Rafed English

A Diminished Picture on the Irregular Situations at al-Mada'in

From the foregoing study, repetitions is necessary for the research, we have have known that the best soldiers of Al-Hasan joined the vanguard that went to Maskan before. However, his soldiers at al-mada'in were the weakest of all soldiers in morale and the nearest of them to desertion, restlessness, and division.

We have also known that Al-Hasan had been suprised by three initiatives before he received any help from his other camps. These three intiatives, that were as warners against the disaster, are as follows:

A. The news of the wide-range treason at Maskan.

B. The provocative rumor that urged the people to desert (the camp) through telling them that Qays b. Sa'd who was the second commander the army of Maskan, had been killed.

C. The discord created by the Syrians delegation that came to show the Imam the letters of the traitorous Kufans, and then the delegation went out saying that Al-Hasan had accepted making peace with Mu'awiya.

As we have mentioned in chapter 8, in this army were the men of discords, the men of the wish for booty, the Kharijites, and the like. They had not means more useful than these discords which they stirred up among Al-Hasan's army through the above mentioned three sorrowful initiatives.

Moreover, Al-Hasan summoned the people, addressed them, asked them for good intention and patience, reminded them of their laubable days (ie battles) at Siffin, and blamed them for those discords. Among the most winderful things which Al-Hasan achieved through his speech was that he was able to bring the people gradually to confess openly that they recoiled from waging war against Mu'awiya. That occurred when Al-Hasan wanted to ask them for advice concerning what Mu'awiya had written to Him, so, at the end of his speech, he said: "Indeed Mu'awiya has summoned us to matter in which there is neither dignity nor justice. If you wanted death, we would refuse it and judge Him with our swords before Allah. If you wanted life, we would accept it from Him and take contentment for you." So the people called Him from all directions: "The rest! The rest! Carry out peace making!"1

I (i.e., the author): In the history of the matter of Al-Hasan peace be on Him, there are two reports. They have been mentioned to the extent that they have become among he axioms of this history. They are: the narration of the people who requested the rest and carrying out peace making, and the narration of the people who rose in al-Mada'in protesting against making peace insisting on waging war against Mu'awiya. So I wish knew which of the two ideas was the aim of these people?

Aren't these two ideas the signs of the division which we have already mentioned? Rather they indicate the chaos that hindered the battle field, and they indicate that those who called the Imam from all directions to make peace with Mu'awiya were themselves who asked the Imam to wage war against Him.

So chaos, summons to jihad, and making friends with the Imam do not come together.

These were among the aspects of the camp of al-Mada'in, and among the qualities of the mixed of groups of people who had controlled it.

Some soldiers revolted against Al-Hasan. They accused Him of unbelief. This indicates that they belonged to the Kharijites. For the Kharijites accused the Muslims or the Imams of unbelief when they became angry with them. Besides they used such an accusations as a pretext to cover the great crime which one of them committed when he stabbed Al-Hasan in the thigh.

Some soldiers plundered Al-Hasan's tent to the extent that they plundered his cloak and his prayer mat. This indicates that they belonged to "the men of the wish for booty.

The discords in Al-Hasan's army indicates that there were discord makers. They were in this army when it was in Kufa and when it moved to the two camps to wage holy jihad against Mu'awiya.

In this manner the discord quickly spread through the army in al-Mada'in. So even the well organized loyal companions to Al-Hasan were unable to control it. Thus the majority prevented the minority from carrying out its duties. This army lacked tranquility which was important to achieve steadfastness. Meanwhile it had no aims but foolish ones. So this army was not able to fight against Mu'awiya. However, it wanted to fight against its Imam, Al-Hasan. It did not take war booty from their enemy, but it wanted to take booty from its friends through plundering their possessions. It was not able to join Mu'awiya's camp, as its friends in the second camp did, it wrote to Him to come to it.
This is what history has kept for this group of the people. As for what historians have forgotten or tried to forget or they have been prevented from mentioning it, no one knows it but Allah, the Great and Almighty.

I (ie the author) wonder: If Mu'awiya with all his cleverness and generosity faced the situation and the army fo Al-Hasan, would he pass his critical situation in a manner better than that Al-Hasan used to protect his doctrines, his plans, and his future?

To increase looking for the reasons that prevented Al-Hasan from the obtaining holy martyrdom, we will inform the gentle reader of the third stage of this round with sad steps.

1. Ibn Khaldun. Ibn al-Athir. al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar.
We have already mentioned the first part of this oration with in the declaration of the historians in this chapter.

Adopted from the book: "Sulh al-Hasan (a.s.)" by: "Sheykh Radi al-Yasin"

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