856. * In the following three cases, the prayers offered by a person will be valid, even if his body or dress be najis:
scalp caps are najis. Rules of these four situations will be explained in details later.
857. * If the body or the dress of a person wishing to pray is stained with blood from wound or sore etc, he can pray namaz with that blood as long as the wound or the sore has not healed up. And the same applies to pus, which may flow out with blood, or any medicine which became najis, when applied to the wound or the sore.
858. If blood on the dress or the body of a person who is praying, originates from a small cut or wound which can be healed easily, and which can be washed clean, then his namaz is void.
859. If any part of the body, or the dress, which is away from the wound, becomes najis owing to the fluid which oozes out from the wound, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it. However, if a part of the body or dress around the wound becomes najis, owing to suppuration, there is no harm in offering prayers with it.
860. If the body or dress of a person is stained with blood from internal piles, or from a wound which is within one's mouth, nose etc., he can offer prayers with that blood. But if the blood is from external piles, then it is obviously permissible to offer prayers with it.
861. * If a person has a wound on his body and he sees blood on his body or dress which is bigger than the area of a dirham and does not know whether it is from his wound or some other blood, as an obligatory precaution, he should not pray with it.
862. If a person has several wounds, but they are so near one another that they may be treated as one, there is no harm in offering prayers with their blood, as long as they have not healed. However, if they are separate, each one as an independent wound, he should wash and make Pak body and dress, each time when a wound is healed up.
863. If the clothes or the body of a person praying, is stained with the blood of Hayz, however little, the namaz will be void. And as a precaution, the
same rule applies to the blood of Nifas, Istihaza and the blood from sources which are essentially najis, like a pig, a carcass, or an animal whose meat is haraam. As regards other bloods, like the blood from a human body, or from an animal whose meat is halal, there is no harm in offering prayers with them, even if they are found at several places on the dress or the body, provided that, when added together, their area is less than that of a dirham.
864. * If blood stains one side of the dress, and then seeps through to the other side, it will be considered as one. However, if the other side of the dress gets smeared with blood separately, each one will be considered as a separate blood. Therefore, if blood on both sides is less than a dirham in area when put together, namaz will be valid with them. But if it exceeds the area, then namaz will be void.
865. * If blood falls on a dress which has a lining, and reaches it, or falls on its lining and reaches the upper part of the dress, each of them will be considered separate blood, unless they are so joined together, that it would be customarily be considered as one blood. Hence if the area of the blood of the dress and that of the lining, when added together, are less than the area of a dirham, the prayers offered with them will be in order, and if they are more, the prayers offered with that blood will be void.
866. If the area of the blood on one's body or dress is less than that of a dirham, and some moisture reaches it and spreads over its sides, the prayers offered with that blood is void, even if the blood and the moisture which has spread there, is not equal to the area of a dirham. However, if the moisture reaches the blood only, without wetting its edges, then there is no objection in offering prayers with it.
867. If there is no blood on the body or dress of a person, but it becomes najis because of contact with some moisture mixed with blood, prayers cannot be offered with it, even if the part which has become najis is less than the area of a dirham.
868. * If the area of the blood present on the body or dress of a person is less than that of a dirham, but another najasat reaches it, like when a drop of
urine falls on it, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it, regardless of whether this extraneous najasat reaches the body or the dress or not.
869. * If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts, become najis, and if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order. And there is also no objection if one offers prayers with a najis ring.
870. It is permissible for a person in namaz to carry with him najis things, like najis handkerchief, key and knife. Similarly, if he has a separate najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers.
871. If a person knows that the area of the blood stain on his body or dress is less than that of a dirham, but suspects that it may be one of those blood (e.g. Hayz, Nifas, Istihaza) which are not excused in namaz, he is permitted to offer prayers with that blood, and it will not be necessary to wash it off.
872. If the area of blood stains on the dress, or body of a person, is less than that of a dirham, but he is not aware that it is one which is not excused in the prayers, and learns later after Namaz, that it was the blood which are not excused, it is not necessary for him to offer the prayers again. Similarly, if he believes that the span of the blood is less than that of a dirham nd offers prayers, then comes to know later, that it was equal to or more than the area of a dirham, it is not necessary to offer the prayers again.
