Rafed English

The Light of The Holy Qur'an Interpretation of Sura Al-Fatir

The Light of The Holy Qur'an Interpretation of Sura Al-Fatir

Author : Sayyid Kamal Faghih Imani and A Group of Muslim Scholars

This Sura has been revealed at Mecca, and contains forty five verses.

‘Fa-t?ir’ is one of the attributes of Allah and it means ‘the Originator’. The name of this Sura has been taken from the first verse of the Sura in which Allah has been introduced as ‘the Originator of the heavens and the earth’.

Like other Meccan Suras, the main axis of the discussion in this Sura is about Origin, Resurrection, and struggle against polytheism.

The Virtue of the Sura

Imam S?a-diq (a.s.) in a tradition said: “There are two suras in the Qur’a-n which are one after another and they begin with /alhamd-u-lilla-h/ (the praise belongs (only) to Allah): Sura As-Saba’, and Sura Al-Fa-t?ir. Whoever recites them by night, Allah will protect him in His support, and whoever recites them during the day, there will come to him no affliction (on that day) …” 1

Satan as its enemy

Allah alone, the Creator, the Deputor of Angels – Who adds to His creation whosoever He pleases – None can ever go against the Will of Allah - The disbelievers warned against severe punishment and the believers given the glad tidings of the Great Reward awaiting them

In The Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful

1.“(All) praise belongs to Allah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth, Who appointed the angels messengers having wings two, three, and four. He adds to creation what He pleases; verily Allah is All-Powerful over every thing.”


The Qur’a-nic word /fa-t?ir/ means: ‘Originator’, and the Arabic word /’ajnih?ah/ is derived from /jina-h?/ in the sense of ‘wing’ which allusively means power. In Persian it is also said ‘the wing of so and so is burnt or broken’ which indicates he has no power.

Similar to Suras: Al-Hamd, Saba’, and Al-Kahf, this Sura begins with the praise of Allah, too. His praise is for the sake of the creation of the vast world of existence. Concerning the fact that all bounties and merits of existence originate from His Exalted Being, the Qur’a-n says:

“(All) praise belongs to Allah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth, …”

The Qur’a-nic word /fa-t?ir/ is derived from /fut?u-r/ originally means ‘to cleave’ and since the creation of creatures is like cleaving the darkness of nothingness and it is the appearance of the light of existence, this meaning has been used in relation to creation particularly in regarding to the modern science which says that at the beginning the totality of the world of existence had been a single mass which has gradually split and some parts have separated from it. The application of the word Fa-t?ir for the Pure Essence of Allah produces a new and clearer concept.

Yes, we do praise Him for His creative Power, because whatever exists is from His side and none has anything from him except Allah.

And in view of the fact that the management of this world, because of the fact that this world is the world of means, has been given to the angels, the verse immediately speaks about their creation and the considerable power that Allah, the Almighty, has bestowed on them. It says:

“… Who appointed the angels messengers having wings two, three, and four. …”

Then the verse continues saying:

“… He adds to creation what He pleases; verily Allah is All-Powerful over every thing.”

Allah (s.w.t.) adds to the creation whatever His Will and His Wisdom require including wings and other things. In this regard, the verse is absolute and it contains any kind of adding, irrespective of tallness of the body, moderation in face and bodily power and good intellect, and other merits. Some of the commentators say that the purpose of ‘adding to creation’ is: beautiful face, nice voice, and fair hair.


There are many verses in the Qur’a-n that are about the angels’ attributes, specialties, missions, and duties. Even the Qur’a-n has considered the faith in angels in the row of the faith in Allah, prophets, and heavenly Books, and this is an evidence upon the fundamental importance of this subject. The Holy Qur’a-n says: “The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. (They) all believe in Allah, His angels, His Books and His messengers. …” 2

No doubt the angels are among the Unseen things for proving which by these attributes and specialties there is no way save the traditional proofs, and because of belief in Unseen, we must accept them.

On the whole, the Qur’a-n explains the specialties of the angels as follows:

1- The angels are some wise and intellectual beings of the honourable servants of Allah. “… but (angels) are (His) honoured servants.” 3

2. They obey Allah (s.w.t.) and never commit sin. “They do not precede Him in speech, and (only) according to His commandment do they act.” 4

3. They have been given many important and various duties from the side of Allah: Some of them bear the ‘Arsh (throne): “… bear the throne of Your Lord above them.” 5 A group of them manage the affair: “And those who manage the affair.” 6

A group of them are the angels of taking souls: “… until when Our messengers came to them to take them away, …” 7

A group of them are the recorders of the deeds of men: “And surely there are Watchers over you,” “Honourable scribes:” “They know (and understand) whatever you do.” 8

A group of them are the protectors of man from dangers and evil events: “… and He sends guardians (to watch) over you until when death comes to one of you, …” 9

A group of them are ordered to punish the disobedient people: “And when Our messengers (the angels) came to Lot, he was grieved for them and felt straitened to protect them. He said: ‘This is a distressful day’.” 10

A group of them are Divine helpers to the believers in battles: “O you who believe! Remember Allah’s blessing upon you when hosts came against you, so We sent upon them a strong wind and hosts, that you saw not, and Allah sees what you do.” 11

And, finally, a group of them are the bringers of revelation and heavenly Books from Allah for Divine prophets: “He sends down the angels with the inspiration of His commandment upon whomever of His servants He wills …” 12

4- They are always busy glorifying Allah, as Sura Ash-Shura-, No. 42, verse 5 says: “… and the angels celebrate the Praise of their Lord and seek forgiveness for those who are on the earth, …”

Yes, because of talent and potentials of development that man has, he is higher than and superior to the angels so much so that all angels, with no exception, once for the sake of the creation of Adam fell in prostration and Adam became their teacher. (Sura Al-Baqarah, No. 2, verses 30-34)

6- Some angels appear for prophets and even other than the prophets in the form of human beings, as we recite in Sura Maryam that the great angel of Allah came to Mary as a handsome man: “… Then We sent unto her Our Spirit (Holy Spirit) that presented himself to her a perfect man”.

In other occurrences of the Qur’a-n we recite that angels appeared in the form of some men before Abraham and Lot, (Sura Hu-d, No. 11, verses 69 and 77). It is understood from the verses of this Sura that the people of Lot, too, saw them in the form of some handsome men, (Sura Hu-d, No. 11, verse 78).

