Rafed English

Sunan An-Nabi

Sunan An-Nabi by : Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn at-Tabataba'i


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

The more science and technology advances, the greater the need for the implementation of the teachings of divinely sent prophets throughout human societies, as science and technology provide only machines and instruments – they do not provide the means to prevent their misuse by humans. The rise in murders, felonies, cases of individual and corporate corruption and other crimes clearly point to this fact.

If morality, which forms a significant part of the teachings of the divinely appointed prophets does not prevail and govern over human society, not only will the advanced science and technology fail to ensure human peace and prosperity, but they will actually add to the problems and miseries.

Indeed, the only factor which can halter man’s restive soul and control his stormy instincts and passions, permitting him to utilize science and technology for prosperity and success in life is morality, which originates in faith in Allah (God).

The moral teachings and precepts of the divinely ordained prophets and their own moral conduct are the best means of leading humanity to their ideal life. It goes without saying that in both personal and social life, the observance of moral principles is required of everyone - however this requirement is much greater for those who must lead societies and guide the people, since:

First: The one who is the instructor of society must himself be a model of supreme moral behavior and excellent human characteristics so that he may be able to wipe out moral decay from the people’s hearts and minds. Obviously if he himself is lacking in morality, he will fail to lead the people to the path of humanity and virtue.

Secondly: The responsibility of leading the human society is so great and crucial that no one can successfully perform it unless he himself has perfect morals.

For this reason, Allah (God) selected His prophets from amongst those who possessed exalted spirits, great tolerance, extraordinary patience, and other excellent moral characteristics. It was with the weapon of morality that the divinely commissioned prophets overturned the debased societies which were plunged in corruption and through which they led the ignorant people who had gone astray, back to the path of virtue and salvation.

In the Noble Qur’an, Allah (SWT) has addressed the Prophet Muhammad (S):

“Thus it is due to the mercy from Allah that you deal with the people gently, and had you been rough and hard-hearted, they would certainly have dispersed from around you.” (3:159)

The sublime celestial morals of the Prophet Muhammad (S) brought about the waves of the revolution of Islam - first in the ‘Arabian society and afterwards throughout the world.

In the light of this all-embracing spiritual and intellectual resurrection, dispersion turned into unity; unchastity into chastity and virtue; idleness into hard work and industry; selfishness to altruism; and ‘Arab arrogance to modesty and affection. Men and women were trained to become models of good moral behavior and to possess altruistic manners. Indeed, the morals of the Prophet (S) were so sublime and praiseworthy that Allah (SWT) has regarded them as great by saying:

“And truly you (Muhammad) possess great morals.” (68:4)

The Noble Prophet of Islam (S) possessed the magnificent status of prophecy and divinely-granted leadership - but his manners in dealing with the people and his way of life were so simple and gentle that when he was among the people and a newcomer wanted to know about him, he had to ask, “Which one of you is the Prophet?”

The Prophet (S) treated everyone with great respect and considered nobility and honor to be owing to faith, piety, and good behavior. He was not interested in wealth or status, nor did he revere anybody for his riches or position.

The Noble Prophet (S) never attempted to retaliate against the insults not did he disrespect anyone – rather, he forgave people’s mistakes or their misconduct. His reaction to the torment and disregard of the ignorant people was forgiveness and tolerance..

The Prophet of Islam (S) was fond of scent and spent more money on buying perfume than on food. In addition, he used to brush his teeth frequently and washed his blessed hands both before and after meals.

Whenever the Messenger of Allah (S) was about to leave his house, he would look into a mirror or into water to ensure he looked presentable - he always left home with a clean, pleasant appearance.

The final Prophet (S) had great love for ritual prayers such that during the night, he would get up several times, brush his teeth, and then offer the most devoted prayers. He would stand worshipping Allah (SWT), talking sincerely to the Almighty Creator for such a long period that his legs became swollen.

The Noble Prophet (S) took lessons from watching the sky, moon, sun, and every other thing in nature - and these phenomena attracted him to their creator more than to themselves.

In short, the Noble Prophet of Islam (S) was a perfect model of all excellent virtues and sublime human qualities.

In such a small book, it is not possible to describe all his praise­worthy manners and morals. In fact, this work contains merely a pale reflection of his celestial, resplendent portrait so that people all over the world can make his morals and conduct their own model of behavior and learn divinely inspired and taught morality and the correct program for life from him.

We would like to sincerely thank Tahir Ridha Jaffer for rendering this important work of the late ‘Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Taba’taba’i into a fluent and easy to read English and pray that Allah (SWT) rewards him in full for his painstaking efforts to bring to light the Prophetic teachings as conveyed by the immaculate Ahlul Bayt (as) and that this work serves to guide all of us as we strive to perfect our morals and character.

We would also like to thank all of those people who have contributed towards the publication of this book - especially The Mohsin and Fauzia Jaffer Foundation, Inc. – your reward is with Allah and his Noble Prophet (S). Without the support of everyone involved, the publication of this important work would not have materialized.

May Allah’s greetings be upon the one who was the selected Prophet and the best of pious human beings and may the greetings of the Angels be upon the faithful.

May the Almighty Allah (God) help all of us to follow the blessed footsteps of the Noble Prophet (S), whose path is sure to lead us into eternal salvation and paradise.

Islamic Publishing House
22nd of August, 2006 ce
27th of Rajab, 1427 ah
Due to the untiring efforts of our past scholars, we are in possession of vast collections of hadith literature, some of which have been systematically arranged subject wise, mostly in sections pertaining to different legal topics, while other compilations tackle only one subject or make up the hadith that were narrated from one particular person, infallible or otherwise. This book falls in the latter category.

Though it cannot be said that everything contained in this book is recommended practice, it does serve a two-fold purpose. One is that, indeed, many of the actions practiced by our great Prophet (S), as highlighted in the traditions, should be emulated by us and this cannot be overlooked. However, the second and more important purpose served by this book is to give us a better and more complete picture about the life of our beloved Prophet (S).