873. A number of things are Mustahab for the dress of a person who offers prayers. Some of these are: Turban, along with its final fold passed under the chin; loose garment on the shoulder ('Aba); white dress; and cleanest dress; use of perfume, and wearing an Aqeeq (Agate).
Certain Items are Makrooh for the Dress of One who Prays:
874. To wear a black, a dirty, or a tight dress, or to put on a dress of a person who is a drunkard, or of one who is careless about najasat. Similarly, to
wear a dress which has images printed or drawn on it, to keep the buttons open, to wear a ring which has images engraved on it.
Place where Namaz should be prayed
There are seven conditions for the place where one should offer prayers:
875. * The first condition: The place where the prayers are offered should be Mubah.
If a person prays on a usurped property, then as an obligatory precaution, his prayers are void, even it he prays on a carpet, or a couch, or similarly objects. However, there is no harm in offering prayers under a usurped roof or a usurped tent.
876. * Prayers offered in a property whose use and benefit belongs to someone else, will be void, unless permission is taken from the entitled person. For example, if a house has been rented out, and the owner of the house, or anyone else offers prayers in that house without permission of the tenant, then as a measure of precaution, his prayers are void. And if a person made a will before his death that one-third of his estate should be used for a particular cause, prayers cannot be offered in that property until that one-third has been dispensed with.
877. * If a person sitting in a mosque, is made to quit his place by someone who then occupies his place, the prayers offered there will be valid, though he will have committed a sin.
878. * If a person does not know, or forgets that a place is a usurped one, and offers prayers on it, and learns or remembers it after offering prayers, his prayers are in order. However, if a person usurped a place himself but forgets it, and offers prayer there, his prayers are void.
879. * If a person knows that a certain place is usurped, but does not know the rule that prayers at a usurped place are void, and offers prayers there, his prayers are void.
880. If a person is obliged to offer obligatory prayers while riding, and if the
animal of his riding, or its saddle, or stirrups are usurped ones, his prayers are void. And the same rule applies if he wishes to offer Mustahab prayers while riding that animal.
881. If a person owns a property in partnership with another person, and his share is not defined, he cannot use that property to offer prayers without the consent of his partner.
882. * If a person purchases a property with the sum of money from which Khums has not been paid by him, his use of that property is haraam, and the prayers which he offers in it are void.
883. * If the owner gives a verbal consent for offering prayers in his property, but it is known that he is not happy about it at heart, then offering prayers in his property is void. Conversely, if he does not give verbal permission but it is known with certainty that he is happy about it, then offering prayers in his property will be in order.
884. * Use of a property which belongs to a dead person, who has not paid Zakat or other similar dues, is allowed, provided that such a use does not in any way prevent from obligations. A person wishing to pray in such property can do so, with the permission of the heirs. Similarly, there will be no objection, if the debt is paid up, or guaranteed for payment.
885. * The rule for the use of a property belonging to a dead person who is indebted to people, is the same as above mentioned rule, pertaining to Zakat and other similar dues.
886. * If a dead person did not owe anyone, but some of his heirs are either minor, or insane, or absent, then use of that property without permission of the guardian of those heirs, is haraam, and it is not permissible to offer prayers in it.
887. * To pray in someone else's property is permissible only when the owner has given an explicit consent, or has made a hint implying permission. For example, if he permits a person to stay and sleep in his property, it
will be implied that he has given him permission for offering prayers as well.
888. * It is permissible to pray on a vast expanse of land, even if its owner is a minor, insane, or unhappy about praying on it. This also applies to lands which have no gates or walls over them. No permission will be required from its owner, except if it is known that the owner is minor, insane, or displeased about anyone praying there. In such a case, as an obligatory precaution, prayers should not be offered there.
889. * The second condition: The place for prayers should not have such a vigorous movement which would make normal standing, Ruku or Sajdah impossible. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it should not prevent the body from being at ease. But if one is forced to pray at such places, due to shortage of time, or any other reason, like in a car, on a ship or on train, then one should try to remain still, and to maintain the direction of Qibla, as much as possible. And if the vehicles move away from the direction, he should return to Qibla.