Is the appearance in the form of man a concrete fact? Or is it in the form of presentation and interfering in the perceptive faculty? The outward of the verses of the Qur’a-n implies to the first meaning, though some great commentators have chosen the second meaning.

7- It is understood from Islamic narrations that the number of angels is so large that they can never be compared with all human beings. Once Imam S?a-diq (a.s.) was asked whether the number of the angels is larger or that of the human beings, he said: “By Allah in whose hand is my soul! the angels in heavens are more than the (number of) whole atoms of the dust of the earth, and there is no place in heaven but an angel is busy glorifying and praising Him therein.” (Biha-r-ul-’Anwa-r, Vol. 59, P. 126).

8- They neither eat nor drink nor marry. Imam S?a-diq (a.s.) in a tradition said: “Verily the angels neither eat, nor drink, nor marry, and they do live only by the breeze of the (Divine) ’Arsh!)” (Biha-r-ul-’Anwa-r, Vol. 59, P. 174)

9- They have neither sleep nor negligence, nor laziness. Ali (a.s.) in a tradition said: “There is no cessation between them, nor there is negligence with them, nor there is sin among them… sleep does not overtake them, their wisdom never involves in mistake and forgetfulness, their bodies do not tend to laziness, and they do not lie in the loins of fathers and in the wombs of mothers.” (Biha-r-ul-’Anwa-r, Vol. 59, P. 175)

10- They have different proper positions and ranks. Some of them are always in the state of ‘bowing’ while some others are in the state of prostration.

The Qur’a-n, from the tongue of the angels, says: “There is not (any one) of us but for his is an assigned place.” “And verily we are they who range ourselves in order;” “And verily we are they who celebrate His glory!” (Sura As-Sa-ffa-t, No. 37, verse 164-166)

Imam S?a-diq (a.s.) says: “Verily Allah has some angels who are (in the state of) bowing until the Day of Hereafter, and verily Allah has some angels who are (always in the state of) prostration until the Day of Hereafter.” (Biha-r, Vol. 59, P. 174)

For more information about the specialties of the angels and their classes, you may refer to the books entitled: As-Sama-’-i-wal-‘A-lam, Biha-r-ul-’Anwa-r, Abwa-b-ul-Mala-’ikah, Vol. 59, P. 144-326. also, Nahj-ul-Bala-qah, sermons number one and ninety one, Sermon ’Ishba-h?, sermons 109, and 171.

Having these attributes mentioned for the angels in mind, are they abstract or material?

Certainly, with these specialties, they cannot be formed from the dirty elemental matter, but it does not matter that they have been created from some tender matters, some things beyond this ordinary matter which we are acquainted with. Of course, we know the angels as those who are introduced by the Qur’a-n and by the certain Islamic narrations, and we know them as a great part of the high and outstanding beings of Allah, without considering any rank for them save the rank of servitude, and we do not know them as the partner of Allah in creation or worship, because this is absolutely polytheism and infidelity.

By the way, in many phrases of the Torah the angels are introduced as gods, which is blasphemous and this is one of the signs of the distortion in the present Torah. But the Qur’a-n is pure and far from these meanings, since it has not considered any rank for them except servitude and worship, and executing the commands of Allah; and, as we said before, it is understood from the different verses of the Qur’a-n that the rank of a complete man is higher than and superior to the angels.

2.“Whatever mercy Allah opens to men, none can withhold and whatever He withholds, none can loose after Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.”


All people throughout the world are enjoying the favours of Allah, the Almighty, the Merciful.

Next to the explanation of the creative power of Allah and the mission of the angels, who are the means of giving favours, this verse refers to His Mercy which is the foundation of the whole world of existence. It says:

“Whatever mercy Allah opens to men,none can withhold …”

“… and whatever He withholds, none can loose after Him, …”

“… and He is the Mighty, the Wise.”

In short, all of the treasures of mercy are with Him, and whomever He sees eligible He gives it to him, wherever His Wisdom requires, He opens its doors; and if all humankind may gather with together in order to open the door He has shut, they will never be able to do. This fact is an important branch of Unity which is the origin of other branches.

Similar to this meaning has also been mentioned in some other verses of the Qur’a-n, for example it says: “And if Allah afflicts you with any hurt, none can remove it but Him. And if He intends any good for you, none can repel His favour. He causes it to reach whomsoever of His servants He pleases, and He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.” 13

3. “O’people! Remember Allah’s favour upon you; is there any creator, apart from Allah, who gives you sustenance from the heaven and the earth? There is no god but He; whence are you then turned away (from the truth)?”


We ought to invite all to contemplation upon the blessings of Allah, because the best way of knowing Allah is to be attentive to His favours.

In this holy verse the Qur’a-n has pointed to ‘the Unity of worship’ based on ‘Unity of creative power and giving sustenance’. It says:

“O’ people! Remember Allah’s favour upon you; …”

Do think properly! Who and where is the main origin of all these favours, merits, and blessings? Who has given you all these vital possibilities in which you live? Is there any creator, except Allah, who gives you sustenance from the heaven and the earth?

Who sends the life giving light of the sun, the enlivening drops of rain, and the pleasant breezes from heaven toward you? And who brings out the mines and treasures of the earth, the food stuffs, kinds of plants, vegetables, fruits and other blessings from this land for you? In this regard the verse continues saying:

“… is there any creator, apart from Allah, who gives you sustenance from the heaven and the earth? …”

Now that you know that Allah is the origin of all of these blessings, then do know that there is no object of worship but He, and worshipping is eligible only for His Pure Essence. It says:

“… There is no god but He; whence are you then turned away (from the truth)?”

The Qur’a-nic term /tu’faku-n/ is derived from /’ifk/ which is used for anything that diverts it from its original state, therefore any hardship which diverts from the Truth is called /’ifk/ and it is from this very point of view that it is applied in the sense of falsehood and slander; but some commentators believe that this word refers to the great lies and slanders.

4.“And if they belie you, apostles before you have been belied, and to Allah are all affairs returned.”


All Divine prophets had some opponents, and rejecting the truth is the permanent style of the pagans. Pagans, of course, do not do anything against ordinary persons, they are opposite of the way and aim. Whoever calls to the truth he will be rejected by them.

