987. * In the the daily obligatory prayers, one should recite Surah al-Hamd in the first and second Rak'ats, and thereafter one should, on the basis of precaution, recite one complete Surah. The Surah az Zuha and Surah Inshirah are treated as one Surah in namaz, and so are the Surah al-Fil and Quraysh.
988. If the time left for namaz is little, or if a person has to helplessly abandon the Surah because of fear that a thief, a beast, or anything else, may do him harm, or if he has an important work, he should not recite the other Surah. In fact, there are situations when he should avoid it, like when the namaz time at his disposal is limited, or when in fear.
989. If a person intentionally recites Surah before Hamd, his prayer is void, and if he does it by mistake, and realises this while reciting it, he should abandon the Surah and recite Hamd first, and then the Surah.
990. If a person forgets to recite Hamd and Surah, or either of them and realises after reaching the Ruku, his prayers are in order.
991. If a person realises before bowing for Ruku, that he has not recited Hamd and Surah, he should recite them, and if he realises that he has not recited the Surah, he should recite the Surah only. But, if he realises that he has not recited Hamd only, he should recite Hamd first and then recite the Surah again.
Moreover, if he bends but before reaching the Ruku realises that he has
not recited Hamd and Surah, or only Surah, or only Hamd, he should stand up and act according to the foregoing rules.
992. * If a person intentionally recites one of the four Surahs which contain verses of Wajib Sajdah, in namaz, he will perform an immediate Sajdah upon reciting the verse. And if he does so, as a precaution, his namaz will be void, and he will have to pray again. But if he does not go to Sajdah immediately, and continues to pray, it will be in order, though he will have committed a sin for not going to Sajdah immediately.
993. * If a person begins reciting by mistake, a Surah which has verses of Wajib Sajdah and he realises this before reaching the verse of Sajdah, he should abandon that Surah and recite some other Surah. But if he realises this after reciting the verse of Sajdah, he should act as guided in the above rule (i.e. 992).
994. If during namaz a man listens to the verses making Sajdah obligatory, his prayer are in order, and on the basis of precaution, he should make a sign of Sajdah, and should also offer Sajdah after the prayers.
995. It is not necessary to recite a Surah after Hamd in Mustahab prayers, even if that prayers may have become obligatory due to Nazr. But, as for some Mustahab prayers like wahshat prayers, in which a particular Surah is recommended, if a person wishes to act according to the rules, he should recite the prescribed Surah.
996. While offering Friday prayers, or Zuhr prayers on Friday, it is Mustahab that after reciting Surah al-Hamd, Surah al-Jumu'ah should be recited in the first Rak'at, and Surah al-Munafiqun in the second Rak'at, and once a person begins reciting one of these Surahs he is not allowed as per obligatory precaution, to abandon it and recite another Surah in its place.
997. * If after Hamd, somebody begins reciting the Surah Qul Huwallah or Qul ya ayyuhal Kafirun, he cannot abandon it and recite some other Surah. However, if in Friday prayers and in Zuhr prayers on Friday, he recites one of these Surahs forgetfully, instead of Surah Jumu'ah and Surah Munafiqun,
he can abandon it and recite Surah Jumu'ah and Surah Munafiqun, but the precaution is that he should not abandon that Surah after having read more than half of it.
998. If a person recites intentionally Surah Qul Huwallah or Surah Qul ya ayyuhal Kafirun in Friday prayers or in Zuhr prayers on Friday, he cannot, as an obligatory precaution, abandon it to recite Surah Jumu'ah and Surah Munafiqun, even if he may not have reached half of it.
999. * If in namaz, a person recites a Surah other than Surah Qul Huwallah and Surah Qul ya ayyuhal Kafirun he can abandon that Surah before reaching half of it, and recite some other Surah. But as a precaution, he should not abandon it after having reached half, and it is not permissible to resort to another Surah.
1000. * If the person in namaz forgets a part of a Surah, or cannot complete it owing to helplessness, like very little time of namaz is left, or for some other reason, he can abandon that Surah and recite some other Surah, even if he may have reached half of it. This applies to Surah Qul Huwallah or Surah Qul ya ayyuhal Kafirun also.
1001. * It is Wajib for a man to recite Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah loudly, while offering Fajr, Maghrib and Isha prayers, and it is Wajib for a man and a woman to recite Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah silently while offering Zuhr and Asr prayers.
1002. * As a precaution, men must take care to recite loudly every word of Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah, including their last letters, in the prayers of Fajr, Maghrib and Isha.
1003. * A woman can recite Surah al-Hamd and other Surah in Fajr, Maghrib and Isha prayers loudly or silently. But, if a na-Mahram hears her voice, she should, on the basis of precaution, recite them silently, especially if allowing him to listen is haraam.
1004. * If a person intentionally prays loudly where he should pray silent-
ly, and vice versa, his prayer is void. But, if, he does so owing to forgetfulness, or not knowing the rule, his prayer is in order. And if he realises that he is doing a mistake while reciting the Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah, it is not necessary to recite again what he has recited not following the rule.
1005. If a person raises his voice unusually high while reciting Surah al-Hamd and Surah, as if he were shouting, his prayer will be void.
1006. * A person should learn Surahs to be recited in namaz, so that he may not recite them incorrectly, and if one cannot by any means learn the whole of Surah al-Hamd, he should learn as much of it as he can and recite; but if that is a very small part, then as an obligatory precaution, he should add to it as many verses of Qur'an that he can remember. And if he cannot do that, he should add some Tasbeeh to it. But if someone cannot recite Surah al-Hamd at all, then there is no necessary replacement for it. The recommended precaution for him is to join Namaz-e-Jamaat.