890. * There is no harm in offering prayers in a car or a boat, or on railway train or other vehicles, while they are motionless. And if they do not cause excessive swaying to the body, when they are in motion, one can pray in them.
891. Prayers offered on a heap of wheat, or barley, or any other similar thing, which cannot remain steady, is void.
The Third Condition: A person should offer prayers at a place where he sees the possibility of completing the prayers. To pray at a place where one cannot complete the prayers, because of strong winds, or heavy rains or a teeming crowd, will render namaz void, even if one somehow manages to finish the prayers.
892. If a person offers prayers at a place where it is forbidden to stay, like, under a roof which is about to collapse, his prayers are in order, though he will have committed a sin.
893. * To pray on an object upon which it is haraam to step, or sit, like a carpet upon which the name of Allah is drawn or written, will render prayers void, if the action is meant to displease Allah.
The Fourth Condition: The ceiling of the place where one prays should not be so low, that one may not be able to stand erect, nor should the place be so small, that there may be no room for performing Ruku or Sajdah.
894. If a person is forced to offer prayers at a place where it is not at all possible to stand, he will pray while sitting. And if it is not possible to perform Ruku and Sajdah, he should perform them by head signs.
895. * One should not offer prayers in front of the graves of the holy Prophet, and the holy Imams, if it entails irreverence, otherwise there is no harm in it.
The Fifth Condition: If the place where one wishes to pray is najis, it should not be so wet that its moisture would reach the body or the dress of the person praying. But, if the place where one places one's forehead while performing Sajdah, is najis, the prayers will be void, even if that place is dry. And the recommended precaution is that the place where one offers prayers should not be najis at all.
The Sixth Condition: As an obligatory precaution, women should stand behind men while praying. At least, her place of Sajdah should be in line with his thighs, when in Sajdah.
896. * If a woman stands in line with man, or in front of him in namaz, and both of them begin together, they should repeat their prayers. And the same applies if one of them starts earlier than the other.
897. * If a man and a woman are standing side by side in namaz, or woman is in front, but there is a wall, curtain, or something else separating them, so that they cannot see each other, the prayers of both of them are in order. Similarly, the prayers of both will be valid if the distance between them is ten arms.
The Seventh Condition: The place where a person places his forehead while in Sajdah, should not be higher or lower than a span of four fingers, when compared to the place of thighs or toes of his feet. The details of this rule will be given in the rules relating to Sajdah.
898. * For a Na-Mahram man and woman to be at a place, where there is a possibility of falling into sin is haraam. As a recommended precaution, one must avoid praying at such places.
899. Prayers at a place where musical instrument etc. is being played, is not void, but hearing or performing it is a sin.
900. * The obligatory precaution is that in normal situation, obligatory prayers should not be offered in the Ka'ba, and on the roof of the Holy Ka'ba, but there will be no harm if one is forced to do so.
901. There is no harm in offering Mustahab prayers in the Holy Ka'ba, or on its roof. In fact, it is Mustahab to offer two Rak'ats before every pillar within the Holy House.
Mustahab Places for Offering Prayers
902. In Islam, great emphasis is laid on offering prayers in a mosque. Masjidul Haram is superior to all the mosques, and after it, the order of priority is as follows:
Then comes the number of Jami' Masjid (central mosque) of every city, followed by the mosques situated in one's locality, and then that of the bazaar.
903. * For women, it is better to pray at such places where they are best protected from Na Mahram, regardless of whether that place is her home, a mosque or anywhere else.
904. Namaz in the Shrines of the holy Imams is Mustahab, and is even bet-
ter than offering prayers in a mosque. It has been reported that the reward for offering prayers in the sacred Shrine of Amirul Mu'minin Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), is equal to 200,000 prayers.
905. Frequenting a mosque, and going to a mosque which is visited by very few people, is Mustahab. And it is Makrooh for a neighbour of the mosque to pray anywhere other than a mosque, unless he has a justifiable excuse.