This holy verse, at first, teaches the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) to be steadfast along his way, and this is the most important lesson for him. It says:

“And if they belie you, apostles before you have been belied, …”

This rejection is not a new thing. Those prophets before you also persevered in this way and they did not stop their activities in their prophecy before when they fulfilled their mission. You, too, must stand firm and perform your prophecy, the rest is up to Allah.

He never ignores your troubles in this way, in the same manner that He does not leave the rejections of the obstinate opponent without retribution. If there were not the Day of Hereafter, there would be the state of anxiety. But, regarding to the existence of that great Court and that the entire deeds of people are recorded and preserved for that Great Day, there is no room for anxiety any more.

5. “O’people! Verily the promise of Allah is true. So let not the life of the world beguile you, nor let the arch-deceiver (Satan) deceive you about Allah!”


The promises of Allah are true, but the promises of Satan are chaffy and deceptive. In this verse, the Qur’a-n states the most important program of men where it says:

“O’ people! Verily the promise of Allah is true.…”

Hereafter, Reckoning, Record, the Balance, Retribution, Paradise, and Hell-Fire are all the promises which are not changeable from the side of Allah, the Almighty, the Wise.

With regard to this true promise, let not the life beguile you and let not the deceptive Satan deceive you and make you proud of the forgiveness and mercy of Allah. The verse says:

“… So let not the life of the world beguile you, nor let the arch-deceiver (Satan) deceive you about Allah!”

Yes, the amusing factors, and deceptive dazzling glares of this world tend to occupy your heart and cause your neglect from that great Divine promise constantly.

The Satans from among jinn and men are always busy beguiling you by various means of deception. They also want to attract your whole thought and attention to them and deviate it from that great promised Day that you have in front of you. Thus, if their deception and temptation become effective, all your life will be destroyed and the wish of your happiness will fail. So you should be careful of them, too.

The repetition of warning unto people that they should be neither proud of the Satan’s temptations nor of the world is, in fact, an indication to this that the way of penetration of sin in man consists of two ways:

1- The deceptive glories of the world: rank and dignity, wealth and position, and kinds of lusts, (being proud of the Divine forgiveness and mercy, and it is here that, from one side, Satan decorates the dazzling glory of this world in the man’s view and introduces it as a present, attractive, lovely, and valuable thing.

And, on the other side, whenever man decides to control himself, by the remembrance of Hereafter and the Great Court of Allah, against the charm and intense attraction of the world, Satan makes him proud of the vastness of the Divine Mercy and, consequently, he invites him to sin and disobedience.

But man may be neglectful that in the same manner that Allah is ‘the Most Merciful of all merciful’ in the rank of mercy, in the rank of punishment and retribution, He is severe in retribution, too. His Mercy never encourages any one to committing sin, as His Wrath cannot be the cause of despair.

The Qur’a-nic word /qaru-r/ here means a being which is extraordinarily deceitful, and the objective meaning of it here may be any deceitful factor, and its purpose may be particularly Satan.

Of course, the second meaning is more fitting with the next verse specially that, in the verses of the Qur’a-n, ‘deceit and pride’ has repeatedly been attributed to Satan.

6.“Verily Satan is your enemy, so you (too) take him (as your) enemy. He only invites his adherents that they may become companions of the Blazing Fire.”

7. “Those who disbelieve, for them shall be a severe chastisement, and as for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them shall be forgiveness and a great recompense.”


The record of enmity of Satan with humankind is ancient.

Imam S?a-diq (a.s.) said: “If Satan is an enemy, then why do you neglect him?” 14

This verse is a warning to all believers in relation to the temptations of Satan which were referred to in the previous verse. It says:

“Verily Satan is your enemy, so you (too) take him (as your) enemy. …”

His enmity began from the first day of the creation of Adam. When Satan was rejected from the presence of Allah as the result of the lack of submission to the command of Allah concerning prostration to Adam, he took an oath that he would be an enemy to Adam and his children for ever, and he even asked Allah a respite and length of lifetime for this action.

Satan persists on his saying and he avail himself of the slightest opportunity for enmity upon man. Does wisdom let you that you do not accept him as an enemy and remain neglectful of him even for a moment? Let alone that you wish to follow Satan’s footsteps, or accept him as a close friend and sincere adviser. The Qur’a-n says: “… Will you then choose him and his seed as your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are enemies to you? …” 15

Moreover, he is an enemy who attacks you from every side, as he himself says: “Then I will certainly come upon them from before them, and from behind them, and from their right and from their left; …” 16s

Specially that he is in a hiding place where he sees man and man does not see him: “… Surely he sees you: he and his Tribe, from where you do not see them. …” 17

Of course, this does not hinder your power to defend yourself against his temptations. There is an interesting meaning in the teachings of Allah to Moses, the son of ‘Imra-n, as Amir-ul-Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) narrates that Allah told Moses: “I have four recommendations to you in the protection of which you should try: ‘The first is that: during the time you do not see your sins to be forgiven, do not refer to others’ defects. The second is that while you do not see my treasures have been ended, you might not be sad for your sustenance. The third is that when you do not see my sovereignty destroyed, you should not be hopeful to anyone except Me. The fourth is that during the time you do not see Satan as dead, you should not (think to be) secured from his deceit (and plots)’.” 18

However, the enmity of Satan unto the children of Adam is a matter which has been pointed out in many verses of the Qur’a-n, and he has even been mentioned repeatedly in them as ‘a manifest enemy’: (Al-Baqarah, verses 161, 203; Al-’An‘a-m, verse 142; ’Al-A‘ra-f, verse 22; Yu-suf, verse 5; Ya-si-n, verse, 60; and Az-Zukhruf, verse 62)

We should always avoid such an enemy.

For more emphasis, the Qur’a-n at the end of the verse, says:

“… He only invites his adherents, that they may become companions of the Blazing Fire.”

The Qur’a-nic word /h?izb/ originally means: ‘a group or society which has an organization and intensity in action’; but it is usually used for any group and society that follow a special program and aim.

The purpose of the Qur’a-nic phrase ‘Hizb-ush-Shayta-n’ is his adherents and those who are on his line.