1007. * If a person does not know Surah al-Hamd well, but can learn it, he should do so if the time of namaz permits. And if the time does not permit, he should act as guided in the above rule, and his prayers will be valid. But wherever possible, such a person should join Namaz-e-Jamaat to relieve himself of the responsibility.
1008. * To take wages for teaching obligatory acts of prayers is haraam, as a precaution, and taking wages for teaching Mustahab things is permissible.
1009. * If a person does not know a certain word of Surah al-Hamd or Surah, or does not utter it intentionally, or utters one letter for another like, Za for Zad, or changes the inflections, by giving movements of Fathah or Kasrah where not needed, or does not render tashdid properly, his prayer is void.
1010. If a person has learnt a word which he believes to be correct, and recites it that way in prayers, but comes to know later that he has been reciting it incorrectly, it is not necessary for him to offer the prayers again.
1011. * If a person does not know whether a particular word is to be read with Fathah or Kasrah, of if he does not know whether a particular word has a "seen" or a"swad" in it, he should take pains to learn that. But if he tries to recite in two or more ways, and if the wrong or incorrect recitation is neither from the Qur'an nor any Zikr, his prayers will be void. But if both the recitations are correct, like, reciting the 'S' of"Siratal" with "seen" and "swad" then the prayers will not be affected.
1012. * The Ulama of Tajweed, that is, the art of reciting the Qur'an, have outlined several places whereMadd (prolonging certain letters) is necessary. Wherever a vowel in a word precedes another vowel, say, 'alif' or 'hamza', it has to be prolonged, so that the utterances of each word is clear. But in namaz, its validity does not depend upon following these rules, so if one does not strictly follow them, his namaz will not be void. Except in Wal-dhaalleen(the last word of Surah al-Hamd) one should exercise certain care to prolong, so that tashdid is properly pronounced.
1013. * The recommended precaution is that while offering prayers, one should not recite the ending word of any Ayat with Waqf if one wishes to join it to the next Ayat. Nor should one render it without waqf and join. For example, if you recite " ar Rahmanir Rahimi and then wait before starting the next, it is not proper. You should continue with no waiting. Similarly, in the same Ayat, that is, ar Rahmanir Rahim, if you read the last letter mim with sakin, you should not attach the mim to Maliki Yawmi ddin.
1014. * In the third and fourth Rak'ats of prayers, one may either read only Surah al-Hamd orTasbihat Arba'ah - Subhanallahi wal hamdu lillahi wa la ilaha illal lahu wallahu Akbar which may be said once, although it is better that it should be said three times. It is also permissible to recite Surah al-Hamd in one Rak'at, and Tasbihat Arba'ah in the other, but it is better to recite Tasbihat in both.
1015. * When time for namaz is short, one must recite Tasbihat Arba'ah once, and if even that much cannot be recited within time, then he must say only Subhanallah once.
1016. * It is obligatory for men and women that in the third and fourth Rak'ats, they should recite Surah al-Hamd or Tasbihat Arba'ah silently.
1017. * If a person recites Surah al-Hamd in the third and fourth Rak'ats, it is not obligatory for him to recite its Bismillasilently, except in the case of one who is following in congregational prayers, for whom, as an obligatory precaution, it is necessary that Bismillahis recited silently.
1018. A person who cannot learn Tasbihat Arba'ah, or cannot pronounce them correctly, should recite Surah al-Hamd in the third and fourth Rak'ats.
1019. If a person recites Tasbihat Arba'ah in the first two Rak'ats, thinking that they are the last two Rak'ats, and if he realises the error before Ruku, he should recite Surah al-Hamd and Surah. But if he realises this during or after the Ruku, his prayer is in order.
1020. If a person recites Surah al-Hamd in the last two Rak'ats, thinking that they are the first two Rak'ats, or recites Surah al-Hamd in the first two Raka'ts, thinking that they are the last two Rak'ats, his prayer is in order, whether he realises the mistake before or after Ruku.
1021. * If in the third or fourth Rak'at, a person wanted to recite Surah al-Hamd, but instead of that,Tasbihat Arba'ah came on his tongue, or if he wishes to recite Tasbihat Arba'ah but Surah al-Hamd comes on his tongue, he should abandon it and recite Tasbihat Arba'ah or Surah al-Hamd again with the intentions. However, if the recitation which came on his tongue was the one to which he was habituated, then he should complete it and his prayers will be valid.
1022. If a person who has the habit of reciting Tasbihat Arba'ah in the third and fourth Rak'ats, ignores his habit and begins reciting Hamd, with the intention of performing his obligation, it will be sufficient, and it will not be not necessary for him to recite Surah al-Hamd or Tasbihat Arba'ah again.
1023. In the third and fourth Rak'ats, it is Mustahab to seek forgiveness from Allah after Tasbihat Arba'ah. That is, one should say, Astaghfirullaha Rabbi wa
Atubu Illayhi, or one should say, Allahummaghfir li. And before bowing for Ruku, while he is uttering Istighfar or has finished it, if he doubts whether he has read al-Hamd or Tasbihat or not, he should read either of them.
1024. * If the person doubts while in Ruku of third or fourth Rak'at, whether or not he has recited Surah al-Hamd or Tasbihat Arba'ah, he should ignore his doubt. Similarly, he should ignore the doubt if it occurs while bowing for Ruku.