906. It is Mustahab that one should not sit to eat with a person who does not attend prayers in a mosque, should not seek his advice, should not be his neighbour, and should not enter into matrimonial bond with his family.
Places where Offering Prayers is Makrooh
907. There are a number of places where it is Makrooh to offer prayers. Some of them are the following:
908. If a person is offering prayers at a place where people are passing, or
where somebody is present in front of him, it is Mustahab that he should set a demarcation before him, even by keeping a wooden stick, or a string.
Rules Regarding a Mosque
909. * It is haraam to make the floor, roof, ceiling and inner walls of a masjid najis, and as and when a person comes to know that any of these parts has become najis, he should immediately make it Pak. And the recommended precaution is that the outer part of the wall of a mosque, too, should not be made najis. And if it becomes najis, it is not obligatory to remove the najasat. But if someone makes it najis to violate its sanctity, that act is haraam, and the najasat should be removed.
910. * If a person cannot make a mosque Pak, or needs help which is not available, then it is not obligatory for him to make it Pak. But if he feels that the mosque will be made Pak if he informs others, then he should do so.
911. * If a place in a mosque becomes najis, and it cannot be made Pak without digging or demolishing it, the place should be dug or demolished, provided that it is minimal, or if its demolition is absolutely necessary for saving its sanctity. Otherwise, demolition is a matter of Ishkal. However, it is not obligatory to refill the dug area, or to rebuild the demolished part. But if a small item, like a brick of a mosque became najis, it should be put back to its place after making it Pak.
912. * If a mosque is usurped, and houses etc. are built in its place, or if it becomes so dilapidated that it can no more be called a mosque, even then, as a recommended precaution, it should not be made najis. But if it becomes najis, it is not obligatory to make it Pak.
913. It is haraam to make the precincts (Haram) of the Holy Shrines najis, but if anyone of these precincts become najis, and if its remaining in that state affects its sanctity, then it is obligatory to make it Pak. And the recommended precaution is that it should be made Pak, even if no desecration is involved.
914. * If the mat of a masjid becomes najis, it should be made Pak. If the mat
remaining najis affects the sanctity of the mosque, but washing may spoil or ruin the mat, then that part which has become najis should be cut off.
915. It is haraam to carry any Najisul Ayn or a thing which has become najis, into a mosque, if doing so desecrates the mosque. In fact, the recommended precaution is that even if desecration of the mosque is not involved, Najisul Ayn should not be carried into it.
916. If a mosque is draped with black cloth, or covered with a marquee in preparation of Majlis to be read there, and tea is prepared, there will be no objection to all that if they do not have any harmful effect on the mosque, and if it does not obstruct those who come to pray.
917. * The obligatory precaution is that a mosque should not be adorned with gold, and the recommended precaution is, that it should not be adorned with the pictures of men and animals.
918. Even when a mosque is ruined, it is not permissible to sell it, or to make it a part of a property, or a road.
919. It is haraam to sell doors, windows, and other things of a mosque, and if the mosque becomes dilapidated, those things should be used for the renovation of the same mosque. If they are not useful for that mosque they should be used in any other mosque, and if they are not of any use for other mosques also, then they may be sold, and the proceeds should be used for that very mosque, if possible. If that is not possible, then it should be spent on the repairs of any other mosque.
920. Building a mosque and renovating a dilapidated mosque is Mustahab. And if a mosque is so ruined, that it is not possible to repair it, then it can be demolished and rebuilt. In fact, a mosque which may not be in a bad state can be demolished for extension, to facilitate the needs of the people.
921. To keep a mosque clean and tidy, and to illuminate it, is Mustahab. And for a person visiting a mosque, it is Mustahab to apply perfume, and wear neat and good dress and to ensure that the soles of his shoes do not
contain any najasat, and when entering the mosque, to put his right foot in first, and on exit, to put his left foot out first. Similarly, it is Mustahab that one should come to the mosque earlier than others, and leave it after they have departed.
922. It is Mustahab that when a person enters a mosque, he should offer two Rak'at prayers as gesture of greeting and respect to the mosque, but it will suffice if he offers any obligatory or Mustahab prayers.
