Rafed English

The Final Conclusion- Your Journey to Certainty

The Final Conclusion- Your Journey to Certainty by : Dr. Hatem Abu Shahba


In The Name of God, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

“Since we cannot change reality, let us change the eyes which see reality.” - Nikos Kazantzakis

“Let the hearts of those rejoice who seek the Lord.” - 1 Chron [16:10]

“Guide me in Your truth and teach me, for You are the God of my salvation; I wait for You all day long.” - Psalms [25:5]

“Blessed is the man who finds wisdom, the man who gains understanding.” - Prov [3:13]

“Oh my People, follow the Messengers!” - Holy Quran [36:20]

Dear Reader, dear human being, wherever you are and whichever time you exist, whether you are a believer or not, Muslim or not, monotheist or polytheist, fair or unjust, good or evil, righteous or corrupt, good-doer or sinner, truthful or liar, faithful or hypocrite, lover or hater, sane or foolish, whether you are interested or indifferent, white-skinned or black, yellow or brown, Arab or non-Arab, in China you reside or in America, in Europe you reside or in Africa, in India you reside or in Spain…all that does not matter. What is important is that you are a human being with a spirit and a unique being, with a heart and a pair of eyes, with ears, tongue, hands and legs…and most importantly a brain with sound intellect, intelligence and the ability to recognize and sense.

This is what makes you different from the animal kingdom and elevates you to the rank of a human being. Dear human reader, I present this clarification to you and I call upon you by every sacred, valuable and beloved thing to you. I invite you to begin reading these pages with full concentration, thought, insight, and with all patience and effort to dedicate sometime for yourself. I call upon you to live these words that you’re about to read and follow the thoughts, suggestions, logic, proofs, questions, certainty, possibilities, rejected thoughts, accepted ideas, equations, calculations, results and conclusions.

I present all that to your mind and intellect that is free from any previous knowledge, fanaticism, leniency, and from every belief or intimacy. I ask you to empty everything inside you except your brainpower, intelligence, sound judgment and wisdom. Do not bring anything with you except your common sense which is agreed upon by any human being.

Dear reader, be patient since this is all for your benefit. In the end, it will not hurt you and you have nothing to lose. Rather, you may gain some benefit, advantage, or profit, so this possibility certainly deserves your attention and patience. In the end, the decision is yours and the final judgment is in your own hands. But do not let anyone prevent you from reaping its fruits.

So stand up against every attempt to prevent you from using your logic and sound judgment, for there are always those who desire to discourage you from using your mind and try to lead you astray. After all, it is the right of your intellect that you give it an opportunity even for once, to make its judgment by itself. No one ever regretted when they saw the light, embraced it, and dealt with the truth. We offer this advice to you sincerely and we leave the decision up to you. As a known philosopher (Descartes) once said, “I think, therefore I am!”

Now, let us start our journey together from the very beginning. Extend your hand to me and let us promise each other that we search together for the truth and reject what is clearly far from the truth. That we accept the truth regardless of whether we find it sweet or bitter. Let us go ahead without further ado, in our intellectual journey until we reach our desired destination. So go ahead and flip the page and let us start in our first research topic of this book, Building Blocks of Faith.
When I first picked up the case studies in this compilation of work to read, little did I know what I was to embark on! By the time I finished reading this precious work, I was convinced that the thoughts presented here were divinely inspired. I was very impressed, yet I felt a bit of shame. I was glad and lucky to have read and absorbed the thoughts presented in these chapters as I felt that my faith have become revived and strengthened from its very foundation. Yet, I wondered why didn’t I (as human being with a healthy and functional brain) ever ask myself these questions posed in this work, without having someone else lift my attention to it? And if I did ask myself these questions, would have I reached the conclusions reached by logical deduction?

This piece of work which I consider to be a “masterpiece” is written by an humble, wise, and sincere servant of God, my esteemed father whom I consider to be my teacher and mentor at the very least. Because of its dire importance and value, we sought to translate this work by the grace of God which was originally written in Arabic and is now available in English to accommodate a vast population of readers.

This work is unique in that it is directed to everyone who has a sane and healthy mind, regardless of their color, race, creed, or sect they belong to. It takes the hand of every human being and walks them step by step in the journey of guidance, in order to build the foundation of their faith from scratch, while disregarding any prior belief or influence, whether from our upbringing or societies we live in. Even if the building of faith is already present, it is still worth the time for you read this work and embark on this journey to renovate, reconstruct, and inspect this building from the bottom and up, just like a home inspector who routinely conducts an inspection of a house or building.

The thoughts presented in this work are based simply on two things:

1) Common Sense and Logical Deduction.

2) Facts in History which are definite and accurate.

It is directed to people of all backgrounds, classes, and levels of education. There are no prerequisites to reading these research topics. You don’t need to own a bank account or earn a college degree. You don’t need to come from a high class family or be a citizen in your homeland. You don’t need to own a house or have connections. No pens or paper need! All the reader needs are two important tools in order to fully benefit from the thoughts presented in this valuable compilation of work. These tools, which are readily available to every sane person, are:

1) Logical Reasoning-that is, working the Mind and using basic rules of logic and common sense that are inherently born within us and is universal across all human beings.

2) Open-Mindedness-that is, the desire and motivation to search for guidance. This entails the willingness to accept the truth when it is obvious and reject falsehood when it is exposed.

The reader is advised to read the material sequentially and start from the bottom of the building before getting to the roof. This way, every brick will be appropriately placed in its position until the final brick is placed at the very top of the building. The purpose will be met best in this way and will avoid the reader from having any bias whatsoever.