As has been noted by many, translating classical texts is always a daunting task. Many times I would come across a hadith that was simply incomprehensible. It was at these moments that I realized the true value of my teachers in the hawza. I would take the source to them and at times have lengthy sittings in an effort to break down the meanings of some hadith. The common classical dictionaries and lexicons had also become an invaluable asset for me during the translation.

I have tried to make this translation as simple as possible in order to benefit a wider audience. I have, admittedly, not paid due attention to the names of different narrators as I felt this was secondary to the purpose. It would therefore be likely to come across a mis transliterated name. Unfortunately, even in the hawza, there is no set standard when it comes to names and it is common to find scholars disagreeing between ‘Qatada’ and ‘Qutada’, for example.

At this juncture, I would like to express my appreciation firstly to Allah (SWT) (who always comes before all else), for giving me the ability to complete this translation, then to my beloved Prophet, for being such a wonderful role model for all of humanity. I also wish to thank my parents, without whom I would not be where I am today. Lastly, but most importantly, I wish to thank Shaykh Saleem Bhimji for adding the ‘Arabic text and transliteration characters, proofreading, typesetting and including a brief biography of the late ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i.

In conclusion, I pray to Allah to grant us all the ability to follow in the footsteps of our great Prophet – May Allah send His unending blessings on him and his progeny.

Tahir Ridha Jaffer
Qum, Iran
12th of May, 2006 ce
All praise is due to Allah, Lord of the universe, and blessings and salutations upon our master Muhammad (S) and his pure progeny.

Said Muhammad Husayn ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Husayn al-Hasani al-Husayni – may Allah forgive his transgressions: This is what Allah (SWT) made possible for us to compile from some of the narrations of the Muslim narrators, of the practices of our master, the Prophet (S), in the limited time and restricted period available. We ask the Almighty (SWT) to grant us the ability to follow these practices as much as possible.

The Almighty (SWT) has said:

“In the Apostle of Allah there is certainly for you a good exemplar” (Surat al-Ahzab (33), 21)

And the Noble Prophet (S) said in his advice to ‘Ali (as): “...And sixth is to follow my sunnah in my prayers and my fasting and my giving of charity.”1

And Imam ‘Ali (as) said: “Whoever disciplines himself with the character that Allah wants his servants to have, will be granted everlasting prosperity.”2 In addition, Imam al-Sadiq (as) said: “I would hate for a person to die before having adopted any one attribute from the attributes of the Holy Prophet (S).”3

Indeed, following in his footsteps and adopting his traits is the true perfection and final goal and it is with this that one can achieve success in this world and the next.

We have left out the mention of Makruhat (abominable actions), as it is part of our beliefs that the Noble Prophet (S) never performed any Makruh or Mubah action in a way deemed Makruh or Mubah, and this has been proven by rational and scriptural proofs.

We decided to delete the chains of narrators of the narrations for the sake of brevity, however we have mentioned the names of the books and their authors, and we have differentiated between the narrations with complete and incomplete chains so that anyone who wants to find the source of the narration can easily do so.

We have also mentioned his (S) nature because of its auspiciousness and because it relates to his moral character even though it does not fall under the topic of this book. We have not mentioned specific details of events but have instead concentrated on the general aspects and from Allah do we seek help.

Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Taba’taba’i
1. al-Mahasin: 17, al-Kafi 8:66, al-Faqih 4:188, Majmu’at Warram 2:91, Da`aim al-Islam 2:347

2. The Tafsir attributed to Imam al-’Askari (as): 17, Adabu Qira`ati al-Qur`an: no. 3, Bihar al-Anwar 92:214

3. Makarim al-Akhlaq: 39
We begin in the name of Allah from whom all things begin and to whom all things return. From Him alone do we seek help; He is the true source of abundance and from Him are all bounties.

Praise be to Allah, the first before any other and the last after whom there shall be no other. The one whom our eyes are unable to see and whose attributes cannot be comprehended by contemplation. He created the universe by His will, and then transformed the creation as He wished and showered them with His love.

O Allah! Bless Muhammad, the guardian of your revelation, the best of your creation, the leader of goodness, the key to divine bounty and the last of your prophets and messengers.

O Allah! Bless the family of Muhammad and his pure progeny and those from them who are closest to you, with the best blessings and bounties, and shower your all-encompassing and complete mercy on them; mercy that is endless and continuous. Amin – Lord of the universe.

Verily there are some fields of knowledge that are specific to those who are close to Allah, and these are those who are referred to as Prophets of Allah, and the last prophet who was sent by Allah for the guidance of mankind was the Holy Prophet Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah (S).

Of the teachings and lessons that have come to us through him, a part of it is what has been revealed in the form of the Glorious Qur’an which is known as ‘al-kitab’ and the other part is based on his actions and sayings and this is known as ‘al-sunnah.’ From among the sunnah are the actions that the Noble Prophet gave importance to and always performed.

This book – which we present to those who are interested in scholarly research and study – contains narrations about the actions that the Holy Prophet (S) stressed upon, those that he always performed and those that describe his life, conduct and ways.

In this introduction we will present some general issues with the aim of clarifying the subject which is discussed in this book and these are summarized as follows:

The word ‘adab’ used in classical and colloquial ‘Arabic has various meanings such as:

• Elegance, gracefulness and meticulousness in affairs

• Coming together of a community on an issue

• Obedience and respect to others

• Sciences and knowledge, praiseworthy conduct and good behaviour

• A positive force in a person that enables him to refrain from evil deeds

Adab also refers to some introductory sciences like the study of language, grammar, correct use of similes and idioms, eloquence in speech and poetry. It also refers to nobility of character, purity of the soul and perfection of the self.

As for ‘adeeb’, it refers to the teacher, the author and the orator. Similarly, it is used for anyone who has mastery over poetry and language, use of metaphors, effective speech and eloquent presentation.

The word ‘sunnah’ also has many meanings amongst which are: growth, maturity, clarity of speech, the graceful galloping of a horse, brushing the teeth, crying and flowing.