923. * It is Makrooh to sleep in a mosque, except when helpless, and to talk about worldly affairs, to engage oneself in some craft, and to recite poetry, which is not religiously instructive. It is also Makrooh to spit or throw phlegm or mucus from the nose, in a mosque, or to shout or raise one's voice, except for Adhan.
924. * It is Makrooh to allow an insane person to enter a mosque, and also a child if it causes inconvenience to the people praying, or if it is feared that it might make the mosque najis. In absence of these two reasons, there is no harm in allowing the children. Similarly, for people who have eaten onions, garlic etc. and their bad breath may upset others, it is Makrooh to go to the mosque.
ADHAN AND IQAMAH
925. It is Mustahab for man and woman to say Adhan and Iqamah before offering daily obligatory prayers, but for other Mustahab or obligatory prayers, they are not prescribed. But before prayers of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha, it is Mustahab to say"As-Salah" three times, provided that the prayers are going to be offered in congregation.
926. It is recommended that Adhan be pronounced in the right ear of the child, and Iqamah in its left ear, on the day it is born or before the umbilical cord is cast off.
927. Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences:
(Allah is greater than any description)
(I testify that there is no god but Allah)
(I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger)
Hayya'alas Salah ..................................................................... two times
(Hasten to prayers)
(Hasten to deliverance)
(Hasten to the best act)
(Allah is greater than any description)
(There is no god but Allah)
As regard to Iqamah, it consists of 17 sentences. In Iqamah, Allahu Akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end, La ilaha illal lah to once, and after Hayya 'ala Khayril 'Amal, Qadqa matis Salah (i.e. the prayers has certainly been established) must be added two times.
928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.
929. There should not be an unusual interval between the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah, and if an unusual gap is allowed between them, the Adhan or Iqamah will have to be repeated.
930. If Adhan and Iqamah are recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is haraam. If it it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.
931. * Whenever a person offers two prayers together, one after the other, he will not say Adhan for the second prayers if he has said it for the first, irrespective of whether it was better in that case to pray together or not, like
on the day of Arafah (9th Dhul Hijjah) for Zuhr and Asr prayers, or the night of Eid ul Adha for Maghrib and Isha at Mash'ar. But the Adhan does not become necessary, only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers, caused by Duas or Nafilah, will not be taken as a prolonged gap. And if one gives Adhan, as per obligatory precaution, one should not make the niyyat of it being prescribed by Shariah, especially in the last two cases of Arafah and Mash'ar.
932. If Adhan and Iqamah has been pronounced for congregational prayers, a person joining that congregation should not pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, for his own prayers.
933. * If a person entering a mosque finds that congregational prayers are over, he may not give Adhan or Iqamah for his own prayers, as long as the lines have not broken up, and the people have not dispersed. This means it is not an emphasised Mustahab act for him. If he intends to give Adhan or Iqamah anyway, then it should be with very low voices. If he is joining another prayers with congregation, he should not give Adhan or Iqamah.
934. * At a place where congregational prayers have just ended, and the lines have not yet broken up, if a person wants to begin his prayers individually, or with another congregation, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah on six conditions:
(i) If prayers are offered in a mosque. If it is not offered in a mosque, the exemption from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah is not established.
(ii) If Adhan and Iqamah has already been recited for the preceding prayers.
(iii) If the congregational prayers offered is not void.
(iv) When the prayers of the person concerned, and the congregational prayers are offered at one and the same place. If the congregational prayers are offered within the mosque, and he wants to offer prayers on its roof, it is Mustahab that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah.
(v) When the congregational prayers have been offered within prescribed time (Ada'). His own prayers which he wishes to offer may not necessarily be within time.
(vi) When both, his prayers and the congregational prayers, are for com-
mon time. For example, both of them should be offering Zuhr prayers or Asr prayers. The same is applicable if he prays Zuhr while the congregation prays Asr or vice versa. But if his praying Maghrib in its prime time, with a congregation which is offering Asr at its lapsed time, Adhan and Iqamah will not be exempted.