So let us throw all of our preexisting thoughts behind our backs and start with a clean white piece of paper. Let us sharpen our minds and put on our thinking caps. Our only motivation now is to sincerely find the truth and accept it, regardless of where we find it and whether or not it matches our preexisting thoughts. Let us promise ourselves to readily accept the truth when it stares us in the face and to reject falsehood and nonsense when it is clearly exposed. With that said, you are ready to pack your bags in preparation to travel in your journey of guidance!
1st Research Topic: Logical Reasoning and Inevitability behind the Existence of God
Proposed Questions:

Why is it inevitable and essential that God exist?

What is the logical reasoning and essentiality behind the existence of God?

Does that reasoning follow the logic or not?

Logical Reasoning:

1) If we gaze at the spacious universe which surrounds the Earth, we will observe spatial objects and stars that all move in an orderly, specific, and sound pattern. These so-called stars are surrounded by planets that orbit them in an organized and systematic manner which reflect the rays of these stars. Surrounding the planets are small moons that move in regular orbits and their number is different from planet to planet. They too reflect the rays of the stars. These stars consist of great bodies of fire and blazing lavas, as well as gases and melted elements. Every group of stars, planets, and moons that have specific orbits are called a galaxy. In the spacious universe, there are in fact millions of galaxies that all move in regular and specific motion.

Furthermore, in every galaxy there are millions of suns or stars that are surrounded by planets in orbit, which are also orbited by the moons. Everything travels and moves according to the same fixed laws of motion (e.g., law of gravity, law of Newton, centrifugal forces, etc.) which if they were altered for one moment, it would disturb this neat system. In every second, many of the stars in these different galaxies get destroyed while many others are born. With these same stable laws, the new stars are orbited by spatial bodies which themselves are encircled by other smaller celestial bodies. This is how new solar systems are created; all this takes place around you and in front of your eyes millions of time in every second but you do not see or notice it. However, modern technology have revealed all of these facts to us including the fixed laws which govern these spatial objects, such that we are even able to apply these fixed laws and invent satellites which orbit the Earth for different purposes.

So the question we’re interested in asking is: Who originated and developed these precise laws? And more importantly, who made these laws constant and steady without being prone to change? Man requires an intellectual mind and sound judgment to simply benefit and apply these laws. In fact, it took hundreds of extraordinary bright heads joined together to make endless calculations and actually send off a satellite to orbit the Earth. This was possible only because these laws exist and are stable. Doesn’t it then require that these laws be established from nothing and that they be maintained in such a way that makes them constant and steady in any place in the universe? Doesn’t this challenging task require an extraordinary brilliant and super-intelligent mind that would create these non-existent laws, organize them and regulate them in every place and time? Isn’t this logical and necessary according to the human brain?

Consider the regulated motion of the multitude of galaxies in space? This magnificent arrangement could not exist by chance or by accident because it is built on regulated and fixed laws which man recently discovered. Could these laws possibly exist without a regulator who is in charge of maintaining such laws and regulating these systems? Could this all simply be a coincidence or happen in a random fashion? The laws we witness around us are considered to be great miracles, but what is more brilliant and challenging is the ability to maintain and keep these laws constant and ongoing in every time and place. Do our brains accept the idea of such intriguing phenomenon happening by chance?

Even if we accepted that, is it acceptable that such accidental and aimless phenomenon also take on the role of maintaining its intricate and organized laws in every place and time? If this was actually possible, would it be appropriate that we still consider these phenomenon as “accidental” or “random” or “chance”? After all, how can an “accidental” event be governed by rules that are comprehensive and regulated? How could such amazing and beautiful phenomenon exist by chance? And how could something exist from nothing?! Is that logical and does it agree with a sane mind?

Therefore, the question to ask now is: Who established these organized and meticulous laws and who maintains these laws at all times and in every place? Surely, there must exist a wise, great, strong, and competent mastermind and creator who behold such power and ability that enables it to carry out all that. This is indeed the logical conclusion that agrees with common sense of any sane person.

To make the picture more clear to you, consider this scenario: Man collects all the elements, tools, and equipment needed to assemble a satellite, then he left these various components on a field without constructing them together. Could one imagine that all of these components could come together and rebuild themselves in an appropriate fashion such that it could take off into space like a satellite would? Could such event happen by luck or chance? Certainly, this possibility cannot cross the mind of a sane and logical person! Without our mind and intellect, we could not ever reap the benefits of these mundane laws.

Then imagine what it would take for one to actually develop these laws from scratch, let alone maintain its continuity and application. Therefore, the logical mind concludes that if simply applying these laws require a smart, thoughtful, and intelligent mind, then it is imperative that the creator and regulator of these laws himself be very brilliant, knowledgeable, clever, and talented, etc. This creator must have the ability to create from nothing. Without having a creator with those attributes, there would not exist any law and there would not be the need to regulate anything. Hence, we would not see any sun, stars, galaxies, or constellations when we gaze at the sky.

If it was not for these laws, there would not be any orbital or spatial bodies. The actual presence of these laws lead us to believe that there must exist a God who established these phenomena and oversees its maintenance. This is the logical reasoning of the human mind and there is no room for denial or argument on this obvious conclusion.

2) If we take a closer look around us in our everyday life, we will notice that it is also governed by constant and well-defined laws in all fields. Similarly, these laws are similar to what we mentioned in the previous sections; they are constant laws in mathematical sciences, engineering, biology, chemistry, mechanics, physics, and pharmaceutical sciences, etc. When man was able to solve and decipher the mysteries and secrets of these laws, he was able to benefit from them and hence, the quality of his life advanced and improved dramatically. It would be foolish for one to think that the recent knowledge and advanced technologies that we experience in our life nowadays in every field is the result of the human mind.

The human intellect was only able to discover these already pre-defined laws and rules and to simply apply them and reaps its benefits. Rather, true credit and recognition must be given first and foremost to the one who created these laws and rules from nothing. After that, this creator and founder made sure that these laws and rules were constant, steady, and applicable in every time and place. So who did all that? There must exist a capable, all-powerful, and mighty creator who is in control at all times! As we mentioned before, if simply benefiting from these laws requires the presence a wise, smart, and brilliant human mind, then creating these laws and keeping them in a constant and steady form certainly requires a much more brilliant and intelligent being who is more knowledgeable and capable than man.

