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Ali's (a.s.) Marriage with Fatima (s.a.) the Daughter of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.)

During the second year of Hijrat, Hazrat Ali's marriage with Fatima, the only daughter of the Holy Prophet, took place. Muhammad had received many offers for her hand from very rich families in Medina, as also from the chiefs of mighty clans in Arabia but he declined to consider these offers. He said he was awaiting the order of God for the person to whom his daughter should be wedded.

Some one then suggested to Hazrat Ali that he should place a proposal for himself before the Holy Prophet. Ali approached the Prophet feeling shy and modest, but when Muhammad heard the proposal he was so pleased that he smiled and said, "Ahlan wa Merhaban" (It is a welcome and happy proposal.)

Muhammad took the consent of his daughter for this proposal. The betrothal of Fatima, the daughter of the Prophet, to his cousin and faithful disciple, Ali, took place in the month of Ramazan 2 A.H., but the nuptial ceremonies were performed two months later in Zilhajj. This alliance - as revealed to the Prophet-was ordained by God, Who, he said to Fatima, had informed him of his choice from the noblest on the earth of two blessed men, one being her father (himself) and the other her husband (Ali); and that he had decreed his (the Prophet's) lineal descendants to spring forth from the couple (Ali and Fatima) and not direct from himself.


According to Dailami in Firdous-ul-Akhbar, Khuiar Zamin Manaqib and Yousuf Kanji in Kifayat-ut-Talile, the Holy Prophet announced that Gabriel had brought the good news that God had performed the marriage of Fatima and Ali in Heaven and the Prophet should perform the same on earth.


All the Muhajireen and Ansar of Medina assembled in the mosque, while Hazrat Ali was seated before the Holy Prophet with all the modesty of a bridegroom. The Holy Prophet first recited an eloquent sermon and then announced, "I have been commanded by God to get Fatima wedded to Ali, and I do hereby solemnize the matrimony between Ali and Fatima on a dower of 400 Misquall." Then he asked Hazrat Ali, "Do you consent to it 0 Ali?" "Yes, I do, 0 Holy Prophet of God." Then the Holy Prophet raised his hands in supplication and prayed thus : "O my God ! Bless both of them, sanctify their progeny and grant them the keys of Thy beneficence, Thy treasures of wisdom and Thy genius; and let both of them be a source of blessing and peace to my people." Then Ali prostrated himself before God. After a service of thanksgiving in which the Holy Prophet asked God for His blessings on the couple, praying, "O Almighty Lord! Bless them both and better their endeavours and give them noble children". The marriage was then performed. Addressing Ali, the Holy Prophet then said, "O Ali, lucky art thou indeed! Of all the virtuous women of the world, your wife is queen." Then turning towards Fatima the Holy Prophet said, "Of all the virtuous men of the world your husband is the king. May God keep you pious and chaste and bless your children. Verily I am a friend to him who befriends you both and an enemy to him who is your enemy." From this marriage, Ali and Fatima had two sons, Imam Hasan and Imam Husain, and two daughters, Janab-e-Zainab and Janab-e-Umme Kulsoom.

The wedding ceremony of the only daughter of Muhammad well demonstrates the ideal simplicity with which it was conducted. The wedding feast was of dates and olives; the nuptial couch was a sheepskin; the ornaments, the general outfit and the articles of necessity for the bride consisting of only a pair of silver armlets, two shirts, one head tiara, one leather pillow containing palm leaves, one grinding mill, one drinking cup, two large jars and one pitcher. This was all, compatible with the circumstances of the Prophet Muhammad and his son-in-law Ali, who had to sell his coat of mail to raise the dowry required.


It may be recalled that Fatima's mother was that generous lady Khadija whose fabulous wealth was spent by the Prophet on the widows and orphans of Muslims, and who was content even when nothing was left for her daughter.

The true grandeur of the marriage lay not in the ostentations, but in the blessings of Heaven for which the marriage is the most memorable in the annals of Islam. The couple tied in matrimonial alliance by God-were destined to be the parents of an illustrious progeny termed the sons of the Prophet, who are distinguished from, the rest of the Muslim world as divinely commissioned Imams or the Commanders of the Faithful, and the rightful successors of the Apostle of God. They are universally acknowledged by Muslims as the fountain-head of piety and wisdom. Hasan and Husain, the sons of Ali and Fatima, played in the lap of the Prophet, who showed them proudly from his pulpit and called them the Chiefs of the youths of Paradise. The parents themselves were as exalted as their children. The Prophet used to say, "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate." Ali, the gallant hero as he proved himself on all occasions of undaunted valour, had won for himself the title of 'Lion of God' from the Prophet. Fatima, who possessed the love and confidence of the Prophet and God, was ranked as one of the four ladies 'Perfect in Faith' with whom God had deigned to bless this earth, viz. 1 Asia, the wife of Pharaoh, Mary, the mother of Jesus, Khadija, the wife of Muhammad, and Fatima, the wife of Ali.


1 It is related that Asia, the daughter of Mozahem, because she believed in Moses, her husband cruelly tortured her, fastening her hands and feet to four stakes, and laying a large millstone on her breast; her face, at the same time was exposed to the scorching heat of the sun; her anguish, however was alleviated by the angels shading her with their wings and the view of the mansion prepared for her in paradise, which was revealed to her on her pronouncing the prayer in the text: at length God received her soul; or, as some say, she was taken up alive into paradise, where she eats and drinks.

The Holy Prophet called Fatima the Chief of the women of Paradise and superior to all of them, and according to Bokhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Dailami, Tibrani, Hakim, Abu Nayeem and a host of commentators, the Holy Prophet enjoined that Fatima is a part and parcel of himself and whoever caused the slightest grief to her, caused grief to the Prophet and to God Himself and that God is pleased with those with whom Fatima is pleased and God is angry on those who have incurred the wrath of Fatima.

1 'Sale' from Jalaluddin-al-Zamakhshari.

Adapted from: "Ali, The Magnificent" by: "Yousuf N. Lalljee"

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