Sunnatullah refers to Allah’s commandments, His Will and pre-ordinances as well as His punishments and rewards.

Sunnah is also used to mean: the conduct, nature, origin, divine laws, choosing a particular route and following of desires and opinions.

These are the different meanings of the words adab and sunnah.

However, that which fits in with our discussion here is that: all actions that are accepted by the intellect and religion, if acted upon in the best and most excellent manner, would be referred to as ‘adab’. The person who has adab always performs his actions and dealings in the most graceful and elegant manner. As for the attributes that are concerned with purity of the soul, perfection of the self and the innermost part of the human being – like generosity, courage, justice, forgiveness, mercy and all other humanly attributes – these come under the title of ‘akhlaq’.

To put it in another way, adab forms the attributes of the actions of a person as they are performed in the ‘real’ world whereas akhlaq consists of the attributes of the inner self. These two meanings are in this way linked to each other.

Based on this, it would be wrong to use the word ‘adab’1 for actions that are not praiseworthy in the eyes of the intellect and religion such as: injustice, cheating, lying, miserliness, jealousy and the like; and this also applies to actions that are out of the control of human beings.

Similarly sunnah consists of the attributes of human actions, bearing in mind that the meaning of sunnah is more general than that of adab since sunnah refers to the good and evil ways whereas adab is only used to mean beautiful actions that are praiseworthy in the specific and general sense.

The Noble Prophet (S) said: “Excellent adab is the ornament of the intellect.”2

Imam Ali (as) says: “The adab are like new attires.”3

Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba (as) said: “One who has no intellect has no adab.”4

Indeed the ahadith about adab are numerous.

The human being is – based on his knowledge, beliefs, thoughts and emotions – of course bound by a chain of adab and sunnah5, with which his life starts and ends.

The adab and sunnah exemplify the spirituality of a community and reveal people’s thoughts and beliefs. Their growth and decline, successes and failures, progress and regress are all dependent on their adab and sunnah. Similarly, the only way to know an individual is by the adab and the sunnah that are particular to him and show his thoughts and opinions.

The adab and sunnah that have been found in different communities to date can be summarized into four types:

• The adab and sunnah based on superstition

• The adab and sunnah generally accepted by the masses

• adab and sunnah of the scholars and those with wisdom

• adab and sunnah of the prophets, messengers and infallible Imams (as)

It is not possible for us to pinpoint the exact time or location where the adab and sunnah based on superstition or those that became generally accepted by the masses began. We can say for sure, however, that there appeared among the monotheists a special form of adab and sunnah, from the time of Adam (as) until today, which is different from all the other forms of sunnah. This type of sunnah and adab is above the intellect and comprehension of human beings, and man is unable to reach it by his mind or senses. It is outside the realm of his understanding. Only a special group of men called ‘the Prophets’ are able to attain it by means of divine inspiration and revelation and they then pass it on to all the people. This type of sunnah and adab is based on a divine system that guarantees the success of human beings in this life and in the hereafter, materially and spiritually.

Allah (SWT) has taken it upon Himself to guide the Prophets in the Noble Qur’an and has endorsed their adab and sunnah and approved of their relationship with the people.

In Surah al-An’am (6), after praising Prophet Ibrahim (as), all other prophets from his lineage as well as from the lineage of Nuh (as) are mentioned. He (SWT) says:

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ كُلاًّ هَدَيْنَا وَنُوحًا هَدَيْنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِهِ دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُوسُفَ وَمُوسَى وَهَارُونَ وَكَذٌلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَزَكَرِيَّا وَيَحْـيَى وَعِيسَى وَإِلْيَاسَ كُلٌّ مِنَّ الصَّالِحِينَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِلْيَسَعَ وَيُونُسَ وَلُوطًا وَكُلاًّ فَضَّلْنَا عَلـى الْعَالَمِينَ وَمِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ وَإِخْوَانِهِمْ وَاجْتَبَيْنَاهُمْ وَهَدَيْـنَاهُمْ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ ذٌلِكَ هُدَى اللٌّهِ يَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُوا لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ أُوْلٌئِكَ الَّذِينَ آتَيْـنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْــحُكْمَ وَالنُّــبُوَّةَ فَإِنْ يَكْفُرْ بِهَا هٌؤُلاَءِ فَقَدْ وَكَّلْنَا بِهَا قَوْمًا لَيْسُوا بِهَا بِكَافِرِينَ أُوْلٌئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللٌّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمْ اقْتَدِهِ قُلْ لاَ أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرَى لِلْعَالَمِينَ 
“And We gave him Isaac and Jacob and guided each of them. And Noah We had guided before, and from his offspring, David and Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron — thus do We reward the virtuous — and Zechariah, John, Jesus and Ilyas, — each of them among the righteous — and Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lo — each We graced over all the nations — and from among their fathers, their descendants and brethren —We chose them and guided them to a straight path. That is God’s guidance: with it He guides whomever He wishes of His servants. But were they to ascribe any partners [to God], what they used to do would not avail them. They are the ones whom We gave the Book, the judgment and prophethood. So if these disbelieve in them, We have certainly entrusted them to a people who will never disbelieve in them. They are the ones whom God has guided. So follow their guidance. Say: ‘I do not ask you any recompense for it. It is just an admonition for all the nations”. (Surat al-An’am (6): 84-90)
And He (SwT) says in Surah al-Mumtahanah (60):
 قَدْ كَأَنْتَ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ...
“There is certainly a good exemplar for you in Abraham and those who were with him”. (Surat al-Mumtahanah (60): 4)
And it is narrated in Majma’ al-Bayan that the phrase ‘...and those who were with him’ refers to the other prophets.”
In Surah ale ‘Imran (3), He (SwT) says:
 إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهٌــذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَاللٌّهُ وَلِيُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ 
“Indeed the nearest of all people to Abraham are those who follow him, and this prophet and those who have faith, and God is the guardian of the faithful”. (Surat Ale Imran (3): 68)
Among other similar verses,
It has been narrated by al-Tabarsi in Makarim al-Akhlaq and by Sharif al-Rad’i in Nahj al-Balagha that Imam ‘Ali (as) said in one of his speeches: “And certainly the Prophet (S) was a sufficient example for you and a proof against the vices of the world, its defects, the multitude of its disgraces and its evils, because its sides had been constrained for him, while its flanks had been spread for others; he was deprived of its milk and turned away from its adornments.
If you want, I will, as a second example, relate to you concerning Musa (as), the Interlocutor of Allah, when he said:
“O Allah! I need whatever good Thou mayest grant me.” (Surat al-Qasas (28): 24).
By Allah, he asked Him only for bread to eat because he was used to eating the herbs of the earth, and the greenness of the herbs could be seen from the delicate skin of his belly due to his thinness and the paucity of his flesh.

