Tayammum should be performed instead of Wudhu or Ghusl in the following seven conditions: When it is not possible to find sufficient water for performing Wudhu or Ghusl
If a person is unable to find water on account of old age or weakness or due to fear of a thief or a beast or because he does not possess means to draw water from a well, he should perform tayammum. The same order would apply in case the trouble to acquire water is usually considered to be unbearable.
If a person fears that if he uses water his life will be in danger or he will suffer from some ailment or defect in his body or the ailment from which he is already suffering will become acute or some complications will arise in its treatment. However, if warm water is not injurious for him, he should perform Wudhu with it and also do Ghusl with it in cases in which Ghusl is obligatory.
If a person fears that if he uses water to do Ghusl, or to perform Wudhu, he will be involved in hardship, he should perform Tayammum under the following 3 cases: In case he fears that if he uses the water for Ghusl or Wudhu, he will be involved in an acute thirst, which may result in his illness or death, or which it will be very hard for him to bear;
In case he fears that in the event of his doing Ghusl or Wudhu, the people whose care is obligatory for him may become ill or die on account of thirst,
and, In case he fears, on account of lack of water, for others ( whether human beings or animals ) besides himself, and their death, illness or restlessness is unpleasant for him.
In the absence of anyone or more of the three conditions mentioned above it is not permissible to perform Tayammum when water is available. If the body or dress of a person is impure and he possesses only so much water that it is likely to be exhausted if he takes a bath or washes his dress he should, on the basis of precaution, take a bath or wash his dress, and offer his prayer after performing Tayammum. However, if he does not possess anything with which to perform tayammum he should use the water for bathing or for Wudhu and offer his prayers with impure body or dress.
If a person possess unlawful water or container, he should perform tayammum instead of Ghusl or Wudhu.
When the time left for offering prayers is so short that if a person does the Ghusl or Wudhu he would be obliged to offer the entire prayers or a part thereof after the prescribed time, he should perform tayammum.
If a person intentionally delays offering the prayers so much that no time is left for Ghusl or Wudhu he will have committed a sin, but the prayers offered by him after performing tayammum will be in order, although recommended precaution is that he should also offer the prayers in question again after performing the Ghusl or Wudhu, whatever the case maybe.
In case a person is doubtful whether or not any time will be left for prayers, in case he does the Ghusl or Wudhu, he should perform tayammum and then offer prayers.
Things on which Tayammum may be Performed Performance of tayammum on earth, sand, a lump of clay or a stone in order, but the recommended precaution is that if earth is available tayammum should not be performed on anything else. In case earth is not available it should be performed on sand or a lump of clay and failing that on a stone. It is in order to perform tayammum on gypsum or lime - stone. On the basis of obligatory precaution, however, tayammum should not be performed, without proper excuse, on baked gypsum or lime or baked bricks or mineral stones.
If it is not possible for a person to procure earth, sand, lump of clay or stone, he should perform tayammum on the dust which may have settled on a carpet or dress. And in case even if dust is not available he should perform tayammum on wet earth. And if none of these things are available he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, offer prayers without performing tayammum, and it is obligatory that he should also offer his prayers again.
The things on which a person performs tayammum should be pure and Mubah - not Ghasbi
, and if he has no pure thing on which tayammum is in order, it is not obligatory for him to offer prayers. He should however, offer lapsed prayers .
How to do Tayammum. Niyyat: I am doing tayammum in place of Wudhu or Ghusl, so that my prayer or fast may be correct, Wajib or Sunnat Qurbatan ilallah. Strike palms of both hands together upon things on which tayammum is correct. Just putting the hands upon earth etc. is not enough. (Fig 1.) Pull both palms together from the beginning of the forehead down to the point of the nose. Both sides of the forehead joining the ears should be included. (Fig 2a & 2b) Then pull the left palm upon the back of the right hand from the projecting small bone on the joint of palm and arm up to the fingertips. Then pull the right palm on the back of the left palm likewise. Strike the palms together upon earth etc. second time. Pull the left palm on the back of the right hand, as explained above Pull the right palm on the back of the left hand, as explained above.
While performing tayammum one should remove the ring he or she is wearing and also remove any obstruction which may be present on his forehead or on the palms or back of his hands.
In case a person has a wound on his forehead or the back of his hands and it is bandaged with a cloth or something else which cannot be removed, he should wipe his hands on it. And in the case that he has a bandage on his hands which cannot be removed then he should strike his hands along with the bandage.
A person whose obligation is tayammum cannot perform it unless the time for prayers sets in, however if there is a probability that his excuse will cease to exist before the time for prayers is over it is better that he should not offer the prayers during the earlier part of the time.
If a person performs tayammum on account of non - availability of water or because of some other excuse his tayammum becomes void when that obstacle ceases to exist.
If some Ghusls are to be performed by a person but he cannot do the Ghusl it is okay to perform one tayammum, but it is recommended to do that for everyone of those Ghusls he should perform one tayammum.
If a person performs tayammum in lieu of Ghusl - e Janabat he can do his prayers, however if he performs tayammum in lieu of other Ghusl then he should do another tayammum in lieu of Wudhu.
Adapted from the book: "Fiqh"
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