Of course, Satan can never take anybody as a formal member of his party, and invites him toward Hell. The members of his party are those who are mentioned in some other verses of the Holy Qur’a-n and they have the following symptoms:

Those who have put the yoke of Satan’s servitude and friendship on their necks are as such: “His authority is only over those who befriend him, (following him), …” 19 Those who are qualified as follows: “Satan has gained hold on them, so he makes them forget the remembrance of Allah; they are Satan’s party. Beware! Verily, the party of Satan are the losers.” 20

It is interesting that in three occurrences of the verses of the Qur’a-n ‘The Party of Allah’ has been mentioned, and in three different occurrences ‘The Party of Satan’ is referred to; so that what persons may enrol their names in this party or may be the members of that one.

But, however, it is natural that Satan invites his party to corruption, and sins, to pollutions of lusts, to polytheism, disobedience, cruelty, and, finally, to the Hell-Fire.

In the second verse, the Qur’a-n refers to the final fate of ‘The Party of Allah’ and the painful end of ‘the Party of Satan’ as follows:

“Those who disbelieve, for them shall be a severe chastisement, and as for those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them shall be forgiveness and a great recompense.”

It is interesting that, concerning those who deserve of Divine punishment, the above verse suffices to the subject of disbelief, while for gaining ‘forgiveness and a great recompense’ it does not suffice to, ‘faith’ alone and adds ‘righteous deed’ to it, because only infidelity by itself causes a person to dwell eternally in Divine punishment, but having faith without good action does not cause man to be saved, so, from one view, faith and good action are necessarily with each other.

At the end of this holy verse, the Qur’a-n at first mentions forgiveness, and then speaks of ‘great recompense’, for, in fact, at first forgiveness washes the spirit of the believers and then makes them ready to receive ‘a great recompense’. In literary terminology, the first is called ‘dissociation’ and the second is ‘ornamenting’.

The dead shall be resurrected – ‘The plan of the disbelievers against the Truth shall be in vain – The Triumph of Truth prophesied

8. “Ishe, then, to whom the evil of his deed is made alluring so that he looks upon it as good, (equal to one who is rightly guided)? Now verily Allah makes err whom He pleases and guides aright whom He pleases, so let not your soul waste away in grief for them; verily Allah is Cognizant of what they do.”


The one who introduces the evil behaviour of a person as a pleasant one, and instead of criticizing it, he flatters him, is counted a Satan, because, in other verse, the Holy Qur’a-n says: “… Satan made their deeds fair seeming to them …” 21

Imam Ka-zim (a.s.) says: “Seeing bad things as good ones is the premise of haughtiness and self-administration.” 22

In view of the fact that in the previous verses people were divided into two groups: a believing group and a disbelieving group, or ‘the party of Allah’, who are the enemy of Satan, and ‘the Party of Satan’, who are the followers of Satan, this verse has stated one of the important qualities of these two groups, which, in fact, is the origin of their other evil programs, where it says:

“Is he, then, to whom the evil of his deed is made alluring so that he looks upon it as good, (equal to one who is rightly guided)? …”

In fact, this very subject is the key of all miseries of the misguided and obstinate nations whose ugly deeds seem to them as fair because of the fact that they are consistent with their lusts and their black hearts.

It is also evident that such an obstinate person neither accepts any admonition, nor does he usually show any fitness for listening to criticisms, nor does he agree to change his way. He neither tries to experience and analyse his deeds, nor is he anxious about their sequels.

Further than that when the ugliness and beauty is spoken of, they consider beauties as theirs, and attribute the true believers with the ugly things. There were many obstinate pagans who when heard the previous verses about the Party of Satan and their painful fate they adapted them with the true believers and counted themselves as an extension of the Party of Allah. And this is a very great calamity.

But, who makes the evil deeds of the wrong doers seem fair in their view: Allah or the carnal desire or Satan? No doubt the main factor is carnal desire and Satan, but since Allah has created this effect in their deeds it can be attributed to Allah; because when people commit a sin at the beginning that their nature is pure, their conscience is vigilant, and their wisdom works fairly well, they become inconvenient from their action, but the more they repeat it, the more their inconvenience decreases.

Gradually they reach to the stage of indifference, and if they repeat it more, the ugly things seem beautiful in their views, thus far that they imagine it among their honours and virtues, while they have been drowned in the dirty situation of corruption.

It is interesting that when the Holy Qur’a-n propounds this question, saying: “Is he, then, to whom the evil of his deed is made alluring so that he looks upon it as good, …?” it does not clearly express the opposite point of it. As if it intends to give a vast respite to the hearer that he illustrates in his mind all the different things that he can consider opposite to it and understands more. It seems it wants to say whether such a person is like the truth seekers.

Is such a person like the pure hearted persons who are always busy examining their own selves?

Is there any hope of felicity for such a person?

Then, the Qur’a-n refers to the statement of reason of the difference of these two groups. It adds:

“… Now verily Allah makes err whom He pleases and guides aright whom He pleases, …”

If the ugly deeds of the first group are decorated in their views, this is the consequence of the Divine mislead. It is He Who has put this property in the repetition of ugly deeds to which the man’s self accustoms itself, he gets the habit of it, and harmonizes with it.

It is He Who gives some penetrating and kin eyes, together with some hearing ears to the pure-hearted believers for understanding the facts as they exactly are.

It is clear that the Divine Will is accompanied with His Wisdom and gives everyone whatever he is eligible to.

So, at the end of the verse, the Qur’a-n says:

“… so let not your soul waste away in grief for them; …”

This meaning is similar to the content of verse 3 in Sura As-Shu‘ara-’, No. 26, which says: “Perhaps you will kill yourself with grief, for that they do not become Believers.”

The application of the Qur’a-nic word /hasara-t/ which is an object for the previous sentence refers to this fact that not only you grieve for them one regret but also with several regrets.

They are the regret of losing the bounty of guidance, the regret of wasting the jewel of humanity, the regret of losing the sense of recognition thus far that they see an ugly thing as beautiful; and, finally, the regret of their encountering the Fire of the Wrath of Allah.

But why does Allah say: “… So let not your soul waste a way in grief …”? It is because Allah is cognizant of their deeds and He gives them what they deserve of. The verse continues saying:

“… verily Allah is Cognizant of what they do.”

The extraordinary sympathy of the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) unto the misguided and deviated ones is completely understood from the tone of the verse. And this is the state of a true Divine leader that, because of the people’s lack of acceptance of the truth and rejecting the means of their happiness, he pains so much that as if he tended to kill himself.

9.“And Allah is He who sends the winds that stir up cloud then We drive it to a dead land and there with revive the earth, after it is dead. Even so is the Resurrection.”