935. * If a person doubts about the third condition out of the six conditions mentioned above, that is, if he doubts whether or not the congregational prayers are void, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah. But if he doubts about any one of the remaining conditions, it is better that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, with the niyyat of Raja' (a hope that he may be doing a worthy deed).
936. * It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
937. * If a person hears another person pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah, regardless of whether he has repeated with him the same or not, he may not say Adhan and Iqamah for his own namaz, if there is no delay or time gap between them and his namaz.
938. If a man listens to the Adhan pronounced by a woman with lustful amusement, he will not be exempted from pronouncing Adhan. In fact, even if intention is not lustful, the exemption is a matter of Ishkal.
939. It is necessary that the Adhan and Iqamah of a congregational prayers are pronounced by a man. However, if a woman pronounces Adhan and Iqamah in a congregational prayers of women, it is sufficient.
940. Iqamah should be pronounced after Adhan. Moreover, Iqamah should be pronounced in a standing position, and with Wudhu, Ghusl or tayammum.
941. If a person pronounces the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah without proper order, like if he says 'Hayya 'alal falah' before 'Hayya alas Salah; he should repeat from the place where the order has been disturbed.
942. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan and Iqamah, and if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again. Similarly, if an excessive time gap is allowed between Adhan, Iqamah, and the prayers, it is Mustahab to repeat them for that prayers.
943. Adhan and Iqamah should be pronounced in correct Arabic. Hence, if they are pronounced in incorrect Arabic, or one letter&127; is uttered for another, or if, for example, its translation is pronounced, it will not be valid.
944. * Adhan and Iqamah for a prayer should be pronounced when the time for that prayer has set in. If a person pronounces them before time, whether it be intentionally or due to forgetfulness, his action is void, except when the time of namaz sets in during the namaz being offered, then that is valid, as explained in rule 752.
945. If a person doubts before pronouncing Iqamah, whether he has pronounced Adhan, he should pronounce Adhan. But, if he doubts during Iqamah whether he has pronounced Adhan, the pronouncing of Adhan is not necessary.
946. If before pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah, a person doubts whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, he should pronounce the preceding part. But, if he doubts when in the process of pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, it is not necessary to pronounce that part.
947. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should stand facing Qibla and should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, and raise one's voice. Also, one should pause between the recitals of different sentences, and should not engage in talking during Adhan.
948. It is Mustahab that at the time of pronouncing Iqamah, a person is at ease, and he pronounces it with a lower voice. While it is Mustahab not to join the sentences of Iqamah, there should not be that gap between them which is normally given in Adhan.
949. It is Mustahab that between the Adhan and Iqamah, a man should take a step forward, or should sit down for a while, or perform sajdah, or recite any Dhikr, or Dua', or become quiet for some time, or talk, or offer two Rak'ats of prayers. However, talking between the Adhan and Iqamah of Fajr prayers, or offering prayers between the Adhan and Iqamah of Maghrib prayers, is not Mustahab.
950. It is recommended that a person who is appointed to pronounce Adhan is a righteous person ('Adil), with the knowledge of timings, and his voice is loud. He should pronounce Adhan from an elevated place.
Obligatory Acts Relating to Namaz
There are eleven obligatory acts for prayers:
951. * Some of the obligatory acts of prayers are elemental (Rukn). Hence, a person who does not offer them, whether intentionally or by mistake, his prayers become void. Some other obligatory acts of prayers are not elemental. Therefore, if they are omitted by mistake, the prayers does not become void.
The elementals of Namaz are five:
Any addition made to these elemental (Rukni) acts, intentionally, will render the prayers void. If the addition is done by mistake, the prayers does not become void except when a Ruku' is added, or more than two Sajdah are offered in one Rak'at.
952. * A person should offer prayers with the intention of Qurbat, that is, complying with the orders of the Almighty Allah. It is not, however, necessary that he should make the niyyat pass through his mind, or should, for example, utter: I am offering four Rak'ats of Zuhr prayers Qurbatan ila-llah.
953. If a person stands for Zuhr prayers or for Asr prayers, with niyyat to offer four Raka'ts without specifying whether it is Zuhr or Asr prayers, his prayers are void. Similarly, if he wants to offer a Qadha Zuhr prayers at the time of Zuhr, he should specify whether he is offering the Zuhr prayers of the day, or the Qadha.