For example, operating a computer and its programs demands a smart and clever user. Then imagine what it would take for a person to actually invent the computer and program it from scratch?! For instance, if you use electricity for heating, freezing, light or motion, then remember this great creator who developed the electrical energy and created its intricate laws. Based on these laws, we were able to use this energy in our everyday life and enjoy it although we don’t realize exactly who the creator and caretaker of this phenomenon is.

When you turn on your television set, radio, wireless, radar, telephone, video, or satellite network; you are indeed using instruments whose functions rely on constant, well-defined laws that are specific to electromagnetic waves present in the air which need to be carried and received appropriately. These waves were present with its laws ever since the Earth existed, but all man did was simply encounter these laws and apply them after he learned its constant rules and conditions. So, all praise and credit is due to the creator of these previously nonexistent laws that enabled us to invent these instruments and devices which in themselves stand as an obvious proof of His Existence.

If you ride transportation such as a car, train, aircraft, rocket or ship, all of these inventions have been built based on laws which convert fuel to energy, which is in turn converted into motion in different ways. If it was not for these well-defined and constant laws, the scientists and researchers would have not been able to invent and build such intricate machines. So all credit here should be given to the creator and sustainer of these laws!

There exist many laws around us which are constant and well-defined. For example, there are centrifugal forces, light energy, speed, electrical forces, heat energy, wave motion, atomic energy, magnetic energy, nuclear power, gravitational forces, floatation, sound waves, calculator, natural laws which govern the interaction between electricity and heat, electricity and light energy, light and heat, light and speed, speed and force, electricity and sound waves, light and sound with electro-magnetic waves.

There also exists chemistry-related laws; the interaction between atoms, and molecules of elements and compounds, laws that govern these elements and compounds; laws that convert raw materials into products, laws related to industrial science, devices, papers, textiles, compounds, toys, masterpieces, chemicals, food, drink, luxuries…all of that exist with well-defined and constant laws. Ask the scientists and they’ll tell you that they built all these inventions and innovations based on laws that already exist in all the different fields.

Everything you see around you from advanced technology and innovation stand as a witness and proves that these laws exist and are consistent, which in turn indicates the presence of the creator who originated these laws. Without the creator, there would be no laws, and without these laws there would be no inventions. And without these laws, there would be no life on Earth. So if you look around you and judge based on logic and common sense, you will realize that the presence of the creator is a fact and is logically inevitable and essential because everything around you indicates that.

3) If you take a closer look at yourself, your own body and organs, and the life in the creatures around you, e.g. animals, plants, and microorganisms, you will find that everything is governed by rules and laws. You can ask the scientists of biology, physiology, anatomy, and biochemistry about the laws like those which deal with the cells, osmosis, nuclear acids, genes, nutrients for the cells; laws dealing with conservation and expenditure of energy. The process of building and breaking down (anabolism and catabolism) require laws, as well as those that deal with tissues and the different organs in our body. Every organ carries its function based on specific laws. Even the relationship of the organs with each other requires laws.

The different body systems and processes such as breathing, gas exchange, blood flow, blood pressure, and heartbeat all work under a defined set of laws. Furthermore, the digestive system, excretion, reproductive, endocrine, and nervous system also are regulated by laws. Our five senses, muscle movement, nerve impulses, and perspiration require laws. The brain and its thought process, cognition, and coordination of physical movement all have laws that govern them.

Every place in our body like our skin, hair, bones, and joints work with laws, as the scientists could testify to that. When man was able to unravel these different processes and gain knowledge about them, many questions were answered. Man was able to benefit and develop in areas like medicine and biosciences. He was able to experiment with in vitro fertilization and even predicts the gender and inherited traits of an embryo in its mother’s womb.

And now, he wants to take a step further and control genetics (through the Human Genome Project)! Man was able to perform simple and complicated surgical procedures and develop other treatments and means of diagnostics. Even the diseases are governed by laws that are stable as well as the drugs used for treatment. Medical treatment became possible when man discovered some of these laws and was able to run analytical and diagnostic tests to detect a disease. If it was not for these consistent laws, it would’ve been impossible for us to grow and develop as we did. It would have been impossible for the human body and organs to carry out its functions. In fact, all the scientific disciplines and medical specialties have come to existence based on these unchanging laws that govern our lives. So who does all the credit go to?

Logically, our mind tells us that the credit is due to the one who originated and established these laws from nothing and ensured their continued status. Without the creator, no law would exist; and without law, we would not be able to reap the benefits of an organized and stable system. After deep thought and study, the sound judgment of a wise mind finds it inevitable to admit the necessity of the presence of a great Creator who wisely and powerfully created all these mundane laws for all the living creatures who are alive only because these laws exist. So, life in and of itself indicates the presence of laws, and laws indicate the presence of a law-maker and regulator. In fact, your whole existence and life surrounding you is proof to the logical existence of a creator and founder of these mundane laws.

So far, we did not discuss or dwell on how life was created from nothing and this in itself is a clear proof which the mind cannot escape from. We will avoid discussion in this topic due to the high volume of controversy and discussion that has already taken place in this topic. There are those who support the theory of Mother Nature and that life came into existence by chance. Others believe in the Darwin theory of evolution. These theories are illogical and go against common sense! In order for evolution and gradual development to happen, this process requires a source of energy that needs to be intelligent and thoughtful.

Or else, why would the process of evolution always proceed towards completion and perfectionism, and why is it always a one-way road? Even if this theory proves to be correct, its principle is a proof of the presence of an all-powerful and dominant, wise creator. Actually, thanks to those who presented this theory of evolution because they provided for us another proof that supports the existence of a creator.