1025. If a person doubts whether he has pronounced a verse or a word correctly, like, whether he has uttered Qul Huwallahu Ahad correctly or not, he may ignore his doubt. However, if he repeats that verse or word correctly as a precautionary measure, there is no harm in it. And if he doubts often he may repeat as many times. However, if it becomes an obsession, and he still goes on reading it again, as a recommended precaution, he should pray all over again.
1026. It is Mustahab that in the first Rak'at one should say A'uzubillahi Minash shaytanir Rajim before reciting Surah al-Hamd, and in the first and second Rak'ats of Zuhr and Asr prayers one should say Bismillah loudly. It is Mustahab also to recite Surah al-Hamd and other Surah distinctly, with a pause at the end of every verse i.e. not joining it with the next verse, and while reciting Surah al-Hamd and Surah, one should pay attention to the meanings of each verse. And it is Mustahab to say, Alhamdulillahi Rabbil 'Alamin after the completion of Surah al-Hamd by the Imam in the congregation, and by himself, if he is praying alone. And after reciting Surah Qul huwallahu Ahad he should say, Kazalikallahu Rabbi; once, twice or three times or "Kazalikallahu Rabbuna" three times. Similarly, it is Mustahab to pause a little after reciting the Surah, then say Takbir, before going to Ruku or reciting Qunut.
1027. It is Mustahab that in all the prayers, one should recite Surah Inna Anzalnahu in the first Rak'at, and Surah Qul huwallahu Ahad in the second Rak'at.
1028. It is Makrooh not to recite Surah Qul huwallahu Ahad even in one of the daily prayers.
1029. It is Makrooh to recite the whole of Surah Qul huwallahu Ahad in one breath.
1030. It is Makrooh to recite in the second Rak'at the same Surah, which one ha recited in the first Rak'at. However, if one recites Surah Qul huwallahu Ahad in both the Rak'ats, it is not Makrooh.
1031. * In every Rak'at, a person offering prayers should, after reciting the Surahs (Qira'at), bow to an extent that he is able to rest his finger tips on his knees. This act is called Ruku.
1032. * If the person performs Ruku in an unusual manner, like, if he bends towards left or right, his Ruku is not correct even if his hands reach his knees.
1034. Bending should be with the niyyat of Ruku. If a person bends for some other purpose (e.g. to kill an insect), he cannot reckon it as Ruku. He will have to stand up and bend again for Ruku, and in so doing, he will not have added any Rukn, nor will his prayers be void.
1035. If a person has abnormally long hands, so that if he bends a little they reach his knees, or if his knees are lower than usual, so that he has to bend himself lower to make his hands reach his knees, he should follow the normal bowing by the others.
1036. A person who performs Ruku in the sitting position, should bow down till his face is parallel to his knees. And it is better that he should bow down till his face reaches near the place of Sajdah.
1037. It is better that in normal situations one should say in Ruku, Subhanallah three times or Subhana Rabbiyal 'Azimi wa bi hamdih once. But actually, uttering any Zikr to this extent is sufficient. However, if namaz time is short, or if one is under any pressure, it will be sufficient to say Subhanallah once.
1038. The Zikr of Ruku should be uttered in succession, and in correct Arabic, and it is Mustahab that it should be uttered 3, 5 or 7 times or more than that.
1039. * In Ruku, the body should be steady, and one should not purposely move or shake oneself. And as a precaution, one should not have any movement when reciting the obligatory Zikr.
1040. If at the time of uttering the obligatory Zikr of Ruku, he loses steadiness because of uncontrollable vigorous movement, it will be better that after his body resumes steadiness he repeats the Zikr. However, if the movement is so negligible that steadiness is not lost, or if he just moves his fingers, there is no harm in it.
1041. If a person intentionally recites the Zikr of Ruku before he has properly bowed down, and before his body becomes still, his prayers will be void.
1042. * If a person intentionally raises his head from Ruku before completing obligatory Zikr, his prayer is void. If he raises his head by mistake, and if he has not completely ceased to be in Ruku and he recollects that he has not completed the Zikr of Ruku, he should make himself steady and recite the Zikr. And if he recollects after he has arisen totally from Ruku, his prayers are in order.
1043. * If a person is unable to remain in the state of Ruku all the time while reciting the Zikr, then the recommended precaution is that he should complete the remainder while standing up from Ruku.
1044. If a person cannot remain steady during Ruku owing to some disease etc, his prayers are in order. But he should complete the obligatory part of Zikr, as explained, before totally rising from Ruku.
1045. * If a person cannot bow down for Ruku properly, he should lean on something and perform Ruku. And if he cannot perform Ruku even after he has leaned, he should bow down to the maximum extent he can, so that it could be customarily recognised as a Ruku. And if he cannot bend at all, he should make a sign for Ruku with his head.
1046. If a person supposed to make a sign with his head for Ruku is unable to do so, he should close his eyes with the niyyat of Ruku, and then recite Zikr. And for rising from Ruku, he should open his eyes. And if he is unable to do even that, he should, as a precaution, make a niyyat of Ruku in his mind, and then make a sign of Ruku with his hands and recite Zikr.
1047. If a person cannot perform Ruku while standing, but can bend for it while sitting, he should offer prayers standing and should make a sign with his head for Ruku. And the recommended precaution is that he should offer another prayers in which he would sit down at the time of Ruku, and bow down for it.
1048. * If some one raises his head after reaching Ruku, and bows down twice to the extent of Ruku, his prayer is void.