If you wish I can give you a third example of Dawud (as). He was the holder of the Psalms and the reciter among the people of Paradise. He used to prepare baskets of date palm leaves with his own hands and would say to his companions: “Who will help me by purchasing it?” He used to eat barley bread (bought) out of his earnings.

If you desire I will tell you about ‘Isa, son of Maryam (as). He used a stone for his pillow, put on coarse clothes and ate dry food. His condiment was hunger. His lamp at night was the moon. His covering during the winter was just the expanse of earth eastward and westward. His fruits and flowers were only from what grew from the earth for the cattle. He had no wife to allure him, nor any son to grieve, nor wealth to deviate (his attention), nor covetousness to disgrace him. His two feet were his conveyance and his two hands his servants.”6

Al-Daylami has quoted Imam ‘Ali (as) in his book Irshad al-Qulub stating the importance of following the examples of the prophets’ (as) lives. He said: “As for Nuh (as), despite being the elder of the prophets who lived for a long period (in some narrations it is mentioned that he lived for two thousand five hundred years), he passed away from this world while he had not yet built a house for himself. When he would see the day he would say: ‘I may not get to see the night’ and when he would see the night he would say: ‘I may not get to see the day.’

Similarly, our Prophet Muhammad (S) passed away from this world without having placed one brick upon another. He once saw a man building a house with baked bricks and plaster so he (S) said: ‘The affair is more cursory than this.”

As for Ibrahim (as), the father of the prophets, his clothes were made of coarse wool and his food was made from barley.

Yahya ibn Zakariyya (as) used to wear clothes made of palm fibers and ate leaves from trees.

Despite his vast kingdom, Sulayman (as) used to wear rough fur and when night fell, he would place his hands on his neck and weep, remaining this way until dawn. His food would consist of palm leaves that he would crush with his own hands and he had only asked Allah for the kingdom to be able to gain power and defeat the kingdoms of disbelievers and subjugate them. It is also said that he asked Allah for contentment.”7

There are many such ahadith. To sum up, it has been mentioned in the authentic narrations that: ‘The best sunnah is the sunnah of the prophets’8 and especially the sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S) who is the last of the prophets. For his way of life is the best example for mankind to emulate. It has also been narrated: “The best of the sunnah is the sunnah of Muhammad (S).”9

The glorious Qur’an has in many instances praised the conduct, morals, method of dealing with people and the way of life of the Noble Prophet (S). In Surah ale ‘Imran (3) it is stated:

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللٌّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لاَنْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ...
“It is by God’s mercy that you are gentle to them; and had you been harsh and hardhearted, surely they would have scattered from around you”. (Surat Ale ‘Imran (3): 159)
He has been described as possessing sublime morality in Surah al-Qalam (68):
 وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلـى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ 
“And indeed you possess a great character”. (Surat al-Qalam (68): 4)
Then in Surah al-Ahzab (33), human beings have been ordered to take his way of life as a model to follow:
 لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللٌّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ... 
“In the Apostle of God there is certainly for you a good exemplar” ...(Surat al-Ahzab (33): 21)
He  says in Surah ale ‘Imran (3):
 قُلْ إِنْ كُنْــتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللٌّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللٌّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللٌّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ 
“Say: ‘If you love God, then follow me; God will love you and forgive you your sins, and God is all-forgiving, all-merciful”.(Surat Ale ‘Imran (3): 31)
 يَـا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَجِيبُوا لِلٌّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ... 
“O you who have faith! Answer God and the Apostle when he summons you to that which will give you life”...(Surat al-Anfal (8): 24)
 Shaykh Mufid has narrated in his al-Amali from Imam al-Baqir (as) that the Holy Prophet (S) said on his deathbed: “There is no prophet after me and no sunnah after my sunnah.”10

It is narrated in Jami’ al-Akhbar from the Holy Prophet (S) that he used to say: “Respect my offspring and adopt my adab.”11

In an authoritative hadith, it is mentioned that the Noble Prophet (S) used to say: “My Lord disciplined me with the best discipline.”12

Ibn Sha’bah al-Harrani has narrated in Tuhf al-’Uqul that Imam ‘Ali (as) said: “Follow the guidance of the Holy Prophet (S) for it is the best guidance and adopt his sunnah for it is the most noble.”13

It has been mentioned in the speech cited earlier from Imam ‘Ali (as) that he said: “You should follow your Prophet, the pure, the chaste, may Allah bless him and his progeny. In him is the example for the follower and the consolation for the seeker of consolation. The most beloved person before Allah is he who follows His Prophet and who treads in his footsteps. He took the least (share) from this world and did not take a full glance at it. Of all the people of the world, he was the least sated and the most empty of stomach. The world was offered to him but he refused to accept it. When he knew that Allah, the Glorified, hated a thing, he too hated it; that Allah held a thing low, he too held it low; that Allah held a thing small, he too held it small.

If we love what Allah and His Prophet hate and hold great what Allah and His Prophet hold small that would be enough isolation from Allah and transgression of His commands.