4) If you take a look at the nature surrounding us, you will find that it is also built on rules and laws that are stable and do not change. For example, there are night and day, four different seasons, solar and lunar eclipse, earthquakes and tornados, hurricanes and blizzards, thunderstorm and lightening, rain and snow. All of these natural phenomena are governed by laws which we gained knowledge about and was able to predict the earthquakes and forecast the weather. Man was able to predict the occurrence of an eclipse and season timing in different places. The existence of these laws that govern nature in a consistent and continuous manner certainly indicates the presence of a creator who originated these natural phenomena. If it requires a mature and wise mind to simply benefit from these laws, then it is logical that the law-maker himself has to be even more intelligent, wise, clever, and powerful.

4) Take a closer look at the atom and its composition, contents, and the laws that govern and are governed by it. When man came to know about this building block of life, he was able to make new elements and radioactive isotopes. He was able to use the atomic energy (useful and destructive) and benefit from its physical and chemical properties in military, civilian, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic areas. The atom consists of a nucleus which carries a positive charge. It is very small, but it carries all of the weight of an atom and it is orbited by small electrons which are negatively charged. These electrons travel in different levels of orbital with different quantity in every orbital.

This system is very similar to the solar system in the universe and galaxies and is governed by similar set of principles and laws of motion. Is it not logical for the mind to conclude that the creator of the whole great universe is the same as the one who created the smaller particles in it, which is the atom? Isn't this a divine miraculous hint from the Creator Himself? Otherwise, if it was an accident or Mother Nature that created, the questions begs itself whether the accident or Mother Nature also intended that the whole universe be built under the same principle of its smallest particle?

And if it did so, could we still call it a coincidence or randomness, while it can find such similarity that is impossible to happen by mere coincidence? It was able to build a system which is totally against randomness! This cannot be accepted by the mind! After all, isn’t it more than a coincidence that we observe a great similarity between these phenomena which is impossible to have existed accidentally?

The word “system” itself contradicts the notion of “accident” or “randomness”. What is more logical is that there exists a creator who intended this similarity and harmony so that we can recognize this as a proof for his existence, even if we can’t visually see him. Once again, there are laws that govern the interaction of electrons with neutrons, protons with neutrons, etc. When man discovered all of these types of interactions at the microscopic level, he was able to use this knowledge in many fields. Doesn't these laws and its consistency and stability point to the presence of its creator, establisher, and maintainer?

6) As we reached the conclusion earlier, the rules and laws that govern the universe and the life around us is an organized system that is stable and cannot come into existence except by a powerful creator who is wise, capable, and in control.

If we were to accept the notion that life came to existence by Mother Nature, chance, accident, coincidence or randomness, then we pose the following question: Is it also possible for Mother Nature, randomness, or coincidence to create a defined set of laws and an organized system, and after that, take care of its maintenance, regulation, and continuity? This is absolutely impossible because the notion of accident, randomness, and nothing contradicts the idea of a system, organization, and existence. After all, can nothing create something? And can something create its opposite? Even if it was able to do so, could we then still consider it unwise, as the case is with coincidence and randomness? Furthermore, could man present an example of a similar analogy to this impossible theory so that we can make a sound judgment?

7) More importantly, there is the creation of man himself! Human beings are created with a mind and intellect, so how could chance or randomness create mind and intellect when they themselves lack mind and wisdom? Logical reasoning dictates that “a deficient thing cannot give what it does not have.” Therefore, what makes sense is that the one who created man and granted him the ability to use his mind and think, must be more wise, more knowledgeable, and more thoughtful than man himself, such that he is able to give his creation the mind and intellect.

From the previous items 1-7, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
1st Conclusion
There MUST exist a wise, all-powerful, strong, all-knowing, capable, dominant, eternal, and all-perfect God. The presence of this Creator is essential, inevitable and agrees with logic and common sense. This divine presence is surely a reality without any doubt, and therefore, it is a truth that cannot be denied or refuted logically, reasonably, or practically.
Proposed Questions:

We previously reached the conclusion that there exists a Creator. Now, the question we ask ourselves: Is there one creator, two, or more?

What is the reasoning and essentiality behind the idea that there exists only One God?

Does that reasoning follow the logic or not?

Logical Reasoning:

1) Our logic and common sense deduces that there are only two possibilities:

Possibility # 1: There exists only one God without a partner nor an associate with Him. He created everything; the universe, life, land, heavens, atoms, and anything else you can think of. He created them by Himself and He is the Dominant, Guardian, and Sovereign Ruler by himself.

If this possibility is true, then what can our minds expect? Logic and common sense simply deduces that if there exists only one God, then we should find everything around us to be organized and peaceful. There should be no disturbance of any kind or deviation from this organized system from any creature or living thing.

To make the picture clear in our heads, consider this example: Take a look at the different ruling systems present in the countries of our world. What is the difference between the countries that rule democratically and involves a leadership team consisting of a president, national assembly, and juridical authority, and the countries that rule in a totalitarian regime and dictatorship system? In the latter, the ultimate ruler is only one person and one dictator. There is no power existing except his power, no word except his word, and no law except his law.

We see that the condition of most of the countries around us that are ruled democratically with three branches of government and different authorities are unstable and troubling due to the presence of many conflicts, objections, rallies, protest, strikes, demonstrations, and confrontations. That is because often times, the president desires something while the national assembly (congress) disagrees and wants something different. The Supreme Court says that the decision of the ruler is not constitutional. There are confrontations between the national assembly and the Supreme Court, and so on and so forth. What has been decided today is cancelled tomorrow. A policy that is carried out this year is totally changed next year. Laws and bills are written down, discussed, and then disagreed upon, then laid for referendum. Some of these laws are accepted while others are rejected. Tentative or preliminary laws are applied, and then revised. So, the state of affairs are shaky, unstable, the power is split up, and the harmony is lost. Corruption is widespread, man is confused, and his matters are chaotic.

