They asked the following questions.
1. What are the locks and keys of heaven?
2. Who was the messenger who was neither of the human nor of the jinn and who warned his people?
3. Which are the 5 beings who were created without the aid of ovaries?
4 What are one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven and twelve?
The caliph thought over these questions for a time, then said, I do not know the answers to these questions. I will take you to a man who is most knowledgeable in the commandments of God and the Prophet and the greatest among us. The caliph then brought the jewish scholars to Ali (AS). They asked the same questions to him. Ali(AS) answered thus:
1. The locks of the heavens are beliefs in more than one God, and its keys are the letters of “La Ilaha Illallah, Muhammad-Ur-Rasulallah.”
2. The messenger who warned his people is the ant who, when Solomon’s army was passing by, said to his people, “ Enter your houses so that the army may not stamp you out (without intention)”. So God states in the Holy Qur'an, “ Until they came to the valley of the Ants, said an ant (addressing the other ants of the valley) O” you ants’ enter into your dwellings, so that Solomon and his hosts may not crush you while they know it not”. (Sura An-Naml.V 18)
3. The five beings who were not born of ovaries are: Adam, Eve, the staff of Moses which used to change into a python, the camel of Saleh, and the sheep of Ibrahim (which was sent by God to become a ransom of the life of Ibrahim’s son Ismael).
4. One is God who has no partners, two are Adam and Eve, three are the substances ( i.e. non-living matter, plants and animals), four are the Heavenly books: Torah of Moses, Bible of Jesus, Zubur of Dawood and the Qur'an of Muhammad (SA). Five are the daily prayers. Six are the days of creation of the heavens and earth, as per the verse of the Qur'an: “ And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and what is between them two, in six periods and touched us not any fatigue.” (Sura Qaf V.38). Seven are the seven heavens, in the light of the Qoranic Verse: “ And we have erected above you the seven strong ones.”(Sura An-Naba V12)
Eight are those angels who bear the heavens, as per the Qur'anic Verse: “ And the angels shall be on the side of it; and above them shall bear that day ‘Arsh’(the throne of authority). of your Lord, eight of them (Sura Al-Haqqah.V.17) Nine are the nine signs given to Moses as stated by God: “And indeed we gave Moses nine clear signs (miracles); so ask the children of Israel when he came to them, Pharoah said to him; “Verily I deem you O’Moses one bewitched.”(Sura Bani Israel, V 101). Ten are the ten days, i.e. God had promissed Moses that he would stay on the mountain of Toor for thirty days, and later added ten more days to this duration, as it is stated in the Qoran.” And we made an appointment with Moses for thirty nights and completed it with ten more;” Thus was completed the term of his Lord, forty nights, and (before he went up) Moses said to his brother Aaron: You take my place among my people, act rightly and follow not the path of the mischief-makers.” (Sura Al-A’araf. V.142). Eleven are the brothers of Joseph, son of Jacob, as the Qur'an states, “When said Joseph to his father, O’my father; Verily I did see (dream) eleven stars and the sun and the moon,, I saw them all prostrating to me.” (Sura Yousuf.V.4) . Twelve are the Twelve water-springs manifested by the staff of Moses, as God states, “ And (remember) when Moses sought water for his people; said We, ‘Strike the rock with your staff’ Then gushed out therefrom twelve springs; each people knew their drinking place; “Eat and drink God’s provision, and commit not evil in the earth acting mischievously. ”(Sura Al BaqaraV60).
When the jewish scholars heard the replies of Ali (AS) they said, “We bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad(SA) is His Messenger and Ali(AS) is the “Wasi” and successor of the Messenger of God as Aaron was the Wasi of Moses. They all embraced Islam, went back to their tribe and converted all of them to Islam.(Kaukabe Durri).