The Prophet used to eat on the ground, and sat like a slave. He repaired his shoes with his own hands and patched his clothes with his own hands. He would ride on an unsaddled donkey and would seat someone behind him. If there was a curtain on his door with pictures on it he would say to one of his wives: “O so-and-so! Take it away out of my sight because when I look at it, I recall the world and its allurements.” Thus, he distanced his heart from this world and removed its remembrance from his mind. He wished that its allurements should remain hidden from his eyes so that he should not take wealth from it, nor regard it a place of stay and hope to live in it. Consequently, he removed it from his mind, distanced it from his heart and kept it hidden from his eyes. Just as he who hates a thing would hate to look at it or to hear about it.

Certainly there was in the Prophet of Allah all that would apprise you of the evils of this world and its defects, when he remained hungry in it along with his special companions, and despite his nearness to them, the allurements of the world remained remote from him. So let the observer observe with his intelligence; did Allah honor Muhammad (S) as a result of this or disgrace him? If he says that Allah disgraced him, he certainly lies - by Allah - and perpetrates a great untruth. If he says Allah honored him, he should know that Allah dishonored the other when He extended the (allurements of the) world for him, but held them away from the one who was the nearest to Him of all men.

Therefore, one should follow His Prophet, tread in his footsteps and enter through his entrance; otherwise he will not be safe from ruin. Certainly, Allah made Muhammad (S) a sign for the Appointed Time, a conveyor of glad tidings of paradise and a warner of retribution. He left this world hungry but entered upon the next world complete. He did not lay one stone upon another (to make a house) until he passed away and responded to the call of his Lord. How great is Allah’s blessing to us that He blessed us with the Prophet as a predecessor whom we follow and a leader whom we emulate!

By Allah, I have been putting so many patch in this shirt of mine that now I feel shy of its tailor. Someone asked me if I would put it off, but I said: ‘Leave me - for only in the morning do people praise the night journey.’”14

It is narrated in Makarim al-Akhlaq from as-Sadiq (as): “I would hate for a man to pass away from this world while still not having adopted any of the attributes of the Noble Prophet (S).”15

There are many similar narrations.

It is therefore imperative for us to pay attention to an important point i.e. the sunnah that is the subject of this book is different in meaning from what is meant by the historians, those who study the sirah and ahadith, and also the jurists. According to the historians and those who write the sirah, sunnah is taken to refer to the history of the life of the Noble Prophet (S), from his birth to his battles, and the history of the lives of his progeny, family and companions etc.

According to those who narrate the ahadith, sunnah refers to the sayings, actions or quiet approvals of an infallible. The ‘ammah16 consider only the Holy Prophet (S) to be infallible while according to the Shi’ah, the pure Imams (as) are also included with the Prophet (S).

In the terminology of the jurists, it refers to a recommended action as opposed to the other four categories of actions i.e.: Wajib (obligatory), Haram (prohibited), Makruh (abominable) and Mubah (permitted).

In the ahadith, sunnah includes all the actions and commandments mentioned and practiced by the Holy Prophet (S) like the number of rak’at in the daily prayers and its different recitations, the way to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, marriage and divorce etc. Sunnah refers to all these commandments and legal rulings in the narratives and ahadith.

As for the term sunnah used in this book – as we have previously mentioned – it has a more precise and confined meaning from all these meanings and that is: all the recommended actions that were practiced and taught by the Noble Prophet (S) in his lifetime.

It is a known fact for scholars that there were numerous sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S) and these have been recorded in hundreds of books and thousands of ahadith. Each narrator has mentioned a portion of them according to what relates to the subject of his book. To the best of my knowledge there are hardly any books from either of the two sects – Shi’ah and Sunni - that consist of complete compilations of narrations about the Prophet’s sunnah and adab. Rather, it could be said that nobody has, to date, authored a book such as this one, with these particulars.

It is clearly evident that a compilation of the narratives that are related to the sunnah and adab of the Holy Prophet (S) would be an important service that would help to protect the spirituality of Islam and as this type of book becomes a source of information about the lifestyle of a man from the most perfect of men, it is of utmost importance.

The only person who thought of this matter in our present time was ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i, author of the original version of this book. He gathered the narrations that describe the practices of the Holy Prophet (S) and talk of his adab and sunnah in a book he called ‘Sunnah an-Nabi’ thereby opening the way for a righteous lifestyle for one who wants it.

It is fair to say that this book has filled a gap in the Islamic culture of our current time. We can easily say that there are very few similar works in this field, rather it is a scholarly work that it the first of its kind, conceived by the respected author.

This outstanding work was written by the ‘Allamah about forty years ago in the fifties (1350 ah/1929 ce), that is, when he was still studying religious sciences in Najaf al-Ashraf and it was not until Sha’ban of 1391 ah/1970 ce that I had the honor of meeting him in Qum and I asked if it would be alright if I embarked upon the translation of this book into Farsi. The ‘Allamah accepted this proposal and granted me permission - in writing – to take up this task.

In the course of my translation (of the work into Farsi) and confirmation of the sources and references, I came across some narrations on the topic of the Prophet’s sunnah that had been missed by the respected author. I gathered these narrations in a separate file and presented it to the revered ‘Allamah at another meeting with him in Mashad al-Rid’a (as) and upon completion of review, he asked that these narrations should be included in the book under the title of “Addendums”.

In accordance with his instructions, I placed an addendum after each section of the book, maintaining the original order except the addendum to “The nature of the Prophet” which I put at the end of the book. I also added two new sections to the original work, namely the section on Hajj and on the uncommon narrations.

It is befitting to mention that the sources referred to in this book are from the works of Shi’a scholars and no references have been made to the books of Sunni authors with the exception of Ghazali’s, Ihya al-’Ulum and Suyuti’s, al-Durr al-Manthur.

This book is generally divided into three parts based on the life of the Noble Prophet (S):

His sunnah and adab with his Lord i.e. his method of worship and supplication

His sunnah and adab with different categories of people i.e. his adab of social interaction

All his other sunnah and adab, like his adab while traveling, eating, dressing etc. which we will call his individual and personal adab

We pray to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, to grant us the inspiration and will to be able to follow in the footsteps and adopt the traits of the Holy Prophet (S).