954. A person should be conscious and aware of his niyyat, from the beginning of the prayers till its end. Hence, if, during the prayers he becomes so lost that he is unable to say what he is doing, if asked, his prayer is void.
955. * A person should offer prayers to carry out the orders of the Almighty Allah only. So, if a person prays to show off to the people, his prayers is void. It will be void even if he couples the intention of showing off, with the performance for the pleasure of Allah.
956. * If a person offers a Wajib or Mustahab part of prayers for the sake of any one other than Allah, his prayers are void, if that intention affects the whole Namaz, or redressing it is not possible without invalidating the namaz. Similarly, if, for the purpose of showing off, one prays at a special place, like the mosque, or at a special time, like the prime time, or in a special manner, like joining Namaz-e-Jamaat, his prayers will also be void.
957. To say Allahu Akbar in the beginning of every prayer is obligatory, and one of its Rukns, and it is necessary that every letter and the two words are
uttered in proper succession. It is also necessary that these two words should be pronounced in correct Arabic. If a person pronounces these words incorrectly, or utters their translation, it will not be valid.
958. The recommended precaution is that one should not join Takbiratul Ehram of the prayers with any preceding recitations, like, Iqamah or with a Dua which he may be reciting before the Takbir.
959. * If a person wishes to join Allahu Akbar with a recitation to follow, like, with Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim, he should pronounce the "R" of Akbar as Akbaru. However, the recommended precaution is that he should not join it with any other thing in obligatory prayers.
960. It is necessary that when a person pronounces Takbiratul Ehram, his body is steady, if he pronounces Takbiratul Ehram intentionally when his body is in motion, his Takbir is void.
961. * A person should pronounce Takbir, Hamd, Surah, Zikr and Dua in such a manner that he should at least hear the whisper. And if he cannot hear it because of deafness or too much noise, he should pronounce them in such a manner that he would be able to hear, if there was no impediment.
962. * If a person is dumb, or has some defect in his tongue, rendering him unable to pronounce Allahu Akbar, he should pronounce it in whatever manner he can. And if he cannot pronounce it at all, he should say it is his mind, and should make a suitable sign with his finger for Takbir, and should also move his tongue, if he can. The same rule applies to a person who is born dumb.
963. It is recommended that after the Takbiratul Ehram, a person should say this: Ya uhsinu qad atakal musiu wa qad amartal muhsina an yatajawaza 'anil musiei antal Muhsinu wa anal Musio bihaqqi Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammadin salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammadin wa tajawaz 'an qabihi ma ta'lamu minni.. (O Lord Who are Beneficent! This sinful has come efore You and You have ordered the charitable to show indulgence to the sinners. You are Beneficent, and I am a sinner. Bestow Your blessings on Muhammad and his progeny, and pardon my evil acts of which You are aware).
964. It is Mustahab for a person pronouncing the first Takbir of the prayers, and also the Takbirs which occur during the prayers, to raise his hands parallel to his ears.
965. If a person doubts whether he has pronounced Takbiratul Ehram or not, and if he has started Qira'at, he should ignore his doubt. But if he has not recited anything, he should pronounce the Takbir.
966. If after having pronounced Takbiratul Ehram, a person doubts whether he has pronounced it correctly, he should ignore his doubt at any stage.
Qiyam (To Stand)
967. To stand erect while saying Takbiratul Ehram, and to stand before the Ruku (which is called qiyam muttasil ba ruku') is the Rukn of the prayers. But, standing while reciting Surah al-Hamd and the other Surah and standing after performing the Ruku, is not Rukn and if a person omits it inadvertently, his prayers are in order.
968. It is obligatory for a person to stand awhile before and after pronouncing Takbir, so as to ensure that he has pronounced the Takbir while standing.
969. * If a person forgets to perform Ruku, and sits down after reciting Hamd and Surah, and then remembers that he has not performed Ruku, he should first stand up and then go into Ruku. If he does not stand up first, and performs Ruku while he is bowing, his prayers will be void because of not having performed qiyam (standing) before Ruku (Qiyam muttasi'l ba Ruku').