After the death of Osman the 3rd Caliph Ali(AS) was elected by the overwhelming majority of muslims as the 4th Caliph. He was reluctant to accept the office of the caliph but when pushed by the majority , accepted it by saying that he was taking the reigns of wordly authority only to bring back the Ummah of the Prophet on the Right Path, though the value of this wordly khilafat is less than the sneeze of a goat. His position as an Imam and guide was already established during the period of three earlier khulafa, with wordly power he began the undaunting task of establishing the type of rule the Messenger of God had established during his time. Imam Bukhari mentioned in his Saheeh that the very first prayers which Ali (AS) lead in the mosque of the Prophet as the Caliph, many companions of the prophet said that “ today we have prayed as the Messenger of God used to pray”. But during the past 25 years many companions of the Prophet had, due to excessive wealth coming in from the conquest of the foreign lands, changed into the habit of living like feudal lords of the period of Jahiliya of pre-Islamic days. Ali (AS) as caliph warned them of the dangers of excessive wealth by these words. " Beware of the intoxication of wealth”.(Masudi,Muruj el Zahab).
The path of Ali (AS) was full of thorns and as soon as he tried to establish the austere path of the Messenger of God, he created many enemies. The first and foremost was the Governor of Syria Moawiya ibne Abi Sofian. He persuaded Talha and Zubair,when they were denied the Governorship of various provinces by Ali(AS), to start a revolt against Ali.(AS) Both of them left Madina, arrived in Makka and somehow persuaded bibi Ayesha the widow of the Prophet to start a fight against Ali.(AS) They left Makka for Basra and assembled an armyagainst Ali.(AS). He warned them of the dangers of war against the caliph upon whose hand they had taken the oath of allegiance, but persuasion from Moawiya and promises of Governorship of various provinces was so strong that they would not hear any advice. Ali (AS) left Madina in pursuit of these deviants and two muslim armies faced each other near Basra. When many companions of the Prophet saw this they questioned the validity of this war and cast doubt as to which party was on the right path. Ali(AS) replied in the most subtle way to these doubters. “ Truth cannot be identified from men, find the truth and you will find the deserving person”. The battle of Jamal was fought, Ali ‘s army was victorious, boTalha and Zubair were killed by their own men and bibi Ayesha was sent back to Madina under the escort of her brother Muhammad ibne Abibakr. She always repented this venture and asked forgiveness from God. When with the connivance of Moawiya her brother Muhammad ibne abi bakr was killed and his body was put into the body of a dead camel and burnt, she cursed Moawiya five times a day after every prayer, throughout her life.
The Battle of Siffin was also fought due to the deviant action of Moawiya against the Islamic State. Some companions of Ali’s army deserted him by accepting bribes from Moawiya and due to this deceitful action the battle of Siffin remained indecisive, no one won and no one lost. In the meantime this deviant group which were later named as “Khawarij” meaning deviant, began to spread trouble within the Islamic State by looting and burning villages and killing women and children that Ali(AS) fought against them and the battle of Nahrwan took place.
On the way to Nahrwan Ali(AS) passed a monastery. An old Christian monk who also claimed to be an astrologer of some repute called out, “ O’ army of Islam, ask your leader to come to me. Upon hearing this Ali (AS) turned his horse towards the monastery and approached the monk. Where do you go ask the monk. To fight the enemies of Islam, replied Ali(AS).
Do not fight now, because at this moment the stars do not favour the muslims. Wait for a few days when the stars will become favourable for you. Ali (AS) replied, do you defy Allah for this action we are taking on the orders of Allah and for His Deen.
Ali (AS) said, “ since you profess knowledge of the stars, tell me about the movement of such and such star.” The old man said, By God, I have never heard the name of this star. Ali(AS) asked him another question about the skies and when the old man failed to reply, said “ It is now known that you do not know about the skies. Shall I ask you about the earth? Tell me what is buried beneath your feet at the spot where you stand. I do not know said the old monk., “There is a vessel filled with so many silver coins and the coins bear such and such emblem. How do you know enquired the monk”. “ By God’s grace.” said Ali (AS). Then Ali proceeded to say that in the ensuing fight, less than ten persons of Islamic army would be killed where as less then ten persons from the opposing army would escape. The old monk listened astonished. As per Ali’s command, when the earth beneath the feet of the monk was dug, a vessel filled with silver coins was found exactly as described by Ali (AS)
Ali (AS) proceeded to Nahrwan and in the ensuing fight, the khawarij were thoroughly defeated. Out of the four thousand men of the khawarij only nine escaped and only nine men of the Islamic army were killed in this battle. (Rawdhatul Shuhada, Kaukab el Durri )
Returning from the battle Ali(AS) passed the monastery and when the monk heard the full story he embraced Islam immediately.