1049. After the completion of the Zikr of Ruku, one should stand straight, and proceed to Sajdah after the body has become steady. If one goes to Sajdah intentionally before standing erect, or before the body is steady, the prayers are void.
1050. * If a person forgets to perform Ruku, remembering it before Sajdah, he should stand up first, and then go into Ruku. It will not be proper for him to go into Ruku in a bent position.
1051. * If a person offering prayers remembers after his forehead reaches the earth, that he has not performed Ruku, it is necessary that he should return to standing position and then perform Ruku. But, if he remembers this in the second Sajdah, his prayers are void.
1052. It is Mustahab that before going into Ruku, a person should say Takbir while he is standing erect, and in Ruku, he should push his knees back, keep his back flat, stretch forth his neck, keep it in line with his back, look between his two feet, say Salawat before or after Zikr. And when he rises after Ruku, it is Mustahab to stand erect, and in a state of steadiness say Sami'allahu liman hamidah.
1053. It is Mustahab for women that while performing Ruku, they should keep their hands higher than their knees, and should not push back their knees.
1054. * A person offering prayers should perform two sajdahs after the Ruku, in each Rak'at of the obligatory as well as Mustahab prayers. Sajdah means that one should place one's forehead on earth in a special manner, with the intention of humility (before Allah).
While performing Sajdahs during prayers, it is obligatory that both the palms and the knees, and both the big toes are placed on the ground.
1055. * Two Sajdahs together are a "Rukn" (elemental), and if a person omits to perform two Sajdah in one Rak'at of an obligatory prayers, whether intentionally or owing to forgetfulness, or adds two more Sajdahs, his prayers are void.
1056. If a person omits or adds one Sajdah intentionally, his prayers become void. And if he omits or adds one Sajdah forgetfully, the rules regarding it will be explained later.
1057. * If a person who can keep his forehead on the ground, does not do so whether intentionally or forgetfully, he has not performed Sajdah, even if other parts of his body may have touched the ground. But, if he places his forehead on the earth, but forgets to keep other parts of his body on the ground, or forgets to utter the Zikr, his Sajdah is in order.
1058. * It is better in normal situation to say Subahanallah three times, or Subhana Rabbiy al-A'la wa bi hamdhi once. And he should utter these words in succession and in correct Arabic. Actually, as an obligatory precaution, uttering any Zikr to this extent is sufficient. And it is Mustahab that Subhana Rabbiyal A'la wa bi hamdhi should be said three, five or seven times, or more.
1059. * In the Sajdah, the body should be steady, and one should not move or shake oneself purposely, and as a precaution, one should be totally steady in Sajdah even while one is not engaged in any obligatory Zikr.
1060. If a person intentionally utters the Zikr of Sajdah before his forehead reaches the ground, and his body becomes steady, or if he raises his head from Sajdah intentionally before the Zikr is completed, his prayers are void.
1061. * If a person utters the Zikr of Sajdah by mistake, before his forehead reaches the ground and realises his mistake before he raises his head from Sajdah, he should utter the Zikr again, when his body is steady.
1062. If after raising his head from Sajdah, a person realises that he has done so before the completion of the Zikr of Sajdah, his prayers are in order.
1063. * If at the time of uttering Zikr of Sajdah, a person intentionally lifts one of his seven limbs from the ground, his namaz will be void. But if he lifts the limbs, other than the forehead, when he is not reciting anything, and then places them back again, there will be no harm, unless that movement renders his body unsteady, in which case, namaz will be void.
1064. If a person raises his forehead from the ground by mistake, before the completion of the Zikr of Sajdah, he should not place it on the ground again, he should treat it as one Sajdah. However, if he raises other parts of the body from the ground by mistake, he should place them back on the ground and utter the Zikr.
1065. After the Zikr of the first Sajdah is completed, one should sit till the body is steady, and then perform Sajdah again.
1066. * The place where a person places his forehead for Sajdah should not be higher than four joined fingers, compared to where he places his knees and the tips of the toes. As a matter of obligatory precaution, the place of his forehead should not be more than four joined fingers lower or higher than the place where he stands.
1067. * If a person prays on a sloped ground, whose slant may not be known exactly, and if his forehead goes higher or lower than the place where he keeps his knees and tips of the toes by a span of four joined fingers, his namaz will be a matter of Ishkal.
1068. * If a person places his forehead by mistake, on a thing which is higher than the span of four joined fingers compared to the place where his knees and the toes are, and if it so high that it does not look like a normal Sajdah, he should raise his head and place on a thing which is not as high. And if the height does not change the appearance of the Sajdah, and his attention is drawn to it after completing the obligatory Zikr, he should raise his head and may complete the prayers. But if his attention is drawn to it before the obligatory Zikr, he should gradually push or move his forehead to a lower level, and recite the obligatory Zikr. And if that is not possible, he should recite the obligatory Zikr and complete his prayer. It would not be necessary for him to repeat the prayers.
1069. * It is necessary that there should be nothing between the forehead of the person offering prayers, and the thing on which he offers Sajdah. If the mohr (sajdagah) is so dirty that the forehead does not reach the mohr itself, the Sajdah is void. But if only the colour of mohr has changed, there is no harm.
1070. In Sajdah a person offering prayers should place his two palms on the ground. In a state of helplessness, there will be no harm in placing the back of the hands on the ground, and if even this is not possible, he should, on the basis of precaution, place the wrists of hands on the ground. And if he cannot do even this, he should place any part of the body up to his elbow on the ground, and if even that is not possible it is sufficient to place the arms on the ground.