In the same manner that by the Will of Allah, the Almighty, the movement of the cloud and winds, and the fall of rain make the dead land alive and plants shoot out of the soil, with His Will a great earthquake will happen and the dead come out of the ground and will be quickened.

Regarding to the discussions, which were mentioned in the previous holy verses about guidance, misguidance, faith, and disbelief, this holy verse talks briefly and clearly about Origin and Resurrections and by an interesting reasoning it proves both of them. It says:

“And Allah is He who sends the winds that stir up cloud …” “… then We drive it to a dead land and there with revive the earth, after it is dead. …” “… Even so is the Resurrection.”

The accurate system which runs the movement of winds and then the movement of the pieces of cloud and after that the descent of the life-giving rain drops and, next to it, reviving the dead lands, itself is the best proof and the best evidence upon this fact the Might of a Wise One exists beyond this system and directs it.

It is also necessary to note this point that the Qur’a-nic phrase /tu?i-ru/ is derived from /’i?a-rah/ in the sense of ‘distribute and scatter’, and here it refers to the rising of pieces of cloud as the result of the blow of winds over the water of oceans, since the subject of the movement of pieces of cloud has been mentioned in the next sentence, saying: “… That stir up cloud …”

It is interesting that we recite in a tradition from the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) that once one of his companions asked him: “O’ Messenger of Allah! How does Allah quickens the dead and what is the sign of it in the world of creation?”

The Prophet (p.b.u.h.) said: “Have you not passed by the land of your tribe while it has been dry and dead, and then you passed by it while it has become green?”

I said: “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”

He (p.b.u.h.) said: “In such a way Allah quickens the dead and this is its sign in the creation.” 23

10.“Whoever desires glory, the glory belongs to Allah wholly to Him do ascend the good words and the righteous deed, He uplifts it; but those who devise evil deeds, for them is a terrible chastisement, and their plot shall come to naught.”


The real glory is with Allah, not with people, and it is found under the light of ‘Faith’ and ‘righteous deed.’

Following to this monotheistic discussion, this verse points to the great error of the pagans who asked their glory from their idols and thought that believing in the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) caused the dispersion of people from around them. They used to say: “… ‘If we follow the guidance with you, we shall be driven out from our land.’ …” The Qur’a-n says:

“Whoever desires glory, the glory belongs to Allah wholly …”

As Ra-qib has said in Mufrada-t, the Arabic word /‘izzat/ originally means that state that makes man resisting and mighty. It is for this reason that the hard and firm lands are called /‘aza-z/ in Arabic.

Since it is only the Pure Essence of Allah that is Mighty, else, because of their limitation, all creatures can be defeated. Therefore, the whole glory belongs to Him, and whoever obtains any glory it is from the endless ocean of His blessing.

During the last hours of his lifetime when Imam Hassan (a.s.) was asked by one of his companions named Juna-dat-ibn-’Abi-Sufya-n to advise him, Imam stated some valuable and effective admonitions for him, among which was this: “If you wish to be ‘honoured’ without having any tribe, and to have reverence without the power of government, then come out from the shade of sin of Allah, and settle in the glory of the obedience of Allah.”

And if we see that some verses of the Qur’a-n introduce glory, besides Allah, for the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) and the believers, (like Sura Muna-fiqu-n, No. 63, verse 8 which says: “… Honour belongs to Allah and His Messenger and to the Believers, …”, it is for the reason that they have earned glory from the rays of the glory of Allah, too.

Then the verse introduces the way of reaching to glory as follows:

“… to Him do ascend the good words and the righteous deed, He uplifts it; …”

The Qur’a-nic phrase: /’al kalimut?-t?ayyib/ means: ‘pure words’, and the purity of a speech depends on the purity of its content, and the purity of content relates to the concepts which adapt to the pure, brilliant, objective facts. What reality is higher than the Pure Essence of Allah and His right and just religion, as well as the pure righteous ones who pave the way of its distribution? Therefore, this holy phrase has been rendered into correct belief in Origin, Resurrection and Allah’s religion.

Some of the commentators have rendered the Qur’a-nic phrase: /’al kalimut?-t?ayyib/ into: ‘there is no god but Allah’, while some others have rendered it into: /subha-n-allah-i-wal-hamd-u-lilla-h-i-wala--’ila-ha-’illalla-h-u-wa-lla-h-u-’akbar/, and some commentators have rendered it, after mentioning there is no god but Allah, into “Muhammad rasu-l-ulla-h wa ‘Aliyyan waliyyulla-h wa xali-fata rasu-lihi-”.

Or in some Islamic narrations the Qur’a-nic phrase /’al kalimut?-t?ayyib/ and /’al ‘amal-us?-s?a-lih/ have been rendered into the love of Ahl-ul-Bayt (a.s.) or the like of it. All of them are of the kind of the statement of clear extensions for that vast concept, and they do not create any limitation in its concept, because every statement which has a pure and excellent content is entirely found in this title.

However, the same Lord Who, according to the previous verse, makes the dead land alive by life-giving drops of rain, furnishes ‘the pure word and righteous deed’, too, and causes them to reach to the neighbourhood of His Mercy.

Then the Qur’a-n refers to the opposite point of it, where it says:

“… but those who devise evil deeds, for them is a terrible chastisement, and their plot shall come to naught.”

Although the corruptive persons imagine that, by injustice, cruelty, falsehood, and plot, they can obtain a kind of glory for them by means of wealth, property, and power but at the end they shall understand that not only they have provided a chastisement for them, but also their efforts in this way will become naught.

As the Qur’a-n says, there were some people who behaved like this: “And they have taken gods besides Allah that they might be for them a glory.” 24 And there were some hypocrites who imagined themselves as some honoured ones and the believers as the meaner: “They say: ‘If we return to Medina, surely the more honourable (element) will expel there from the meaner’ …” 25

There were some other persons, who considered the deceit of the Pharaohs as their own glory, or they sought honour from sin, injustice, and cruelty, but all of them were defeated. So, it is only faith and righteous deed which go up toward Allah.

In philology the Arabic word /makr/ means any kind of device, but in some instances it is used in the sense of the devices that are accompanied with mischief, and the verse under discussion is among those instances.