On the other hand, in the totalitarian regime governed by one dictator ruler, the matters are always stable and peaceful. The people may feel oppressed if there is an unjust ruler. However, due to the presence of one ruler, there is no room for conflicts, contradicting decisions, confusion, competing powers, strikes, demonstrations, no fluctuation in prices, no changes in laws, no political confrontation or conflicts, political scandals, propaganda or debates. Instead, there is stability, tranquility, and no deviation from the system. The system is enforced by force where nobody can deviate.

Therefore, our minds lead us to conclude that the stability and organization we observe in the life and universe around us indicate that the creator is one, the ruler is one, the controller is one, and the governor is one. Likewise, the state of the universe and creation agrees with the idea that the creator is one.

Possibility # 2: There exists more than one god…two, five, ten, or hundreds, etc.

Here we pose several questions to the mind which deserve some contemplation and answer. For example, do these different gods help each other and share in the process of creation and establishment of the laws? In that case, any creature together with the laws that govern him, have been created by these gods together!

Or does every god specialize in creating something particular in the universe and establishes its own set of laws? So there would be a god who created the sun, a god who created the moon, a god who created the stars, a god who created the fire, and a god who created beauty, etc. This ideology is similar to what the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and some of the ancient philosophers used to believe. Furthermore, do these gods know about the presence of each other? What is their relationship and level of interaction with each other? And how is their relationships organized? Are they equal in power, strength, ability, dominance, and wisdom, or not? If this idea is true, then what does the mind expect the picture to be? If we use our mind, logic, and common sense to answer these questions, we will find the following:

In the first research topic, we had reached the logical conclusion that there must exist a strong, capable, wise, and powerful God that is perfect without any deficiency. So, logically if there exists more than one god, it would be necessary also that every god possess the same attributes that we agreed upon in the first logical conclusion. So, every god should be strong, dominant, powerful, wise and without any deficiency. If that is the case with every god, then why would every god need each other to participate in the creation of the universe and creatures?

The idea of sharing and assisted cooperation is generally needed when there is deficiency in ability. This is what the human mind understands and this means that you may have a weakness in something and strength in another, while I have strength in one thing which you are weak in and weakness in another thing which you are strong in. In that case, you and I will need to come together to complement each other in the areas we lack so that we cover up for each other’s deficiency. However, if you are capable, strong, and perfect in your abilities, then there will be no need for partnership or cooperation with other gods to create a universe, life, or creature. This is logical and agrees with common sense, so the idea of cooperation between gods to create something which means that every being is the result of cooperative creation from more than one god is a rejected idea for any logical and reasonable mind.

Another idea that may cross the mind is that every god specializes in the creation of a specific being in the universe. For example, one god created the stars; another god created the human beings, while another created the animals. If we accept this notion, it means that every god possesses his own will. Or else why would each god specialize in creating something that is different from the others? This is clearly logical and so long as we assume the multiplicity of gods, then there will also be multiplicity of wills and desires.

And this naturally leads to the fact that these different wills may either coincide or contradict each other. These supposed gods who should all be knowledgeable (as we reached in the previous research topic), should be very well aware and cognizant of each other’s presence. Furthermore, they should know the wills and desires of each other. Now, if the desires of all the gods coincide with each other, then there is no problem. But, what will be happen if their wills and desires clashed or contradicted each other, as we expect that to happen whenever multiplicity exists? What will happen in this case and how will these conflicts and disagreements become resolved, taking in consideration that the creation is living together in one universe? Will one of the gods impose his opinion on the others, or will he surrender to the other’s desires? Will they all reach to a compromise, or will each god take his creation along with him to a different place?

All of these scenarios are impossible to happen because they contradict the logical attributes of God. After all, if a god became defeated, was forced upon, surrendered, or conceded, then he cannot be called god since all of these actions indicate weakness and deficiency. Rather, we expect the god to be absolutely strong, perfect, powerful, and without any deficiency. So if all these scenarios are impossible and illogical, then this means that there are no contradictions. And if contradictions are impossible, it follows that multiplicity is also impossible which leads us to confirm that God is indeed only one.

What is the relationship between these gods and each other? Are they friends? Or are they enemies? Or are they neither friends nor enemies? If they are friends, then how will their friendship last when they have interests and desires which may clash or contradict each other? If they are enemies, what will happen to the universe and creation as a result of their hostility? And if they are indifferent to each other, how is that possible when they have common interests? It is clear that all of these possibilities are invalid and totally illogical since they go against common sense and sound judgment! If these gods are not equal in power, dominance, and wisdom, then the one who has the lesser share of these attributes will be weaker. This will automatically disqualify him from being god!

Furthermore, what is the scope and extent of the relationship between these gods? Is there an assembly, for instance, that gathers them all as some of the ancient people imagined? If that is the case, then it would be logical for us to expect that this assembly will be governed by a boss who will be chosen or elected by them. This boss will therefore have authority over the others and that means that he will be more powerful and the rest will be less powerful (authority here will be relative). And if they become less powerful, this disqualifies them from being gods. Furthermore, the boss would also disqualified from being god because his strength will depend on the selection and submission of the others. Therefore, he will be deficient since he gains power from others while the god as we logically concluded, is perfect and without any deficiency. Therefore, this possibility is invalid and impossible to accept

Now, what does our minds expect the state of the universe, creatures, and life to be if there exists more than one God? Our minds can picture that the situation be filled with many struggles, problems and conflicting laws. There will not be an ultimate governor to turn for decision-making. Hence, corruption will become widespread in the universe and between the creatures in such a way that life cannot be imagined! In fact, what we observe in the universe is totally the opposite! Life is running continuously in a very organized, systematic, and orderly manner. All of the creatures are living in peace and tranquility. This state of affair totally contradicts the notion that there are multiple gods.