O Allah! Bestow your sublime blessings and greatest favors on your Prophet, Muhammad (S). Grant him a lofty status in your proximity, reward him with multiple rewards out of your Grace, complete in him the light of perfection and bring us together with him in paradise. O Allah! Help us to practice his sunnah in our lives and to be beneficiaries of his intercession – Amin.

Muhammad Hadi al-Fiqhi
20th Dhil-Qa’dah al-Haram 1394 ah
1. Plural of Adab. (Tr.)

2. al-Bihar 77:131

3. Nahj al-Balaghah: 469 Saying no. 5

4. Kashf al-Ghummah 1:571

5. Plural of sunnah (Tr.)

6. Nahj al-Balaghah: 226 Speech 160 and also narrated by al-Zamakhshari in Rabi’ al-Abrar: section of despair and contentment.

7. Irshad al-Qulub 1:157

8. Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih 4:402, no. 5868

9. al-Ikhtisas: 342

10. al-Amali of Shaykh al-Mufid: 53

11. Jami’ al-Akhbar: 140

12. al-Bihar 16:210

13. Tuhf al-’Uqul: 150

14. Nahj al-Balaghah: 227 Speech 160

15. Makarim al-Akhlaq: 95 Hadith no. 183

16. A term used to refer to the Sunni Muslims. (Tr.)
‘Allamah Muhammad Husayn Taba’taba’i was born in the village of Shadabad near Tabriz on 29th Dhil Hijjah 1321 ah / 16th March 1904 ce. He lost his father, Sayyid Muhammad Taba’taba’i at the age of five and his mother passed away four years later while giving birth to his brother, Sayyid Muhammad Hasan. The experience of being orphans increased the closeness between the brothers and bound them throughout their lives.

The guardianship of the two brothers fell on the shoulders by their paternal uncle Sayyid Muhammad ‘Ali Qadhi and it was under his guidance that ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i began his primary education.

In accordance with the prevalent systems at the time, he first memorized the Qur’an, studied literary Persian texts and learnt calligraphy before moving on to a more detailed study of the ‘Arabic language sciences – grammar, syntax and rhetoric, the essential pre-requisites for more advanced study of classical Islamic corpora.

The ‘Allamah recounts his relatively late initiation into the world of scholarship and notes that he was initially averse to study and discouraged by his inability to fully understand what he was reading, a condition which continued for about 4 years. A turning point was finally reached when he failed a test on Suyuti’s renowned treatise on grammar and his exasperated teacher told him: “Stop wasting my time and yours!”

Shamefaced, he left Tabriz for a while to engage in a special devotional practice that resulted in his gaining a Divine bestowal – the ability to master any subject he studied, and this ability remained with him till the end of his life. In keeping with his general reticence on personal matters, he never identified the devotional practice in question. He later recalled:

“I ceased entirely to associate with anyone not devoted to learning and began to content myself with a minimum of food, sleep and material necessities, devoting everything to my studies. It would often happen during the spring and summer that I would remain awake until dawn and I always prepared for the next day’s class on the previous night. If I encountered a problem, I would solve whatever difficulty I encountered, however much effort it took. When I came to class, everything the teacher had to say was already clear to me; I never had to ask for an explanation or for an error to be corrected.”

After completing the Sutuh level of the hawzah curriculum in 1925, ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i went with his brother to Najaf, a centre of Shi’a learning traditionally designated as Darul ‘Ilm (the abode of knowledge). It was here that he spent many years studying the Kharij level of jurisprudence with such authorities as Mirza Husayn Na’ini (d. 1355 ce/1936 ah), Ayatullah Abul Hasan Isfahani (d. 1365 ah/1946 ce), Ayatullah Hajj Mirza ‘Ali Irvani and Ayatullah Mirza ‘Ali Asgher.

He attained the rank of Ijtehad while in Najaf, but never sought to become Marja’ al-Taqlid.

It was Qur’anic exegesis along with philosophy that came to preoccupy him for most of his career. More influential on ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i than any of his other teachers in Najaf was his cousin, Hajj Mirza ‘Ali Qadhi Taba’taba’i (d. 1363 ah/1947 ce). It was he who, more than anyone else helped to mould his spiritual personality. Sayyid Qadhi’s influence on him was profound. Under his guidance, he began to engage in gnostic practices, night vigils and various supererogatory acts of devotion.

In 1354 ah/1935 ce, ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i returned from Najaf to Tabriz, again accompanied by his brother. The return to Tabriz occasioned something of a lull in his scholarly activities for a roughly a decade during which he devoted himself to farming the family lands. Despite the degree of erudition he had attained, he was almost entirely unknown in the city.

In 1946 ce, he left for Qum, where he remained for the rest of his life. The city of Qum had enjoyed prominence as a centre of learning since the early days of Shi’ism in Iran, and it was here that the scene of the most fruitful portion of the ‘Allamah’s career as a teacher and an author can be seen.

To all outward appearances, the very epitome of the ascetic and retiring scholar, ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i was by no means negligent or unaware of the political sphere. Nonetheless he played little if any discernible role in the intense and prolonged struggle led by Imam Khomeini and his associates that culminated in the Islamic revolution of 1978-79 and the foundation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

By the time the revolution began, he was too physically frail to have participated even marginally. However, the leading role played by many of his students in the revolution indicates that the attitudes and teachings he had inculcated in them were at the very least compatible with support of the new Islamic order.

Weakened for many years by cardiac and neurological problems, ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i withdrew from teaching activity and became increasingly absorbed in private devotion as the end of his life grew near. In 1405 ah/1981 ce, he stopped as usual in Damavand while returning to Qum from his annual summer visit to Mashhad. He fell seriously ill and was taken to hospital in Tehran. The prospects for recovery were little and he was therefore taken to his home in Qum, where he was rigorously secluded from all but his closest students.

Shortly after, on 18th Muharram 1402 ah/November 7th 1981 ce, he passed away and was laid to rest close to the tombs of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim Ha’iri and Ayatullah Khwansari; the funeral prayers were led by Ayatullah al-’Udhma Hajj Sayyid Muhammad Rid’a Gulpaygani.