1071. * In Sajdah, a person should place his two big toes on the ground, but it is not necessary to place the tips of the toes. If he places the outer or the inner parts of the toes, it will be proper. But if he places, instead other smaller toes on the ground, or the outer part of his feet, or if his big toe does not rest on the ground due to very long nails, his namaz will be void. And if a person does not follow this rule due to ignorance or carelessness, he has to pray again.
1072. If a part of the big toe is cut off, one should place the remaining part of it on the ground, and if nothing of it has remained or what has remained
is too short, he should, on the basis of precaution, place the other toes on the ground, but if he has no toes at all, he should place on the ground whatever part of the foot has remained.
1073. * If a person performs Sajdah in an unusual manner, like if he rests his chest and stomach on the ground, or stretches his feet, his namaz will be correct and valid if it still appears like a normal Sajdah. But if it appears more like sleeping on one's stomach, rather than a Sajdah, his namaz will be void.
1074. The mohr (sajdagah) or other thing on which a person performs Sajdah, should be Pak. If, he places the mohr on a najis carpet, or if one side of the mohr is najis, and he places his forehead on its Pak part, there is no harm in it.
1075. * If there is a sore or a wound etc. in the forehead of a person, making him unable to rest his forehead on the ground, and if the sore or the wound has not covered the whole of the forehead, he should perform Sajdah with the unaffected part of the forehead. And if it becomes necessary to dig a hole, or a pit so that the part with the sore or the wound stays there, while the healthy part is on the ground, he should do so.
1076. * If the sore or the wound has covered the entire forehead, he should perform Sajdah with other parts of his face. As an obligatory precaution, he should perform Sajdah with his chin, and it that is not possible, with one of the two sides of the forehead. When it is not possible to perform Sajdah with the face in any way, he should perform Sajdah by sign.
1077. * If a person can sit but cannot make his forehead reach the ground, he should bow as much as he can, and should place the mohr or any other allowable thing on something high, and place his forehead on it in such a way that it may be said that he has performed Sajdah. But his palms, his knees, and toes should be on the ground as usual.
1078. * If a person cannot find something high on which he may place the mohr, or any other allowable thing, and if he cannot find any person who
would raise the mohr etc. for him, then as precaution, he should raise it with his hand and do Sajdah on it.
1079. * If a person cannot perform Sajdah at all, he should make a sign for it with his head, and if he cannot do even that, he should make a sign with his eyes. And if he cannot make a sign even with his eyes he should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, make a sign for Sajdah with his hands etc. and should make a niyyat for Sajdah in his mind, and recite the obligatory Zikr.
1080. * If the forehead of a person is raised involuntarily from the place of Sajdah, he should not, if possible, allow it to reach the place of Sajdah again, and this will be treated as one Sajdah even if he may not have uttered the Zikr of Sajdah. And if he cannot control his head, and it reaches the place of Sajdah again involuntarily, both of them will be reckoned as one Sajdah, and if he has not uttered the Zikr, as a recommended precaution, he will do so with the niyyat of Qurbat.
1081. * At a place where a person has to observe taqayyah (concealing one's faith in dangerous situation) he can perform Sajdah on a carpet, or other similar things, and it is not necessary for him to go elsewhere, or delay the prayers so that he is able to pray freely at that place without taqayyah. But if he finds that he can perform Sajdah on a mat, or any other allowed objects, without any impediment, then he should not perform Sajdah on a carpet or things like it.
1082. If a person performs Sajdah on a mattress filled with feathers, or any other similar thing, his Sajdah will be void if his body cannot remain steady.
1083. If a person is obliged to offer prayers on a muddy ground, and if no hardship will be caused to him if his body and dress become soiled with mud, he should perform Sajdah and tashahhud as usual. If it is going to prove extremely hard for him, he should make a sign for Sajdah with his head while he is standing, and recite tashahhud in the standing position. His prayers will be in order.
1084. * The obligatory precaution is that in the first Rak'at and in the third Rak'at, which do not contain tashahhud (like the third Rak'at in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers) one should sit for a while after the second Sajdah before rising.
Things on which Sajdah is Allowed
1085. * Sajdah should be performed on earth, and on those things which are not edible nor worn, and on things which grow from earth (e.g. wood and leaves of trees).
It is not permissible to perform Sajdah on things which are used as food or dress (e.g. wheat, barley and cotton etc.), or on things which are not considered to be parts of the earth (e.g. gold, silver, etc.). And in the situation of helplessness, asphalt and tar will have preference over other non-allowable things.
1086. * Sajdah should not be performed on the vine leaves, when they are delicate and hence edible. Otherwise, there is no objection.
1087. It is in order to perform Sajdah on things which grow from the earth, and serve as fodder for animals (e.g. grass, hay etc.).
1088. * It is in order to perform Sajdah on flowers which are not edible, and also on medicinal herbs which grow from the earth.
1089. * Performing Sajdah on a grass which is eaten in some parts of the world, but not in the rest, but it is classified as edible, will not be permissible. Similarly, Sajdah on raw fruits is not allowed.
1090. It is allowed to perform Sajdah on limestone and gypsum, but the recommended precaution is that Sajdah should not be optionally performed on baked gypsum, lime, brick and baked earthenware etc.
1091. * It is in order to perform Sajdah on paper, if it is manufactured from allowed sources like wood or grass, and also if it is made from cotton or flax. But if it is made from silk etc., Sajdah on it will not be permissible.