From this, we conclude that the first possibility we proposed earlier, that there exists only one God without any partner, is the only logical truth and reality that is accepted by our minds. As for the second possibility, it is not acceptable at all and does not hold any water, due to its impossibility and contradiction to logical reasoning.

2) As we discussed before in the first research topic, the universe, creatures, and life around us are all built on stable and well-defined laws. Every creature and every part of the universe has its own specific laws. Fire, water, plants, animals, and human beings are all governed by laws. The same is the case with the ocean, air, sand, wind, mountains, stars, planets, clouds, electricity, heat, light, sound, etc. But that is not all! There is even another set of laws which regulate the relation and interaction between all these creatures with each other. So there are laws that regulate the scope of interaction between the fire and water, fire and air, air and water, heat and electricity, heat and water, sun and earth, earth and planets, stars and planets, galaxies with each other, acids and alkaline, cats with mice, birds with snakes, winds with clouds, and so on and so forth. The list of examples can go on and on without end.

Every creature has laws that regulate his relationship and interaction with the other creatures. These laws and regulations are stable and do not change in any time or place, so what does all of that indicate? Pure logic and common sense tells us that the creator of the universe and everything else is only one. Otherwise, if there is more than one god who each specializes in a particular creation, then why is there all that concern to regulate the relationships and interactions between the creatures and each other?

Furthermore, if every God established their own laws for their own creation, then who will take care of establishing the set of laws which govern the relationships between all the creation? For example, if one god creates the fire and another god creates the water with each of their individual set of laws, who then is the God who establishes the laws which precisely regulate the interaction between fire and water? Is it the god of the fire or the god of the water or a third god who is different from them? If it is the god of the fire, then how will it exercise his power over the water when it is not the god of water?

Similarly, if it is the god of water, how will it determine the relationship of water with fire when it is not the god of fire? And if it is a third different god altogether, how will it mediate the interaction between their individual creations? If this third god enforces its law on both of them, then that means that the other two gods are both disqualified to be gods because this third god will be more powerful than them. On the other hand, if the third god derives its power from their submission to them, then it also will be disqualified from becoming god since its authority will be dependent on the others. Therefore, it will be deficient and a God as we agreed earlier, has to be absolutely perfect without need for anyone or anything. Therefore, all of these ideas are rejected and deemed impossible!

Rather, what makes sense and follows logical reasoning is that the creator of the fire is the same God who created the water, and he is the same God who created everything else. Hence, He is the only one who established the laws which regulate the interaction between all the creatures and each other. There is only one creator, and one God without any partner or associate! This is what our minds accept as the logical and reasonable conclusion.

3) Furthermore, there is a clear similarity in many of the laws that are specific to every creature and the laws which overall regulate the interaction between the creation and each other. That in itself is a clear indication that the creator of these various sets of law is only one and not more. After all, if the law-makers were more than one, we would’ve seen a great difference in the laws. For example, the laws that govern living cells are generally constant, whether in the plants, animals, or human beings. The laws that govern the sun and its fire, and elements, and its movements and rays are similar to the laws which govern the rest of the stars in the universe.

In fact, the laws that control the earth and its movement are not different than those which govern the planets Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. The earthly elements are nearly the same as the elements present on the sun, moon, planets, and living organisms. The laws that connect the sun with the earth are similar to those that connect the sun with Venus and those which link a star with any planet. In fact, it is his similarity and huge resemblance in the laws which enabled man to make predictions, scientific guesses, and theories before even discovering or proving them! This is possible by using the laws as a tool of measurement and reference point. This actually happened and is presently occurring frequently in every branch of science and in the developing fields of study. Through this process, the scientists and scholars were able to make new discoveries and reveal more secrets.

So, the discovery of one compound in the body can lead (through prediction based on the similarity of laws) to the discovery of hundreds of other compounds in other bodies which perform different functions, but it is similar in law and regulation. Doesn’t the fact that we’re able to use comparison and measurement with the laws indicate that its creator, inventor, and organizer is only one without a partner? This is the conclusion that we reach using sound judgment and logical reasoning.

5) Furthermore, we observe great connection, network, and dependability between all the creatures. So there is no life without energy, no energy without heat, no heat without reactions, no reactions without elements and compounds, no life without food, no food without animals, no animals without plants, no plants without sunlight, oxygen and water, no light without sun and stars, no water without clouds, mountains, rain, wind, ocean, river, seas, and underground earth soil that is able to store water. There is no oxygen without plants and air, no galaxies without planets, no planets without stars, no stars without fire, no agriculture without suitable valleys and freshwater, and no freshwater without saltwater, and all that is for the benefit of man. There are no inventions, development, or equipment without man, and the list goes on and on in one circular network or chain that links everything together and is dependent on each other.

Doesn’t this complicated but well-organized chain and dependency of creatures on each other prove that there is indeed only one God? After all, if different gods create different creatures and have no relationship with each other, there wouldn't be all that organization, dependency, and networking! If every God created something different without having any relationship with the other creatures, then why do we see strong interaction and dependency of these creatures with each other? For example, if you opened a television set to view its internal structure, you will find thousands of circuits and electric cells, fuses, and condenser that may be different in shape, form, content, laws, or function. But they are all part of one network and they all work together in harmony, complement each other, and depend on each other to achieve a function. Now, would you have any doubt at that moment that the maker of this television set is only one person, one manufacturer, and one designer? This is logical and clear without any disagreement or debate.

6) Notice the magnificent similarity observed between the biggest things in the creation which is the endless vast universe (including its solar systems, galaxies, stars, and planets), and the smallest particle in our earthly life which is the atom (with its nucleus, electrons, protons and rays). Doesn’t this miraculous similarity in the structure, organization, and movement indicate the oneness of the creator? After all, if the one who created the greatest thing in the universe is the same as the one who created the smallest particle in the creation, then we can logically conclude that anything between them from creatures and beings are also the production of the same one God.

