Rafed English

The Theory of Khalq, and ‘Amr

Adapted from: "The Theory of 'Alam al Khalq and 'Alam al-'Amr"

In theological philosophy, the domain of. being has been divided into various classifications from different angles: necessary and contingent, essential and accidental and so on. One of the divisions is into `non‑material' (mujarrad) and `material' (maddi). The material beings are subject to motion, change and alteration. The non‑material beings are free from matter, movement, change and alteration. A material being is bound by time and space, whereas a non‑material being is free from them, and is not limited by these two binding factors. The complete domain of non‑material being is called `alam al‑'amr (the World of Command).
In the `World of Command' every being assumes existence spon­taneously on exercise of Divine will or command, without the need of preparation of any material, temporal or special ground.
The realization of every being is subject to its essential possibility (al‑imkan al‑dhati). Anything which is essentially impossible (al‑mumtani` bil‑dhat) and incapable of assuming existence, whether material or non‑material, God does not command for its coming into being. However, the essential possibility of a being is always with its essence, and time and space do not intervene in it.
As opposed to the World of Command, there is the World of Creation (`alam al‑khalq). The material world is called the Word of Creation. In this world, the existence of every being, in addition to its essential possibility (al‑imkan al‑dhati), depends on its possibility of preparedness (al‑'imkan al‑isti'dadi); that is, its materialization can take place only under the presence of favourable conditions and readiness of ground. Here also, the realization of every being takes place with the will and command of God. However, so long as the ground for the emergence of a material being is not prepared, the necessary conditions are not fulfilled and hindrances are not removed, God does not will its creation and does not command its realization.


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