Ali (AS) also admonished him about his belief in astrology. He said “ do you think you can tell the hour when a man goes out and no evil befall him. Whoever testifies this falsifies the Qoran and becomes unmindful of Allah in achieving his desired objective and in warding off the undesirable.” Then Ali (AS) addressed to his own soldiers and said “ Beware of learning the science of stars except that with which guidance is sought on land or sea, because it leads to divining and an astrologer is a diviner, while a diviner is like the sorcerer, the sorcerer is like the unbeliever and the unbeliever’s place is in hell.”(Nahjul Balagha)
The four years and ten months of the Khilafat of Ali(AS) has been regarded by many historians as the best example of Islamic State after the Prophet of Islam’s death, in spite of the fact that the family of Abu Sofian tried their best to destroy it. Imam Abu Yousuf the famous disciple of Imam Abu Hanifa in his book about the history of Kholafae Rashedun declares above the title of his book that Ali’s (AS) time of Khilafat was the best in the management of the Islamic State and most just.
Many European historians mentioned Ali’s name with love and affection. Carlyle writes in his Heros and Heroworship that” Ali had such a personality that he was liked, loved and venerated by everybody. He was the man of excellent character loving and lovable, so intensely brave that if anything stood against his bravery it was consumed as if by fire, yet he was so gentle and kind that he represented the model of a Christian Knight.”
The famous Egyptian scholar Mohammad Abdoh relates a story about the time of the conquest of Alexandria during the reign of the 2nd caliph. They found a great library there and did not know what to do with it. Orders were issued from Madina that ‘ if these books are according to the Holy Qur'an, then we do not need them and if they say anything contrary to the Holy Qur'an then we do not want them. Therefore, in any case they ought to be burnt. (Akhbarul Ulama wa Aakhbarul Hukama of Ibne Quftee, pages 232 and 233,Printed Cairo). When Ali (As) heard the news of this, he tried to pursude them to refrain from issuing such order. He told them, “These books are treasures of knowledge and they cannot say anything against the Holy Qur'an. On the contrary the knowledge contained therein would act as commentaries of the Holy Book and would assist and help in further explanations of the knowledge as presented by the Holy Prophet. Knowledge is an asset for human beings and a birth right of man. It should not be destroyed.”
It was 19th of Ramadhan 41 Hijri while Ali (AS) was leading the morning prayers and was in the second sajdah of the 2nd Rakaat that Ibne Muljim’s sword fell and the life of the greatest warrior saint was taken away to his merciful Lord. The famous christian writer of Lebanon George Jurdaq writes in his books on Ali(AS) that with this one blow of the sword of Ibne Muljim the world was deprived of the person who, if had lived a few more years would have given the world a system of administration that future generations would have benefited for a long time to come.” In fact the letter to his Governor of Egypt Malike Ashter advising him of the “Do’s and Don’ts for a successful administration of the State is the hall mark in the annals of history”. We can only say that Ali’s supreme wisdom provides the guidance of a stature that mankind can aspire to.
Ali (AS) injured with the wound from the poisonous sword lived for two days. In these two days he dictated his Will and last testament to his son Hasan (AS) which is again a brilliant part of literary history. He advised his eldest son to love God and obey Him and to live for the service of the people in the way of God. “ And then do not forget to set apart the best of your time for communion with God, although every moment of yours is for Him, provided it is spent sincerely in the service of your people.”