Furthermore, doesn’t this harmony and resemblance in the universe contradict the notion of life being created accidentally or by chance? Isn’t it obvious that the creator intended for resemblance to exist in the universe so that we can reflect upon it, realize, and appreciate His extreme mightiness and His Oneness? Indeed, common sense and logical reasoning dictates that there exists only one God without any accomplice and one creator without a partner. Otherwise, what does that resemblance and similarity indicate?

From the previous items 1-5, we can comfortably conclude after thorough study and contemplation and after using our mind and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence, faith and without any doubt conclude that:
2nd Conclusion
The god and creator is only one, without any partner or associate with Him. He created everything alone with His own Power, Ability and Wisdom. This is surely a reality without any doubt and it is a truth that cannot be denied or refuted, logically, reasonably, or practically.
Proposed Question:

What are the essential and logical attributes that should be present in the One God whom we proved His Existence and Oneness?

Logical Reasoning:

We have established in the first research topic of this case study, that the existence of a creator is a reality that is logical and inevitable. Furthermore, we established the oneness of God in the 2nd research topic. Now, it is imperative on us that we pause and use our minds to examine this Creator and the logical attributes that are essential to be present in Him, based on the reality of the natural phenomena and creation that we observe around us in the universe.

In the first research topic, we had agreed on some logical attributes that we expect to be present in the Creator. However, it is worthwhile to take a closer look in this aspect as follows:

1) So far, we have concluded that God is the One and Only Creator of everything including the laws that govern all of creation. He is the Guardian and Caretaker who maintains the continuity and preservation of laws. He is the one who rules and everything eventually returns to Him. Therefore, among His characteristics is Lordship, which means continuous governorship, guardianship, and care which never ceases. Therefore, He is Lord and we can refer to Him as the Great Lord, or the Lord of All Creatures, or the Lord of All Worlds. This nomenclature is accepted by our minds and can be reached by pure logic. The Lord created everything from nothing, and He was not created, since He is Solitary and there is no one before Him or after Him. There is no one who shares His Lordship, He has no boundaries or limits, and this is logical being that He is the One and Only God. He is one without being divided or constructed, because the divided or constructed usually need its parts to function. And God, as we agreed, does not need anything. This attribute is logical to His divine and absolute Being.

2) Furthermore, it is logical that this One God has to possess a lot of Strength that is too great to imagine such that He is able to create all living and non-living things. In fact, our human minds cannot possibly reckon all the creatures, universe, and what’s behind them. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that no one can ever comprehend, imagine, or calculate the strength of God. Strength naturally leads to capability, and this capability cannot be measured because it is built on strength that cannot be conceived. Since this one Creator possesses immeasurable strength and capability, then this naturally means that He can do anything He desires and no one can prevent Him from doing so. That is because everything else will have much less strength than Him and their strength is derived from the Strength of the Creator.

Everything is deficient while the Creator is completely perfect. Therefore, the whole creation is submissive to His Will and Desire. So, it is logical that no being or creature can escape the divine will. Nor do they have any authority to change, appeal, or substitute this divine will because they do not possess the strength or ability to do so. Since the Creator possesses strength and ability that cannot be measured or conceived, we can therefore conclude that His Strength and Ability are absolute attributes.

3) Furthermore, God the Creator must be very magnificent and so great that we cannot measure His Greatness, and so magnificent such that minds cannot envision His Glory. After all, our simple minds cannot imagine the greatness of the universe, the number of stars, or number of atoms in one gram of iron while these are all simple creations from the Creator! Then how can our minds possibly comprehend the magnitude of the Creator Himself?! Of course, the human mind cannot reach to such level of comprehension because it has limited capability in thinking, understanding, and imagination. God is very Magnificent and Great, and our minds cannot fathom or measure His Greatness. We can therefore conclude that the Greatness and Magnificence of the Creator is absolute and beyond any limits whatsoever!

Since God is absolute in His Greatness and Magnificence, then this also means that He is Greater than any of His creation. Even if you were to gather all of the creation and universe together, God is still greater than all in such a way that cannot be pictured or imagined.

Since God is absolute in His Greatness and Magnificence, it is fair to say that He is also Vast and All-Encompassing in an absolute manner. It follows then that absolute strength, mightiness, greatness, magnificence, all-encompassing attribute that is incomparable logically leads us to conclude also that God is the ultimate defeater of those who refuse to obey Him. He is absolutely Dominant over those who challenge Him, and He is an absolute Compeller over those who have the audacity to disobey, challenge, or oppose Him. All of these are attributes of God which we can logically and reasonably deduce using our minds and intellect.

4) It is clear and logical that the One and Great Lord must be very Knowledgeable and All-Aware. His Knowledge is so vast that it cannot be measured and is beyond any limit or imagination. After all, if our minds cannot comprehend some or part of the creation, then how can we possibly conceive or imagine the magnitude of God’s Knowledge of all His universe and creation? Therefore, we can conclude that the knowledge of God is absolute, unlimited, and is beyond everything; the past, the present, the future, the obvious, the hidden, the unknown, the interior and exterior of the earth and universe, etc. It is not possible to imagine that anything in the heavens or earth be concealed from His knowledge. Since His Knowledge is absolute, He is very well Aware of all the minute details and the secrets of the souls. Nothing is hidden from Him no matter what. The magnitude of all these attributes cannot be comprehended by our minds, except to believe in them since it is the correct way of thinking.