1092. Turbatul Husayn is the best thing for performing Sajdah. After it, there are earth, stone and grass, in order of priority.
1093. * If a person does not possess anything on which it is allowed to perform Sajdah, or, even if he possesses such a thing, he cannot perform Sajdah on it due to severe heat or cold, he should perform Sajdah on asphalt or tar, and if that is not possible, on his dress or the back of his hand, or on any thing on which it is not permissible to perform Sajdah optionally. However, in such a situation, the recommended precaution is that as long as it is possible to perform Sajdah on his dress he should not do Sajdah on any other thing.
1094. The Sajdah performed on mud, and on soft clay on which one's forehead cannot rest steadily, is void.
1095. If the mohr sticks to the forehead in the first Sajdah, it should be removed from the forehead for the second Sajdah.
1096. * If a thing on which a person performs Sajdah gets lost while he is offering prayers, and he does not possess any other thing on which Sajdah is allowed, he can act as explained in rule 1093, irrespective of whether the time for Namaz is limited or ample.
1097. * If a person realises in the state of Sajdah that he has placed his forehead on a thing on which Sajdah is void, and if he becomes aware of it after completing the obligatory Zikr, he can raise his head and continue with his prayers. But if he becomes aware of it before reciting the obligatory Zikr, he should gradually slide or move his head onto an allowed object, and recite the Zikr. But if that is not possible, he should recite the obligatory Zikr and continue with his namaz. His prayers in both cases will be valid.
1098. * If a person realises after Sajdah, that he had placed his forehead on a thing which is not permissible for Sajdah, there is no objection.
1099. It is haraam to perform Sajdah for anyone other than Almighty Allah. Some people place their foreheads on earth before the graves of the holy Imams. If this is done to thank Allah, there is no harm in it, but otherwise it is haraam.
The Mustahab and Makrooh Things in Sajdah
1100. Certain things are Mustahab in Sajdah:
Other Mustahab acts of Sajdah have been mentioned in detailed books
1101. * It is Makrooh to recite the holy Qur'an in Sajdah. It is also Makrooh to blow off the dust from the place of Sajdah, and if, by so doing, one utters anything intentionally, the prayers will be, as a precaution, void. Besides these, there are other Makrooh acts, which are given in detailed books.
Obligatory Sajdahs in the Holy Qur'an
1102. Upon reciting or hearing any of the following verses of the holy Qur'an, the performance of Sajdah becomes obligatory:
Whenever a person recites the verse or hears it when recited by someone else, he should perform Sajdah immediately when the verse ends, and if he forgets to perform it, he should do it as and when he remembers. If one hears the verse without any expectation, in an involuntary situation, the Sajdah is not obligatory, though it is better to perform it.
1103. * If a person hears the Sajdah verse, and recites it himself also, he should perform two Sajdahs.
1104. If a person hears a verse of Sajdah, while he is in Sajdah other than that of namaz, or recites it himself, he should raise his head from that Sajdah, and perform another one.
1105. * If a person hears the verse of obligatory Sajdah from a person who is asleep, or one who is insane, or from a child who knows nothing of the Qur'an, it will be obligatory upon him to perform Sajdah. But if he hears from a gramophone or a tape recorder, Sajdah will not be obligatory. Similarly, the Sajdah will not be Wajib if he listens to a taped recitation from radio. But if there is a person reciting from the radio station, and he recites the verse of Sajdah, it will be obligatory to perform Sajdah.
1106. * As an obligatory precaution, the place where a person performs an obligatory Sajdah upon hearing the verse, should not be a usurped one, and,
as a recommended precaution, the place where he places his forehead, should not be higher or lower than a span of four joined fingers than the place where his knees and tips of the toes rest. However, it is not necessary to be in Wudhu or Ghusl, or to face Qibla, nor is it necessary to conceal one's private parts or to ensure that the body and the place where he has to place his forehead are Pak. Moreover, the conditions for dress in namaz do not apply to the performance of these obligatory Sajdah.
1107. * The obligatory precaution is that in the obligatory Sajdah caused by the Qur'anic verse, a person should place his forehead on a mohr, or any other thing on which Sajdah is allowed, and also one should keep other parts of one's body on the ground, as required in a Sajdah of prayers.
1108. When a person performs the obligatory Sajdah upon hearing the relevant verse, it will be sufficient even if he does not recite any Zikr. However, it is Mustahab to recite Zikr, preferably the following: La ilaha illal lahu haqqan haqqa; La ilaha illal lahu imanan wa tasdiqa; la ilaha illal lahu 'ubudiyyatan wa riqqa; Sajadtu laka ya Rabbi ta'abbudan wa riqqa la mustankifan wa la mustak biran bal ana 'abdun zalilun za'ifun kha'ifun mustajir.
1109. * In the second unit of all obligatory prayers, and in the third unit of Maghrib prayers and in the fourth unit of Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, one should sit after the second prostration with a tranquil body, and recite tashahhud thus:"Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan 'Abduhu wa Rasuluh, Alla humma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad" And it will be sufficient if one recited the tashahhud this way: Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu was ash hadu anna Muhammadan Sallal lahu Alayhi Wa Aalihi Abduhu Wa rasuluh.
It is also necessary to recite tashahhud while offering Witr (in Namaz-e-Shab) prayers.