One of the characteristic of this great personality as portrayed unanimously by his students was his extreme modesty and humility. The ‘Allamah was never heard to utter the pronoun “I” through out his life whether in Arabic or Persian. Unlike many if not most of the luminaries of Qum, he would never permit his hand to be kissed, withdrawing it into the sleeve if anyone made an attempt to do so. He always refused to lead anyone in congregational prayer, even his own students.

When teaching, he never permitted himself to assume the position of authority implied by leaning on a cushion or against the wall, preferring instead to sit upright on the ground, just like his students. He was patient and forbearing with the questions and objections raised by his students, giving generously of his time even to the immature among them.

Allamah Tabatabai’s material circumstances in Qum were in line with his utter lack of self-importance. He had no access to the funds reserved for the students and teachers of fiqh, and sometimes he lacked even the money to light a lamp in his modest home in the Yakhchal-i Qadhi district of Qum. The house was too small to accommodate the throngs of students that would come to visit him, and he would therefore sit on the steps in front of it to receive them. Unlike many scholars, he did not amass a vast personal library, although he did leave behind a small collection of manuscripts.

Notable, it was not only his students who benefited from his modest and unassuming nature. Such was his affection for his family that he would often rise to his feet when his wife or children entered the room, and when it became necessary to leave the home and buy essential items, the ‘Allamah himself would undertake the task instead of imposing it on his family.

Such was the outward demeanor of one who, in the view of his disciples, had become ‘a mirror for the spirits of the Infallibles’, who had attained a degree of detachment from this world that permitted him to observe directly that which is part of the unseen realm.

Some of the works which ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i was blessed to able to write during his short life includes the following works:

1. Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an Munzal: The ‘Allamha’s most important single work, a monumental commentary upon the Qur’an written in twenty volumes in ‘Arabic. Its translation into English, carried out by the now deceased Sayyid Sa’id Akhtar Rizvi, has seen the first six volumes published (printed in 12 volumes).

2. Usul-i-falsafah wa Rawish-i-ri’alism - The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism: This has was written in five volumes and has been published with a commentary by the late Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari.

3. Hashiyahi Kifayah – Glosses of al-Kifayah. Glosses upon the new edition of al-Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirazi (Mullah Sadra), compiled under the direction of ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i, of which seven volumes have been published.

4. Musabahat ba Ustad Kurban - Dialogues with Professor Corbin. Two volumes based on conversations carried out between ‘Allamah Taba’taba’i and Henry Corbin.

5. Risalah dar Hukumat-i Islami - Treatise on Islamic Government.

6. Risalah dar Ithbat-i dha’t - Treatise on the Proof of the Divine Essence

7. Risalah dar Sifat - Treatise on the Divine Attributes

8. Risalah dar Insan qabl Dunya - Treatise on Mankind before the (creation of the) World

9. Risalah dar Insan fil Dunya - Treatise on Mankind in the World

10. Risalah dar Insan ba’d Dunya - Treatise on Mankind after the World

11. Risalah dar Nubuwwat - Treatise on Prophecy

12. Qur’an dar Islam - The Qur’an in Islam. The English translation has been published.

13. Shi’ah dar Islam – Shi’ite Islam. The English translation has been published.
1. From Ibn Shahr Ashub in al-Manaqib: al-Tirmidhi in al-Shama’il, al-Tabari in al-Tarikh, al-Zamakhshari in al-Fa’iq and al-Fattal in al-Raudhah have all narrated about the character of the Holy Prophet (S) with numerous narrations. From among these: Narrated from Amir al-Mu’minin (as), Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurayrah, Jabir ibn Samarah and Hind ibn Abi Halah: That he (S) used to be revered and venerated, dignified in the eyes (of the people) and honored in the hearts. His face would shine like the full moon, bright and white with a hint of redness.

He was neither too thin, nor too fat. He had a white forehead and a pleasant countenance. The white of his eyes was intensely white and the black of his eyes was intensely black, the edges of his eyelids were black, he had long narrow eyebrows, a moderately large and proportionate head and was of appropriately average height.

He had a wide forehead, the bridge of his nose was slightly raised, a little redness could be seen in the white of his eyes, his eyebrows were joined, and he had soft fair cheeks, long and broad forearms, large shoulder-joints, wide shoulders, strong hands and moderately large feet.

He had no hair on his chest, the soles of his feet were curved in the middle, lines were visible around the flesh near his backbone, he had long eyelashes, a thick beard, a full moustache, a mixture of black and white hair, a perfectly formed mouth and nose, fine white separated teeth, lank hair, a line of very small hair from the middle of his chest to his navel and a proportionate body. His stomach was aligned with his chest. He had a wide chest. His neck was beautiful like an image of pure silver.

His had extended fingers; the heels of his feet were bony and empty of flesh. He had a short chin. His forehead was slightly inclined to the front, his thighs were fleshy and muscular, and there was a slight swelling in his flank. His limbs were firm. He was of average height, neither too tall nor too short. He had curly hair not open falling hair. His face was neither skinny nor fleshy and its color was not as white as the white of the eyes. He had large joints. There was no hair on his stomach or chest except for a line of hair extending from his upper chest down to his navel. He had a large upper back. White hair was seen on the sides of his (S) head next to his ears (as a result of old age).

His hands were like the hands of a perfume seller – always scented with perfume. He had wide palms. The bones of his arms and legs were proportionately long. When he was happy and joyful his face was like a shiny mirror. He walked inclining forward1, with a humble gait. He would rush ahead of the people to perform good deeds. When he walked, he would raise his feet as if he was descending a declivity. When he smiled, his teeth would shine when exposed briefly, before being covered by the lips.