5) Furthermore, God the Creator should be Dominant and be in total control at all times. He should be the Sustainer and Preserver of all the laws which govern His creation. This dominance, control, and preservation of laws are absolute and cannot be conceived or imagined. After all, if our minds cannot conceive the preservation of one type of animal, or bacteria, or one of the galaxies which are all simple creations of God, then how can we possibly fathom the dominance of the Creator Himself? Hence, we can conclude that the dominancy, control, and preservation of God are absolute and beyond any limit. It is from the logical attributes that can be expected to be present in God so that life and the laws of the creations are kept stable and steady. It is also imperative that God be Truthful and Honest in an absolute manner. We can expect Him to be free from any fault or deficiency.

6) Our minds can also expect that God who possesses all of these attributes we discussed, is Boundless and without any limit. So, He the Lord cannot be described, imagined, or even fanaticized! It is impossible for us to specify a place, shape, body, resemblance, or image from His creation. Hence, it is logical to conclude that nothing resembles Him, describes Him, limits Him, or places a similarity to Him since all of that contradicts logic and common sense.

7) We can also logically expect God to be the Eternal and the Ever-Lasting one. His existence is before the existence of any of His creation, for He is the First (in an infinite manner) and before anything. Since He is not bound by time, He is also the Last (in an infinite manner) and after everything. These characteristics are logically deduced and necessary to be present in God the Creator.

8) We can also expect that God who created the well-defined laws of the universe and created man with an intellectual and wise mind, be very Wise, Intelligent, Clever, and Guider in such a way that is greater than anything and is in harmony with His Glory, Strength, Knowledge, Awareness, and Dominance. These divine traits are logical and does not need any explanation or proof because as the saying goes, “A deficient thing cannot provide what it does not have.” After all, man is not capable of comprehending the magnitude of another being’s wisdom that is similar to him. Then how can he possibly comprehend the magnitude of the Creator’s wisdom? Therefore, we can conclude that God’s Wisdom, Intelligence and Brilliancy are all absolute. Wisdom is necessary to be present in God so that He can create the universe and manage His creation, considering that He is the One and Only creator who does not have any partner.

9) We can also logically expect God to be Independent of anything and anybody. His attributes are not characteristics of Him, but they are the essence of Him, e.g., sweetness of sugar is not a characteristic of sugar but rather its essence. He is not to be described by any adjective because His characteristics are the essence of Himself and He is not in need of anything. Hence, He is Rich, Perfect, and Independent of everything without any deficiency or change. This is an attribute that is logical to be present in God the Creator who by Himself created the universe and creation from nothing, and He created everything from nothing. So, He must have everything and is not in need of anything.

10) From among the attributes of God is that He originated and innovated everything. He is beautiful, since everything in His creation is wonderful and beautiful. After all, how can God provide splendor and beauty when He Himself lacks that attribute? His Beauty and Innovation are absolute and agrees with the attributes we previously concluded. He originated everything without a previous example, and that is logical due to His eternity. He innovated with His Power and Strength without needing an example to follow and without resembling anything. So He is absolute Beauty, and absolute Innovator, and Beautiful, as this can be reached logically by our minds and common sense.

11) Furthermore, among God’s logical attributes is that no one can envision or visualize Him. After all, how can the naked eye envision God with all His infinite Greatness, Magnificence, Strength and Knowledge? If the naked eye cannot look at the sun directly, then it is not surprising that it cannot see the Creator of the sun!

12) From among God’s attributes which we can expect to be present in Him is that He is the Absolute Justice, which fits well with his other attributes. So, He is the creator of justice and He is the one who provides for the creation. And the deficient thing cannot give what it does not have. He is the absolute Justice and He applies His justice between His creations. So, justice is a logical attribute that must be present in Him.

13) As we logically deduced earlier, there is nothing that is similar to Him and He has no equal. He is Solitary and His attributes are Absolute. Therefore, it is not possible for us to even imagine that He has a wife, father, mother, son, relative, or equal of any kind. After all, if God possessed any of these relations, then they would naturally be similar to Him and could be gods like Him. Of course, we had rejected the idea of polytheism in our past discussions, so this logically means that God does not have any companion or son. He does not beget nor is He begotten; nothing resembles Him and He does not resemble anything because He is the One and Only God while everything else is His creation.

Our minds cannot accept the notion that God created a son, father, or wife for Himself. This is simply because He is not in need of any one and any relation since His Richness and Independency are absolute. Given that these types of relationships are typically associated with creatures like animals and human beings, it is not appropriate for it to be associated with the Great and Solitary God. Furthermore, a son of God would logically inherit the same attributes as God or at least some of them. This notion is totally unacceptable because there is nothing similar to Him in His attributes whether all or some of it!

Hence, it is also impossible for any of God’s creation to possess even one of His attributes in an absolute and infinite manner because in that case, he would resemble God in His attributes. Therefore, we can logically and reasonably conclude that it is impossible for God the Creator to have a father, mother, wife, or to resemble anything in His creation. Any person who accepts this idea is going totally against logical reasoning and sound judgment.

14) It is also logical and natural that God’s presence be Permanent and Eternal in an absolute manner. He does not cease to exist, for if He did, He wouldn’t be God and therefore, the creation would not exist. He should also have absolute eternal life, for He is always Alive and Immortal and He never tastes death. If He died, then the whole creation and life would end. Also, among His attributes is continuous and absolute awakefulness, for if he slept or went into slumber even for one second, life would immediately end and the laws of the universe would be disturbed. His Presence is Constant and He does NOT experience change. That is because all the laws of the universe are maintained in a steady fashion by God. After all, if God changed, then the e laws would not be constant and there would be disturbance in the universe and kingdom. All these characteristics are logically necessary to be present in God being that He is God the Creator.

15) Based on the previously discussed attributes, we can logically deduce that God is the Absolute King, Ruler, and absolute owner of the whole universe, creation, and existence; both what we see and what we don’t see. He is the Ultimate Judge between His creation and He has the total freedom to do anything in His Kingdom. No body shares Him in His Governor

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