Ali's (AS) sermons, collected by Sayid Razi in the 4th century (AH) are the examples of the most brilliant piece of Arabic literature that after the Holy Qor’an and the authentic Hadith of the Prophet of Islam, ever produced.
What Syed Razi could compile in Nehjul Balagha does not contain all the Sermons, letters and sayings of Ali (AS). Masoodi (d.346) in his famous book of history Muruj-al-Zahab says that the only Sermons of Ali,(AS) which have been preserved by various peop, number more than 480. These were extempore orations, people have copied them from one another and compiled them in the book forms’ they have cited them and quoted passages from them in their books. The famous companion and pupil of Ali (AS) Hasan al Basri had made such arrangements that one of his own friends would memorise the sermons delivered in the mosque of Kufa and relate the same in the next Fridays prayer in Basra. This shows the deep interest people of his own time had in these sermons and sayings.
Apparently out of these 480 sermons some were lost and Syed Razi could lay hands on only 245 sermons. Besides them he has collected about 75 letters and 489 sayings. Almost everyone of the sermons, sayings and letters collected in Nehjul Balagha is to be found books of authors who died long before Syed Raza was even born.
Here we quote a few selected sayings of Ali (AS) from Nehjul Balagha, The numbers given as they appear in the English translation by Syed Ali Raza from Pakistan.
1. During civil disturbance be like an adolescent camel who has neither a back strong enough for riding nor udders for milking.”( 1, page 568)
2. He who adopts greed as a habit devalues himself, he who discloses his hardship agrees to humiliation, and he who allows his tongue to overpower his Nafs debases the Nafs.(2 page 569)
5. Knowledge is a venerable estate, good manners are new dresses and thinking is a clear mirror. ( 5, page 569)
7. Charity is an effective cure, and actions of people in their present life will be before their eyes in the next life.( 7, page 570)
10.Meet people in such a manner that if you die they should weep for you and if you live they should long for you.( 10, page 571)
27." Keep walking in your sickness as long as you can."(27, page 576)-A simple cure through exercise and ignoring the sickness as much as possible)
31. Faith stands on four supports: on endurance, conviction, justice and Jihad.(31 page 576)
40. The tongue of the wiseman is behind his heart and the heart of the fool is behind his tongue.(40 page 579)
45. Even if I strike the nose of a believer with this sword for hating me, he will not hate me, and even if I pile all the wealth of the world before a hypocrite for loving me he will not love. This is because it is pronounced by the tongue of the beloved Prophet. O’Ali, a believer will never hate you and a hypocrite (Muslim) will never love you.( 45 page 580)
54. There is no wealth like wisdom, no destitution like ignorance, no inheritance like refinement and no support like consultation.(54 page 584)
64. The people of the world are like travellers who are being carried while asleep. 64, page 584)
67. Do not feel ashamed for giving little, because refusal is smaller than that.( 67, page 584)
90. The perfect jurist of Islam is he who does not let people lose hope from the mercy of Allah, does not make him despondent of Allah’s kindness and does not make him feel safe from Allah’s punishment.( 90 page 589)
117. Two categories of persons will face ruin on account of me; he who loves me with exaggeration and he who hates me intensely. (117 page 594)
146. Protect your belief by charity, guard your wealth by paying Allah’s share, and ward off the waves of calamity by praying.(146 page 600)
334. Beware of disobeying Allah in solitude, for the witness is also the judge.(334. page 648)
The famous French historian and Orientalist Gabriel Enkiri writes in his famous book ‘Le chevealier de Islam’,In the extremely superfine, grand and noble character of Ali, there were two traits which, it is difficult to believe that can be united in one man. Besides Ali, history cannot show any other man who has displayed these two qualities at one and the same time, and each one, in such a marked way that none can surpassed him.
1. He was the greatest marshal of his time (even of all time) and , 2. He was the wisest man who could explain and expound religion, philosophy, science, sociology and ethics, in a style which was not and which cannot be improved; what is more, he was such a great speaker that his speeches enchant you even fourteen centuries after his death”.
Read the book called Nahjul Balagha and find out yourself.
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