1110. The words of tashahhud should be recited in correct Arabic, and in usual succession.
1111. * If a person forgets tashahhud, and rises and remembers before
Ruku, he should sit down to recite it, and then stand up again. He will then continue with his prayers. After the prayers, it is a recommended precaution that he should perform two Sajda-e-Sahv for the additional standing. But if he remembers this in Ruku or thereafter, he should complete the prayers and after the salam of prayers, should, as a recommended precaution, perform the qadha of tashahhud. He should perform two sajdatus sahv for the forgotten tashahhud.
1112. It is Mustahab to sit on the left thigh during tashahhud, and to place the upper part of the right foot on the sole of the left foot and to say: 'Al-hamdu lillah' or 'Bismillahi wa billahi wal-hamdu lillahi wa khayrul asma'i lillah' before reciting tashahhud.
It is also Mustahab to place one's hands on one's thighs, with joined fingers, and to look at one's laps, and to say this after tashahhud and salawat: Wa taqabbal shafa'atahu warfa' darajatahu.
1113. It is Mustahab for women to keep their thighs close to each other when reciting tashahhud.
Salam in the Prayers
1114. While a person sits after reciting tashahhud in the last Rak'at, and his body is tranquil, it is Mustahab to say: Assalamu 'alayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. Then he should say: Assalamu Alaykum and as a recommended precaution add to it Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh. Alternatively, he can say: Assalamu Alayna Wa Ala Ibadi llahis Salihin. But if he recites this Salam, then as per obligatory precaution, he must follow it up with saying: Assalamu Alaykum.
1115. If a person forgets the salam of prayers, and remembers when the form of namaz has not be disrupted, nor has he performed any act, which if done intentionally or forgetfully, invalidates the prayers (e.g. turning away from Qibla), he should recite the salam and his prayers will be valid.
1116. * If a person forgets the salam of prayers, and remembers after the form of prayers has been disrupted, or after he has performed an act which
if done intentionally or forgetfully, invalidates the prayers (e.g. turning away from Qibla), his prayers are in order.
1117. If a person intentionally changes the sequence of the prayers, for example, if he recites the other surah before reciting Surah al-Hamd, or performs the two Sajdah before Ruku, his prayers are void.
1118. * If a person forgets a rukn (elemental part) of the prayers, and performs the next rukn, like, before performing Ruku if he performs the two Sajdah, his prayers would become void, as a measure of precaution.
1119. If a person forgets a rukn, and performs an act after it which is not a rukn, like, if he recites tashahhud without performing the two Sajdah, he should perform the rukn and should recite again the part which he performed erroneously, earlier than the rukn.
1120. If a person forgets a thing which is not a rukn, and performs a rukn which comes after it, like, if he forgets Surah al-Hamd and begins performing Ruku, his prayers is in order.
1121. If a person forgets an act which is not a rukn, and performs the next act which too, is not a rukn, like, if he forgets Surah al-Hamd and recites the other Surah, he should perform what he has forgotten, and then recite again the thing which he mistakenly recited earlier.
1122. If a person performs the first Sajdah thinking that it is the second one, or performs the second one under the impression that it is the first Sajdah, his prayer is in order; his first Sajdah will be treated as the first one, and his second Sajdah will be treated as the second one.
Muwalat (Maintenance of Succession)
1123. A person should maintain continuity during prayers, that is he should perform various acts of prayers, like, Ruku, two Sajdah and tashahhud, in continuous succession, and he should recite the Zikr etc. also in usual succession. If he allows an undue interval between differ-
ent acts, till it becomes difficult to visualise that he is praying, his prayers will be void.
1124. If a person in namaz forgetfully allows a gap between letters, or words, and if the gap is not big enough so that the form of the prayers is disrupted, he should repeat those letters or words in the usual manner, provided that he has not proceeded to the ensuing rukn. And he will repeat those lines which were read in continuation. But if he has already got into the ensuing rukn, then his prayers are in order.
1125. * Prolonging Ruku and Sajdah, or reciting long Surahs, does not break Muwalat.
1126. It is Mustahab that qunut be recited in all obligatory and Mustahab prayers before the Ruku of the second Rak'at, and it is also Mustahab that qunut be recited in the Witr (Namaz-e-Shab) prayers before Ruku, (although that prayer is of one Rak'at only).
In Friday Prayers there is one qunut in every Rak'at. In Namaz-e-Ayaat, there are five qunut, and in Eid Prayers there are five qunut in the first Rak'at, and four in the second Rak'at. In the prayers of Shafa' ,which is a part of Namaz-e-Shab, qunut is to be performed with the niyyat of Raja'.
1127. It is also Mustahab that while reciting qunut, a person keeps his hands in front of his face, turning the palms facing the sky, and keeping both, the hands and the fingers, close together. It is Mustahab to look at the palms in qunut.
1128. Any Zikr in qunut is sufficient, even if he says, 'Subhanallah' only once. It is, however, better to make the following supplication: La ilaha illallahul Halimul Karim, La ilaha illallahul 'Aliyyul 'Azim, Subhanallahi Rabbis samawatis sab', wa Rabbil 'arazinas sab', wama fi hinna wama bayna hunna, wa Rabbil 'arshil 'azim, wal hamdu lillahi Rabbil'alamin.
1129. It is Mustahab that qunut is recited loudly. However, if a person is offering prayers in congregation, and if the Imam can hear his voice, it will
not be Mustahab for him to recite qunut loudly.
1130. If a person does not recite qunut intentionally, there is no qadha for it. And if he forgets it, and remembers before reaching Ruku, it is Mustahab that he should stand up and recite it. And if he remembers while performing Ruku, it is Mustahab that he should perform its qadha after Ruku. And if he remembers it while performing Sajdah, it is Mustahab that he should perform its qadha after Salam.