The term /sayyi’a-t/, mentioned in the above verse, refers to all ugly and evil things which occur, irrespective of creedal evils and practical ones, and that some commentators have rendered it into the pagans’ plots for killing or banishing the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) from Mecca is, in fact, one of the expansions of it, not its whole concepts.

The Qur’a-nic word /yabu-r/ is derived from /bawa-r/ and /bu-ra-n/ which originally means excess dullness of market, and since this kind of dullness of market often causes destruction, this word has been used in the sense of destruction and annihilation.

The whole glory belongs to Allah. Does this state mean something save reaching to the stage of being Almighty? If it is so, where can glory be sought, and what can give glory to man?

By a clear analysis we reach this fact that the reality of glory, at the first degree, is the power which appears in the heart and entity of man and dissuades him from having humility submission, and collusion in relation with disobedient and rebellious persons to the command of Allah. It is a power that with having it one never surrenders to unlawful lusts and he never obeys his low desires.

It is a power which usually elevates him up to the stage of impenetrability before any wealth and force.

Does this power originate from any source save from the Faith in Allah, which is the main source of power and glory?

What was said is only in the stage of thought, belief, soul and spirit; but in the stage of action, glory originates from some deeds that have correct root and an accurate program and style. In other words, glory can be found in ‘righteous deeds’. These two elements give man honour, greatness, might, and glory.

The world loving sorcerers, contemporary to Pharaoh, began their tricks in his name and glory. “… and said: ‘By Pharaoh’s dignity we shall certainly be the victors.” 26 Yet, before long, they failed from the shepherd-stick of Moses (a.s.), but when they came out from the cover of the disgraceful flag of Pharaoh and went under the light of Monotheism and believed, they became so strong and mighty that the most severe threats of Pharaoh did not affect on them. They eagerly lost their hands, feet, and even souls in the cause of Allah and suffered martyrdom. By this action, they proved that they would surrender neither to money nor to force. They remained mighty and, today, their honourable history contains a great deal of instructive lessons for us.

11. “And Allah did create you from dust; then from a sperm-drop, then He made you pairs. And no female conceives nor does she bring forth, save with His knowledge and none is given long life who is given long life neither is any diminished in his life, but it is in a Book. Verily this, for Allah, is easy.”


The Arabic word /mu‘ammar/ is called to the owners of a long-life. The word /‘umr/ is derived from /‘imra-n/ (flourishing state), and since a person has the ability of flourishing during the time he is alive, the length of his life is called ‘life-time’.

Some Islamic narrations indicate that charity and visiting one’s kin cause the life-time to be long, but ‘breaking off connections with one’s kindred’ and to disgrace parents cause the lifetime to be shortened. 27

In this holy verse, the Qur’a-n states another part of the extroversive and introversive verses which are, on one side, the evidence over the Power of Allah and, on the other side, over His Knowledge.

At first, it points to the creation of man in different stages, when it says:

“And Allah did create you from dust; then from a sperm- drop, then He made you pairs. …”

These are three stages among the whole stages of the creation of man: soil, sperm-drop, and the stage of matrimony.

It is certain that man is from dust, not only from this point that all materials that form the man’s body are derived from dust, and that which man takes food from, or wherefrom his sperm-drop originates all are finally found in the materials which are in soil.

Some commentators believe that the concept of ‘the creation of man from dust’ probably refers only to the first creation, while the creation from sperm-drop refers to later stages. The first one is the stage of men’s compendious creation, (because the entity of all human beings has been extracted in the entity of Adam); and the second is the expansive stages which are separate from each other.

However, the stage of person’s matrimony is the stage of continuation of generation and man’s reproduction.

Then it refers to the fourth and the fifth stage of man’s life, viz., the subject of ‘pregnancy’ of mothers and their delivery. It says:

“… And no female conceives nor does she bring forth, save with His knowledge …”

Yes, the subject of pregnancy, and the complicated and very amazing changes of foetus, then reaching the stage of delivery and the wonderful variations that, at that sensitive moment, come forth to mothers, from one side, and to the foetus, on the other side, are so tender and accurate that is not possible save by relying on the infinite knowledge of Allah. It is done in a manner that if the governing regulation over it changes, even very slightly, the program of delivery or delivery itself will face with disturbance and confusion, and it will come to destruction.

Each of these five stages of man’s life is more wonderful than the other.

The inanimate dust is in one side and the wise, alert, and originative man, the alive, is on the other side. How different they are!

The sperm-drop which has been formed of a few drops of fetid water is on one end, and the handsome, beautiful, and talented man equipped with different senses and organs is on the other end.

Next to this stage, there is the subject of variety of man into two genders: male and female.

Regarding to the abundant differences in the body and soul, there will come some physiological problems into being each of which takes its own separate way from the very beginning of the combination of semen and everyone of them goes toward the duty which has been given to them and thus they develop.

The next subject is the responsibility of mother which is the acceptance and bearing of this burden, its protection, its nutrition and its growth, which has attracted the thoughts of great scientists to them, and they confess that it is one of the most surprising subjects of the world of existence.

The last stage of this part of foetus is the stage of birth. It is a revolutionary stage and completely dangerous, that is accompanied with a great deal of wonders.

What factors command foetus to come out from the mother’s womb?

How is the complete harmony arranged between this command and readiness of the limbs of the mother for its execution.

How can foetus totally change the situation to which it has been accustomed for nine months just in a moment: ceases its relation with the mother, uses the fresh air, the way of his food from umbilical cord is suddenly closed, the new way, i.e., the mouth begins to work, the dark environment of mother is left and the bright environment full of light is used, and it resists against all these changes and it immediately adapts itself to them?

Are these things not the best signs to the endless power and knowledge of Allah? It is a complete injustice that man judges so vainly about his own creation.

Then the Qur’a-n refers to the sixth and seventh stages of this wonderful program. It says:

“… and none is given long life who is given long life neither is any diminished in his life, but it is in a Book. …”

What factors are effective in the length of man’s life? What factors fight against the continuation of his life? And in short, what factors must gather and help each other in order that man can continue his living for one hundred years or less and more! And, finally, what factors cause the difference in man’s life-time?

All of these things have also some complicated and exact computations of which none is aware but Allah; and whatever we know in these fields today comparing with what we do not know is very little and worthless.

The Arabic word /mu‘ammar/ is derived from the word /‘umr/ which is originally derived from /‘ima-rat/ in the sense of ‘habitation’, and the fact that the length of man’s living is called lifetime is for the sake that the habitation of his body is in this time.

