Special Form of Positive Wala
The affection toward the Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet's progeny) is the special form of the positive Wala. It is an incontrovertible fact that the Holy Prophet himself has urged the Muslims to have special affection toward his progeny. Even the Sunni scholars do not deny that. It is this affection which has been mentioned in the verse about the Ahl al-Bayt.
Say: I ask you no reward for my preaching save love and affection toward my progeny". (al-Shura;42 23).
The well-known and authentic hadith of Ghadir, according to which the Prophet said "Whoever regards me as his master and guardian, must regard Ali, too, as his master and guardian" 1 also implies a sort of affection which will be explained later. It is agreed by both the Shi'ah and the Sunni that the verse:
Your Waly can be only Allah, His Messenger and those who believe and establish prayers, and pay zakat while they kneel down in prayer". (al-Ma'idah, 5:55);
was revealed in respect of Imam Ali. Tabari, in his ''Exegesis'' 2 of the Holy Qur'an quotes a number of reports in this connection. Zamakhshari, who is one of the most eminent Sunni scholars, is definite when he says: "This verse was revealed in respect of Ali ibn Abi Talib. Though it refers to a single person, plural form has been used with the intention of exhorting the Muslims to follow the good example set by him, and to emphasize that even prayers may be delayed for doing good to the poor and the needy". 3
In other words if an occasion arises to pay zakat while one is offering prayers, the payment should not be postponed for that reason alone.
Fakhruddin al-Razi is another important scholar. He also says that this verse is related to Ali ibn Abi Talib for no other person except him paid zakat while offering prayers . 4
At the most there may be some difference of opinion as regards the meaning of Waly. We will discuss this point while explaining the purport of the verse.
Ali ibn Hammad Baghdadi, who was one of the most outstanding Shi'ah poets of the fourth century of the Hijri era, referring to this verse says that because Imam Ali paid zakat while offering prayers Allah has associated the Wala toward the Imam with the Wala towards himself. On the occasion of Mubahilah.5 He called Imam Ali the self of the Holy Prophet Muhammad. This is a fact which cannot be denied. 6
As we pointed out earlier Islam has enjoined a sort of general form of the positive Wala towards all Muslims. The verse "The believers, men and women, are waly of one another", refers to it.
But the verse which says: "Your Waly can be only Allah, His Messenger and those who believe .." is not general in its import. It cannot be said that it refers to general Wala for in this case the Qur'an does not intend to lay down a general rule. It does not want to say that as a rule it is obligatory or even desirable to pay zakat while offering prayers. It only mentions a particular action characteristic of the person who did it and alludes to his being entitled to special affection.
This style of using the plural form of a word while describing an event which related to a single person is not unparalleled in the Holy Qur'an. For example it says
They say: When we return to Medina, the honourable ones will certainly drive out the mean ones". (al-Munafiqun, 63: 8).
In this case also the verse refers to an incident relating to a single person. It says "They say". In fact only one person, viz. Abdullah ibn Ubayy had said that.
According to modern idiom also we sometimes say that "they say so" while we know well that only one single person has made the statement in question.
To pay zakat while bowing in prayers is not a common event. Hence it cannot be presumed that Allah extols all those who do such an action and affirms Walayat for all of them, in whatever sense it may be.
This shows that the verse in question has a particular and personal application. It means to say that there is a person, who while engaged in the worship of Allah, was not unmindful of his fellow being and performed this act. Now the Holy Qur'an says that like Allah and His Messenger he is also the Waly of the believers (is entitled to their affection) and they should accept this Wala.
As to what the nature of this affection is, and whether it is something higher than the special love and esteem, which the people should have for Imam Ali, we will shortly take up that question. At present we only want to emphasize that this verse has a particular application and not a general one.
1. Sahih Tirmizi Vol. 5, p. 297. Sahih Muslim Vol. 2, p. 362 printed in Egypt. Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahihayn—Hakim Vol.3 p.109 Al-Bidayah wa'l Nihayah—Ibn Kathir Vol.4, p.211 printed in Egypt. Sawaiq al-Mohriqa — Ibn Hajar 'Asqalani Shafi'i p. 25. Tarikh-i Ya'qubi—Mus'udi Vol.2, p.93. Al-Fusul al-Muhimmah—Ibn Asbagh Maliki p. 23 printed in Egypt. Yanabi al-Mawaddah—Sulayman al-Qandozy al-Hanafi p. 29 — 38. Shawahid al-Tanzil —Hakim al-Haskani Vol. 1 p. 190 printed in Beirut. Usud al-Ghaba—Ibn Athir Shafi'i Vol. 1 p.367 printedin Egypt. Khasais Amirul Mo'minin Nisai Shafi'i p. 96 printed in Egypt. Tarjuma al-lmam Ali bin Abi Talib min Tarikh Damshiq—Ibn Asakir Shafi'i Vol. 1 p.211Abaqat al-Anwar—Sayyid Hamid Husayn. Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah —Ibn Abi'l Hadid Mo'tazili Vol. 4 p. 388 First print (Egypt). Al-Ghadir Allama Amini Vol.1, p.14.
2. Tafsir al-Tabari Vol. 6, pp. 288—289.
3. Al-Kashshaf Vol.1 p.505 printed in Egypt in 1373 A.D.
4. Al-Tafsir al-Kabir Vol .12 p . 30 printed in Egypt in 1 3 7 5 A.D.
5. The Christians of Najran (a town in Arabia Felix) were inimical to Islam. When the Holy Prophet of Islam invited them to his faith and according to the Divine command they were challenged to come forward for a contest. At first they agreed to contest. But when the Holy Prophet brought with him his grandsons Hasan and Husayn for his sons, Fatima her daughter, for his women, and Ali his vicegerant for his 'self', the christians seeing the awe-inspiring faces of the Prophet's family members began trembling. Fearing a terrible disaster for them they acquiesced in the terms imposed by the Holy Prophet. This historical event is one of the most glaring examples of the superior merits of the Holy Five.
6. Raihanatul Adab Vol. 5, p. 311.
Adapted from: "Master and Mastership"
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