TRANSLATION OF PRAYERS
I. Translation of Surah al-Hamd
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
(I commence with the Name of Allah - in Whom all excellences are combined and Who is free from all defects. The Compassionate - One Whose blessings are extensive and unlimited. The Merciful - One Whose blessings are inherent and eternal).
Alhamdu lillahi Rabbil 'alamin
(Special Praise be to Allah, the Sustainer of the creation).
(The Compassionate, the Merciful).
Maliki yaw middin
(Lord of the Day of Judgement).
Iyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'in
(You alone we worship, and to You alone we pray for help).
Ihdinas siratal mustaqim
(Guide us to the straight path).
Siratal lazina an'amta 'alayhim
(The path of those whom You have favoured - the Prophets and their successors).
Ghayril maghzubi 'alayhim walazzallin.
(Not of those who have incurred Your wrath, nor of those who have gone astray).
II. Translation of Surah al-Ikhlas
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
(I commence with the Name of Allah - in Whom all excellences are combined and Who is free from all defects. The Compassionate - One Whose blessings are extensive and unlimited. The Merciful - One Whose blessings are inherent and eternal).
Qul huwallahu Ahad
(O Prophet!) Say: Allah is One - the Eternal Being).
(Allah is He Who is independent of all beings).
Lam yalid walam yulad
(He begot none, nor was He begotten).
Walam yakullahu kufuwan ahad.
(And none in the creation is equal to Him).
III. Translation of the Zikr During Ruku and
Sajdah, and of those which are Mustahab
Subhana Rabbi yal 'Azimi wa bihamdhi
(Glory be to my High Sustainer and I praise Him)
Subhana Rabbi yal A'la wa bihamdih
(Glory be to my Great Sustainer, Most High, and I praise Him)
Sami' Allahu liman hamidah
(Allah hears and accepts the praise of one who praises)
Astaghfirullaha Rabbi wa atubu ilayh
( I seek forgiveness from Allah Who is my Sustainer, and I turn to Him).
Bi haw lillahi wa quwwatihi aqumu wa aqu'd
(I stand and sit with the help and strength of Allah).
IV. Translation of Qunut
La ilaha illallahul Halimul Karim
(There is none worth worshipping but Allah Who is Forbearing and Generous).
La ilaha illallahul 'Aliyyul 'Azim
(There is none worth worshipping but Allah Who is Eminent and Great).
Subhanallahi Rabbis samawatis sab' wa Rabbil arazinas sab'
(Glory be to Allah, Who is the Sustainer of the seven heavens and of the seven earth).
Wama fi hinna wama bayna hunna, wa Rabbil 'arshil 'azim
(And Who is the Sustainer of all the things in them, and between them, and Who is the Lord of the great 'Arsh (Divine Power).
Wal hamdu lillahi Rabbil Aalamin
(And all praise for Allah, the Sustainer of the worlds).
V. Translation of Tasbihat Arba'ah
Subhanallahi wal hamdu lillahi wa la ilaha lallahu wallahu Akbar.
(Glory be to Allah, and all praise is for Him and there is no one worth worshipping other than Allah, and He is Greater than any description).
VI. Translation of Tashahhud and Salam
Al Hamdu lillah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah
(All praise is for Allah, and I testify that there is none worth worshipping except the Almighty Allah, Who is One and has no partner).
Wa Ashhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluh
(And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger).
Alla humma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad.
(O Allah! Send Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny).
Wa taqqabal shafa'atahu warfa' darajatahu
(And accept his intercession, and raise his rank).
Assalamu 'alayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh
(O Prophet! Allah's peace, blessings and grace be upon you!).
Assalamu 'alayna wa 'ala 'ibadil lahis salihin
(Allah's peace be on us, those offering prayers - and upon all pious servants of Allah).
Assalamu 'alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.
(Allah's peace, blessings and grace be on you believers!)
Ta'qib (Duas after Prayers)
1131. It is Mustahab that after offering the prayers, one should engage oneself in reciting Duas, and reading from the holy Qur'an. It is better that before he leaves his place, and before his Wudhu, or Ghusl or tayammum becomes void, he should recite Duas facing Qibla.
It is not necessary that Duas be recited in Arabic, but it is better to recite those supplications, which have been given in the books of Duas. The tasbih of Hazrat Fatima-tuz-zahra (peace be on her) is one of those acts which have
been emphasised. This tasbih should be recited in the following order:
Subhanallah can be recited earlier than Alhamdulillah, but it is better to maintain the said order.
1132. It is Mustahab that after the prayers a person performs a Sajdah of thanksgiving, and it will be sufficient if one placed his forehead on the ground with that intention. However, it is better that he should say Shukran lillah or Al'afv 100 times, or three times, or even once. It is also Mustahab that whenever a person is blessed with His bounties, or when the adversities are averted, he should go to Sajdah for Shukr, that is, thanksgiving.
Salawat on the Holy Prophet
1133. It is Mustahab that whenever a person hears or utters the sacred name of the holy Prophet of Islam like, Muhammad or Ahmad, or his title like, Mustafa or his patronymic appellation like Abul Qasim, he should say, " Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad" even if that happens during the namaz.
1134. It is Mustahab that after writing the sacred name of the holy Prophet, Salawat also be written with it. And it is better that whenever his name is mentioned, Salawat be sent on him.