This word, /mu‘ammar/, means a person who has a long life. So, the Qur’a-n concludes the verse with this sentence , saying:

“… Verily this, for Allah, is easy.”

The creation of this wonderful being from ‘dust’ and the initiation of the creation of a complete man from ‘sperm-drop’, and also the whole facts concerning ‘genetic state’, conjugality, pregnancy, delivery, increase and decrease in life-time, whether from the point of power and from the point of knowledge, and computation of all of them is entirely easy and simple for Him. These are as a small part of the extroversive verses that, from one side, they relate and acquaint us with the world of existence, and, on the other side, they are counted as some valid proofs upon the possibility of Resurrection.

He Who was able to create a being from ‘dust’ and from sperm-drop for the first time, is He not able to revive men?

And does He, Who is aware of the minutes of these laws, have any difficulty in protecting and reckoning of the deeds of people in the scene of Resurrection?

12.“And not are the two seas alike, the one (is) palatable, and pleasant to drink, and the other, salt and bitter. Yet from the both you eat fresh flesh; and you extract ornaments which you wear, and you see the ships cleave through it that you may seek of His bounty and that you may be thankful.”


The Divine bounties are from His grace and we are not His creditors, but we may gain something because of our effort and endeavour, so noting to blessings is a premise to the growth of the essence of thanksgiving.

Another part of the extroversive verses, which are the signs of His greatness and power in the creation of the seas, blessings, and their benefits are referred to in this verse. It says:

“And not are the two seas alike, the one (is) palatable, and pleasant to drink, and the other, salt and bitter. …”

The Arabic word /‘ao(b/, as Ra-qib says in Mufrada-t, means: pure and cold, while Lisa-n-ul-‘Arab has rendered it into: ‘Pure water’.

Although, on the first day, the water of these two seas has been sent down from the sky in the form of some sweet and wholesome drops of rain, and both of them originate from one source, but they have appeared in two completely different forms and with various benefits.

It is also wonderful that:

“… Yet from the both you eat fresh flesh; …”

“… and you extract ornaments which you wear, …”

Moreover, you can take enjoy both of them, not only for transportation but also for carrying your goods, as the verse says:

“… and you see the ships cleave through it that you may seek of His bounty and that you may be thankful.”

Some points

1- As the Lisa-n-ul-‘Arab says, the Arabic word /fura-t/ is the water which is in utmost purity and wholesomeness.

The Qur’a-nic word /sa-’iq/ means the water that because of its wholesomeness is easily swallowed, contrast to the word /milh?/ (a salt water) and the word /’uja-j/ (a bitter water) that as if this kind of water hurts the throat and bars the way of the gullet.

2- Some commentators believe that this holy verse is an example to show the lack of equality between believers and disbelievers, but the verses before and after it all talk about the signs of creation. Even the last part of this very verse is the evidence over this fact that this sentence, too, discusses about the secrets of Unity, and it is an indication to the variety of the seas and their different effects, and their common benefits.

3- In this verse three benefits out of abundant benefits of the seas have been mentioned: foodstuff, means of ornament, and the subject of transportation.

We know that the seas are one of the important sources of man’s foodstuff, and every year millions of tons of fresh flesh are taken from them without that man bears a considerable trouble for it. The system of creation has arranged a proper program in this regard so that men can enjoy this vast blessing, the spread Divine food table, without the least task.

Some different means of ornament, such as: pearl, shell, pearls and coral are drawn out from the seas. The emphasis of the Qur’a-n on this subject is for the sake that, contrary to the beasts, the man’s self has different dimensions one of which is the sense of beauty. This sense is the origin of the appearance of some artistic, literary and taste issues, the satiation of which correctly and far from any kind of excess and defect, and immoderation and extravagance pleases the self and gives man mirth and calmness, and makes him ready for the heavy affairs of life.

As for the subject of transportation, which is one of the most important fillers of human civilization and the man’s social life, regarding the fact that the seas (and oceans) have covered the main part of the surface of the earth and, that they relate to each other, they can do man the best favour in this regard.

The amount of the goods that are transported on the seas and the number of the passengers who are removed from one place to another on them is so large that they cannot be compared with any other means of vehicle. Sometimes it happens that one ship can carry by it the loads as many as the tens of thousand cars.

4- Of course, the benefits of the seas are not limited to what was said in the above, and the Qur’a-n does not tend to limit them in these three aspects. The formation of pieces of cloud, different medicines, oil, the means of clothing, the fertilizing materials for the uncultivated lands, having effect on winds, and so on are counted as other favours of the seas.

5- The emphasis of the Holy Qur’a-n on ‘fresh flesh’ is an expressive indication to the nutrition benefited from such

fleshes comparing the harms of the stale fleshes, the conserves, and the like.

6- There arises a question here: the seas with salt water are spread all over the globe, where is the sea with sweet water?

In answer it must be said: the seas and lakes with sweet water are not so few in the earth, like the lakes of sweet water in the United States and the others. Moreover, some great streams are sometimes called sea, like the great river of Nile which in Arabic has been called /bah?r/ (sea) in the story of Moses. (Sura Al-Baqarah, No. 2, verse 50, Sura As-Shu‘ara-, No. 26, verse 63, and Sura Al-’A‘ra-f, No. 70, verse 38)

Moreover, the advance of the water of the great streams into the seas, regarding the fact that it goes through the salty water therein and does not mix with it for a length of time, itself forms some seas of sweet water in different places.

7- The Qur’a-nic sentence: ‘That you may seek of His bounty’ contains a vast meaning which includes any economical activities which are done by means of sea-ways.

The last sentence of the verse: ‘That you may be thankful’, has been mentioned for awakening the sense of thanksgiving in men and it is a means for theism and theology.

Be Careful of the Following Points

1- The spiritual elements effective in prolongation and, shortening the life-time: In relation to the discussion stated in the abovementioned verses about the increase and decrease of lifetime by the command of Allah, paying attention to the Islamic narrations concerning the prolonging and shortening of lifetime, a group of Qur’a-nic commentators have explained some matters in this regard. There are, of course, some natural factors effective in increasing and decreasing the length of lifetime most of which have been known to human beings yet,

like correct feeding free from excess and defect, being constantly busy working and moving, avoidance from any kind of narcotic materials and dangerous addictions and alcoholic liquors, avoiding the permanent excitements, and having a strong Faith which can give man peace and power in the difficulties of life and living.