He was handsome, well-mannered, decorous and friendly. When he turned to face the people, they felt that his face was like a bright lantern, and the (drops of) sweat on his face were like pearls, and the scent of his perspiration was better than the most excellent musk. He had the seal of prophethood between his shoulders.2

2. Abu Hurayrah: When he (S) would turn to see the front or back, he would turn his whole body (not just his head).3

3. Jabir ibn Samarah: He was slender in the shanks.4

4. Abu Juhayfah: White hair covered the sides of his beard and the hair between his chin and the edge of his lower lip.5

5. Umm Hani: I saw the Holy Prophet (S) having four locks of hair.

Ibn Shahr Ashub says: In actuality he had two locks of hair and the one who started this (tradition of keeping the hair in this way) was Hashim (the Noble Prophet’s great-grandfather).6

6. Anas: I did not count more than fourteen white hairs on the Holy Prophet’s (S) head and beard.7

7. It has been said: He had seventeen (white hairs).8

8. Ibn ‘Umar: The sign of old age in him was (the presence of) about twenty white hairs.9

9. al-Bara’ ibn ‘Azib: His hair reached up to his shoulders.10

10. Anas: He had hair descending behind his ears up to the earlobes.11

11. ‘Aaisha: His hair extended beyond the earlobes but not up to the shoulders.12

12. In Qisas al-Anbiya’: There would be no place from which the Noble Prophet (S) passed but that all who would pass from there would know that he had been there from the scent of his fragrant sweat. He would not pass by a stone or tree except that it would prostrate before him.13

13. From al-Saffar in Basa’ir al-Darajat: Narrated from Zurarah from Abi Ja’far (as) that the Holy Prophet (S) said: Verily we, the prophets, sleep with our eyes but not with our hearts and we see what is behind us with the same clarity as what we see in front of us.14

14. From al-Qutb in al-Khara’ij wa al-Jara’ih: From his (S) miracles which have been confirmed by numerous sources, and disbelievers and believers have acknowledged it, was the seal of prophethood on the hair that had accumulated between his shoulders.15

15. In al-Manaqib: His (S) shadow did not fall upon the earth.16

16. From al-Kulayni in al-Kafi: Narrated from ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al-Nawfali from Abi al-Hasan (as), he said: I mentioned to him about (good) voice. He said: When ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn (as) used to recite (the Qur’an) and a person would pass by, he would swoon because of the beauty of his voice; and if the Imam manifests any of this, the people would not be able to bear its beauty. I said: Did the Holy Prophet (S) not lead the people in prayer, raising his voice in recitation of the Qur’an? He (as) said: He would recite in a way that was bearable for the people behind him.17

Note: And this has been narrated with numerous other chains of narrators.

17. From al-Saduq in Ma’ani al-Akhbar: By way of Ibn Abi Halah al-Tamimi from al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (as) and (in another narration) by way of al-Rid’a from his fathers, from ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn, from Husayn ibn ‘Ali (as) and also (in yet another narration) by way of a man from the lineage of Abi Halah from his father, from al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (as) who said: I asked my maternal uncle, Hind ibn Abi Halah – who always used to talk about the Noble Prophet (S) – to describe for me something about him so that I may increase my love for him. So he said:

The Prophet (S) was revered and venerated. His face would shine like the full moon. He was taller than those who were short and shorter than those who were tall (i.e. he was of average height). He had a moderately large head and curly hair. If his hair could be combed he would comb it otherwise, if he let his hair grow, he would not let it exceed up to the length of his earlobes.

He had a light complexion, a wide forehead, long narrow eyebrows that were broad but not conjoined, with a vein running between them which became visible when he was angry. There was a light which elevated him such that if one who saw him did not notice it, he would think he was raising his head with haughtiness.

His beard was short and thick; his cheeks were smooth and wide. He had a broad mouth with clear separated teeth. He had fine hair on his chest. His neck was like a beautiful image of pure silver. His body was proportional (all his limbs were the perfect size in relation to his body). His stomach and chest were equal in size. He had broad shoulders. His joints were fleshy. He had a wide chest. The unclothed parts of his body shone with brightness. He had a line of hair extending from his chest to his navel; other than this, his chest and stomach were bare.

His forearms, shoulders and upper chest were hairy. He had long forearms and wide palms. His hands and feet were thick and firm. He had extended fingers and bones that were without any protuberances in the forearms and shanks. The middle of the soles of his feet was raised from the ground and his feet were wide. Water would not soak them. When he walked he raised his legs from the ground and inclined forwards, treading lightly with soft steps. He walked briskly as though he was descending a declivity. When he turned to face someone, he would turn his entire body (not just his head).

His eyes were lowered; his gaze toward the ground was longer than his gaze toward the sky. He would look with short glances. He was the first to salute (say salam to) whomever he met.

He (as) then said: Describe to me his speech. He replied: He (S) was afflicted with continued sadness, always deep in thought and never at ease. He was silent for long periods of time. He never talked unnecessarily. He started his speech and ended it with great eloquence. His discourse was relevant and concise, without superfluity and not lacking the necessary details. He was soft-spoken and never rude or insulting. He would consider blessings to be great even if they were small, never complaining about them. However, he neither criticized nor praised what he tasted (or ate).

The world and its disappointments never made him angry. But when someone’s rights were usurped, he would become so angry that nobody would recognize him and nothing would stand in his way until he had helped him (get back his rights). When he pointed to something he pointed to it with his whole hand and when he was surprised he turned his hand upside-down. When he talked he would join his hands together, and would tap the back of his left thumb with his right palm. When he became angry he turned his face away and when he was annoyed he looked down. His laughter was manifested by a smile and (when he smiled) his teeth were seen to be like hailstones.

Al-Sadiq (as) said: Up to this point it has been the narration of Qasim ibn al-Muni’ from Isma’il ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad and the rest, up to the end, is the narration of ‘Abd al-Rahman ...

Imam Hasan (as) said: I kept this hidden from al-Husayn (as) for some time then I told him about it, but I found he already knew of this before me so I asked him about it and found out that he had asked his father about how the Holy Prophet (S) was, inside the home and outside, his sitting and his appearance; and he did not leave out anything.

Imam Husayn (as) said: I asked my father about the conduct of the Holy Prophet (S) when he entered his home. He said: He (S) entered the ho

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