Conduct of Islam upon Victory
When the Apostle of God appeared at the pass of Adhakhir, he entered Mecca from that direction. A tent of leather was pitched for him by the grave of his uncle Abu Talib. He refused to reclaim his house or the houses of his companions in Mecca that had been confiscated by the Polytheists.
This was after he had ordered the detachments of his companions and the commanders of his army to surround Mecca completely and to enter by all the entrances and roads which led to the city from high and low so that they would block any possibility of opposition. He ordered them to stay their hands from fighting and only to fight those who fought them.
He also gave a banner to Abu Ruweihah al-Khath'ami and ordered him to proclaim amongst the people of Mecca:
'Whoever enters under the banner of Abu Ruweihah has sanctuary.' This was in addition to the three other points of sanctuary mentioned. So the people were reassured and threw down their weapons and entered their houses in safety without anyone being made captive or blood being spilt.
Then the Prophet visited the Holy House and when he had finished his circumambulation of the Ka!bah he went to the mountain of al-Safa and ascended it. It is said that he sat in a corner of the mosque such that he look at the House. He began to praise God and pray. Then he called for the custodian of the Ka!bah who at that time was Othman ibn Talhah. He had locked the door when he heard that the Apostle of God had entered Mecca.
He refused to hand over the key so Imam Ali stood up to him and took the key from him and presented it to the Apostle of God. He ordered that the door be opened and he entered and he saw that there were two images inside. He called for a cloth and made it wet and then erased the images. Then he prayed two cycles of prayer between the two pillars upon the red marble. Then he approached the corners of the House and said 'Allahu Akbar' at each corner.
Then he went to the door [of the Ka!bah] and the Quraysh had filled the mosque in rows awaiting to see what he would do with them, assuming - according to the customs of the age of ignorance - that they would be subject to the sword and that they would be exterminated to the last man. But it was not to be like this, for Islam is the way of honour and virtue and the Prophet is the Apostle of mercy and humanism. He took hold of the pillars of the door and made the now famous speech.
The Apostle of God began his speech by praising and extolling God, and said: 'There is no deity but God, no partner has He. He fulfilled His promise and aided His servant and He alone defeated the confederates.'
Then he said: 'Every great deed, or wealth, or claim of blood, or foul deed or feud that existed in the Age of Ignorance are beneath my two feet now. As for the custodianship of the House and the task of watering of the pilgrims, they are returned to their rightful owners. Mecca is sacred by the sanctification of God. None other before me has been allowed free reign therein, and I have only been allowed free reign for a short time on one day. Mecca is sacred until the final hour comes. Trees therein are not to be cut and animals are not to be hunted . . .'
Then he said: 'O people, let those present inform those who are absent that with Islam, God has taken away the arrogance of the Jahiliyyah and the boasting about lineage and tribe. All of you are from Adam and Adam is from clay.'
Then he recited the Qur'anic verse: eO people, We have created you of male and female and made of you peoples and tribes so that you might know one another. Surely the most noble amongst you in the sight of God is the most pious. 144
Then he said: 'The best of the servants of God are those who fear God. Arabic is not a father and sire but is a tongue which speaks and if a person's actions do him down, his lineage will not save him.'
Then he turned to the people of Mecca and said: 'What foul neighbours to a Prophet you were. You belied and expelled and tortured [me and my followers]. Then you were not satisfied until you came to my lands to fight me. Now, O people of the Quraysh, what do you say? What do you think I shall do with you?
They said: 'We think only good and we say only good. You are a noble brother and the son of a noble brother and you have defeated us.' The Prophet said: 'I will say to you what Joseph peace be upon him said to his brothers: eThere is no blame upon you this day, God will forgive you and He is the Most Merciful. 145 Go for ye are at liberty.'
The people left as if they had been raised from their graves, and entered into Islam. God had put the people of Mecca under the Apostle of God's power but because he freed them, the people of Mecca were to become known as the Tulaqa' or "those who have been freed".
144. The Holy Qur'an, (49): 13.
145. The Holy Qur'an: Joseph (12): 92.
Adopted from the book : "The Prophet Muhammad; a Mercy to the World" by : "Ayatullah Muhammad Sadiq al-Shirazi"
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