But, besides these things, there are some factors that their outward relation with the question of prolongation of life-time is not so clear to us, while some Islamic narrations have properly emphasized on it. As a few examples, pay attention to the following narrations:

1- The holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) says: “Verily alms-giving (in the way of Allah) and union of kindred cause houses to be furnished and prolong the life-times’.” 28

2- He (p.b.u.h.) also has said: “Whoever desires his sustenance to be increased and his death to be postponed should perform union of kindred.”

3- Concerning some of sins, like fornication in particular, Islamic narrations indicate that such sins decrease the length of lifetime. Among them is the famous tradition of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) in which he has said: “O’ Muslims! Do avoid fornication which has six sequels: Three of them are in this world and three of them are in Hereafter. Those three which are in the world are as these: it causes the worth (and light) of man to be vanished, brings indigence, and decreases the length of lifetime. …” 29

4- Imam Ba-qir (a.s.) says: “Kindness and hidden alms-giving remove poverty and increase life-time, and prevent seventy kinds of evil death.” 30

There are also some indications in Islamic narrations concerning some other sins, such as injustice, and sins in absolute. Some of the commentators who have not been able to make difference between the ‘appointed death’ and the ‘sudden death’ have attacked to these traditions and believe that they are contradictory to the texts of the Qur’a-n which consider the limit of the length of man’s lifetime fixed and unchangeable. 31


No doubt man has two kinds of ‘end of life’:

The appointed term, which is the end of potential ability of man’s body for continuity of entity, and by its coming everything will end by the command of Allah.

The sudden death that, with the change of circumstances, the length of life-time changes. For example, someone commits suicide while if he had not committed this great sin, he would have been alive for longer years. Or as the result of using the alcoholic liquors and some narcotic materials, and excess sensuality, he loses his bodily ability in a short time, but if these things were absent in his life, he could live for many longer years.

These are some vivid things which are experimental and comprehensible for every body and none can deny them.

Concerning the unexpected events, there are also some affairs which are naturally related to the sudden death; this is not deniable, too.

Therefore, if a great deal of Islamic narrations indicate that alms-giving in the cause of Allah, or union of kindred cause the length of lifetime to be prolonged and pests to be removed, in fact, they depend on these very factors.

And if we do not separate these two kinds of the term of death from each other, the comprehension of many of the issues in relation with fore-ordination and destiny, and the effect of effort and endeavour in men’s lives will remain insolvable.

This discussion can be made clear by a simple example. For instance, a person provides a new car that, according to the different preparations used in the structure of it, the car can work for example for twenty years, but upon condition that it would be treated well and the necessary protections should be applied. In this case the appointed term of this car is twenty years, not more than that.

But if the necessary protections are not applied, and the car is given to some unaware experienced and careless persons to ride and they use it beyond its power and capacity, and every day they take it to work in rough roads, the life-time of the car may decrease to half or less than that. This is that very ‘sudden death’ of it.

13.“He merges the night into the day and He merges the day into the night, and He has made subservient (to you) the sun and the moon, each of them running to an appointed time; such is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs the kingdom, and those whom you call upon, apart from Him, possess not (so much as) the skin of a date-stone.”


The change of the length of the night and the day, or the gradual transfer of each of them to another is not casual, but the nature is subjected to Allah.

Again in this verse, the Qur’a-n points to another part of the signs of Monotheism and the infinite blessings of Allah so that, by giving awareness to human beings, it invokes their sense of thanksgiving alongside the recognition of the real object of worship and dissuades them from any partnership and superstitious worshipping. It says:

“He merges the night into the day and He merges the day into the night, …”

The Qur’a-nic term /yu-lij/ is derived from /’i-la-j/ in the sense of ‘to merge’. It may refer to one of the following two meanings, or both of them: the gradual increase and decrease of the nights and the days during the year which cause the appearance of different seasons with all their effects and blessings. The gradual decrease from the night and adding to the day, and vice versa, is because of the existence of twilight, which hinders the dangers of sudden transfer from darkness to light and from light to darkness. It gives human beings enough preparation to quietly and slowly transfer from one to another without any danger.

Then the verse refers to the subject of making the sun and the moon subservient, and says:

“… and He has made subservient (to you) the sun and the moon, …”

What a subservient is higher than this that all of them run in the way of man’s interests and that they are the source of kinds of favours in the man’s life. The cloud, the wind, the moon, the sun, and the universe are all busy in order that men can provide his life well and he would not be in negligence, and he should always remember the main real origin of these merits. (Concerning the subservient of the sun and the moon we had a rather detailed explanation mentioned in the commentary of Sura Ar-Ra‘d, No. 13, verse 2, and in the commentary of Sura ’Ibra-hi-m, No. 14, verse 33)

But in the meantime that the sun and the moon in full regularity rotate in their orbits and they are good servants for humankind, the system which governs over them is not eternal, and even these great stars, with their much light, will finally become dark and will be destroyed.

So, next to the subject of making them subservient, the Holy Qur’a-n adds:

“… each of them running to an appointed time; …”

And according to Sura Takwi-r, No. 81, verses 1-2, which say: “When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up.” “And when the stars fall, losing their lustre.” All of them turn to darkness and will become extinguished.

Some other commentators have delivered here another commentary for the Qur’a-nic term /’ajal-im-musamma-/ (the appointed term). It refers to the rotations of the sun and the moon. The first prolongs one year and the second ends in one month. 32

But, regarding to the different usages of this meaning in numerous verses of the Qur’a-n which have been applied in the sense of ‘the end of life’, it becomes clear that the said commentary is not correct, and its commentary is that very first one, i.e., the end of the lifetime of the sun and the moon. (In this relation, you may refer to Sura An-Nahl, verse 61, Sura Fa-t?ir, verse 45, Sura Az-Zumar, verse 43, Sura An-Nu-r, verse 4, and Sura Qa-fir, verse 67)

Then, as a conclusion upon this monastic discussion, the verse continues saying:

“… such is Allah, your Lord; …”

Allah is the Lord Who has assigned the system of light and darkness and the accurate movements of the sun and the moon with all their favours.

The verse continues again sayi

Share this article

Comments 0

Your comment

Comment description

Latest Post

Most Reviews