970. * When a person stands for Takbiratul Ehram or Qir'at (recitation), he should not move his body, nor should he incline on one side, and as an obligatory precaution, he should not lean on anything in normal condition. However, if he is helpless, and is obliged to lean on something, there is no harm in it.
971. If while standing, a person forgetfully moves his body, or inclines on one side, or leans on something, there is no harm in it.
972. * The obligatory precaution is that at the time of standing for namaz, both the feet of a person are on the ground. However, it not necessary that the weight of his body should be on both the feet. If the weight is on one foot, there is no harm in it.
973. * If a person, who can stand properly, keeps his feet so wide that it may not be considered as standing, or not as normal standing, his prayers are void.
974. * When a person is engaged in obligatory Zikr in the prayers, his body should be still, and, as an obligatory precaution, it applies to Mustahab Zikr also. And when he wishes to go a little backward or forward, or to move his body a little towards right or left, he should not recite anything at that time.
975. * If he recites something Mustahab while in motion, for example, if he says Takbir while going into Ruku or Sajdah, his Zikr will not be correct but his namaz will be valid. Bi hawli lahi wa quwwati Aqumu wa Aq'ud should be said in the state of rising.
976. There is no harm in the movement of hands and fingers at the time of reciting Hamd, although the recommended precaution is that it should be avoided.
977. If at the time of reciting Hamd, Surah orTasbihat, somebody moves so much involuntarily that the body is no more steady, the recommended precaution is that after his body resumes steadiness, he should recite again, all that he has recited while his body moved.
978. If a person becomes unable to stand while offering prayers, he should sit down, and if he is unable to sit, he should lie down. However, until his body becomes steady, he should not utter any of the obligatory Zikr.
979. As long as a person is able to offer prayers standing, he should not sit down. For example, if the body of a person shakes, or moves when he stands, or he is obliged to lean on something, or to incline his body a bit, he
should continue to offer prayers standing in whatever manner he can. But, if he cannot stand at all, he should sit upright, and offer prayers in that position.
980. * As long as a person can sit, he should not offer prayers in a lying posture, and if he cannot sit straight, he should sit in any manner he can. And if he cannot sit at all, he should lie, as stated in the rules of Qibla, on his right side. If he cannot lie on that side, he should lie on his left side, but as an obligatory precaution, he should not lie on the left side as long as it is possible for him to lie on the right side. When it is not possible to lie on either side, then he should lie on his back, with his feet facing Qibla.
981. If a person is offering prayers in a sitting position, and if after reciting Hamd and Surah, he is able to stand up and perform Ruku, he should first stand, and then perform Ruku. But, if he cannot do so, he should perform Ruku while sitting.
982. If a person, who is offering prayers in a lying position, can sit during the prayers, he should offer, those parts of the prayers while sitting. Also, if he can manage to stand, he should offer those parts of the prayers while standing. But, as long as his body is not still, he should not utter any of the obligatory Zikr.
983. If a person offering prayers in a sitting position becomes capable, during prayers, to stand up, he should offer that part of the prayers which he can, while standing. But as long as his body is not still, he should not utter any of the obligatory Zikr.
984. If a person who can stand, fears that owing to standing, he will become ill, or will be harmed, he can offer prayers in a sitting position and if he fears sitting, he can offer the prayers in a lying posture.
985. * If a person had some hope that at the end of the time for namaz, he will be able to offer prayers standing, he should delay the prayers. If he prayed at the prime time, and then became capable of standing at the end of the time, he should pray again. But if he was totally despaired that he
would be able to pray standing, and after praying in the prime time, he later found himself capable of standing, it will not be obligatory on him to repeat the prayers.
986. It is Mustahab for the person offering prayers to stand erect, slacken down his shoulders, place his hands on his thighs, join his fingers together, look at the place of Sajdah, place the weight of his body equally on two feet, stand in humility, keep both his feet in line. Men offering prayers should keep a distance of three open fingers, or a span between his feet, and women should keep the feet together.