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Some Comments on the Blessed Surah of al-Qadr as Much as Suits these Papers-Part 4

 If you say: "the night of qadr is the very Ahmadan constitution in view of the fact that in him the sun of the truth is hidden, not the sun itself that the said justification may be correct."

I will say: "According to the people of insight, the thing-ness of a thing depends on its form of perfection, and that the things with reasons, [asbāb] especially divine reason [sabab] their truth cannot be recognized without recognizing their reasons. In view of the people of knowledge, the correlation between the outside and the inside, manifestation and the manifesting, is not like that of two separate matters, because a truth may sometimes have an external manifestation, and sometimes an internal manifestation, as the well-known gnostic says:

We are non-existents showing existence,

You are the Absolute Being and our existence.

As the gnostic Rumi says, this talk has no end and it is better to forgo it.

His saying: "The night of qadr is better than a thousand months." If we note the worldly appearance of the external form of the night of qadr ", we realize that its goodness is more than a thousand months which have no night of qadr in them, or the night of qadr and the acts of devotional worship on it are better than thousand months in which the Israelites used to carry their weapons and fight for the sake of Allah, or the night of qadr is better than the thousand months of the rule of the Ummayids (may Allah curse them), as is stated in the noble narratives. [562]

If we note the truth of the night of qadr, "a thousand months" may be an allusion to all beings, as "a thousand" is a complete number, and by "months" the kinds are intended. That is, the respected Muhammadan constitution, who is the perfect man, is better than the thousand kinds which cover all beings, as has been said by some people of gnosticism. [563]

Another possibility occurs to the writer, that is, the night of qadr may be a hint at the manifestation of the Greatest Name, i.e., the complete Muhammadan (SA) mirror, and "a thousand months" may be the manifestations of the other Names. And, as Allah, the Exalted, has one thousand and one Names, and as one Name is especially hidden in the unseen world, similarly, the night of qadr is hidden, too, and the night of qadr of the Muhammadan constitution is also a hidden name. Thus , this especially hidden name is known to nobody except to the sacred essence of the Sealing Messenger (SA). A Gnostic Note It must be noted that as the perfect guardian, the Seal of the Prophets (SA), is the night of qadr because of the interiority [butun] of the Greatest Name in him and the occultation [ihtijab] of the Haqq with all affairs in him, likewise he is the day of qadr, too, since the appearance of the sun of the truth and the projection of the all-embracing Name appear from the horizon of his individuation. Similarly, the "Day of Resurrection" is his person, too.

In short, that sacred essence is the day and night of qadr, and the Day of Resurrection is the day of qadr, too. Therefore, the point that, out of all phenomena, the "month" is referred to, and from this complete and sacred phenomenon it is referred to "the night", is, perhaps, because the beginning of the months and years is the day and night, like the "one" being the beginning of the numbers. That master [sarwar] in the inside [batin] of the truth, the Greatest Name, is the beginning of the other names; and, in his individuation [ta''ayyun] and immutable essence [ayn-i thabit], he is the root (origin = asl) of the "Good Tree" [shajara-i tayyibah] and the beginning of the individuations [ta''ayyunat]. Consider, so that you may know, and seize the opportunity!

His saying: "The angels and the Spirit descend in it, by the permission of their Lord, for every affair." In this noble ayah there are points, to some of which we shall refer briefly.

The first point is about the ranks of the angels of Allah, the Exalted, and their reality in general. Know that there are differences among the traditionists and researchers concerning the angels whether they are abstract or corporeal. All the Philosophers and researchers, and many of the juristic researchers, believe in their abstraction and in the abstraction of the rational soul, which they prove by strong evidences. There are also many noble narratives and ayahs from which (their) abstraction can be understood, as the traditionist and researcher, our master Muhammad Taqi Majlisi, the great father of the late Majlisi, says, in Sharhul Faqih, commenting on some relevant narratives, that they confirm the abstraction of the rational sou1. [564]

On the other hand, some of the great traditionists believe in their non-abstraction. Their utmost proof is that to believe in their abstraction is contrary to religion, and they add that there is no abstract except the Sacred Essence of Allah, the Exalted. This, however, is a very weak argument, because their most attention is probably directed to only two points: the first is the case of the temporal contingency [huduth-i zamani] of the world, as they think that the existence of an abstract other than Allah contradicts it. The second point is the case of the free will of Allah, the Exalted, in His acts, as they think that this contradicts the abstraction of the world of intelligence and the angels of Allah, the Exalted. Both these cases are of the insane [manunah] affairs within the High Sciences. The non-contradiction of such cases with an abstract being is quite obvious. Even to believe in the non-abstraction of the rational souls, the world of intelligence and the angels of Allah, is contrary to many divine affairs and true beliefs, which cannot be explained for the time being. The temporal contingency of the worlds, as is interpreted by this group, is contrary to the principle of the temporal contingency, besides being in opposition to many divine rules, too.

To the writer, the truth, which agrees with reason [aql] and tradition [naql], is that the angels of Allah are of different types. Many of them are abstracts and many are intermediate [barzakhi] corporeal: "No one knows the host of your Lord save Him". [565] As to their types, according to their general division, it is said that the heavenly beings are of two types: Type one has nothing to do with the corporeal world, belonging to neither incarnation [hulul] nor management [tadbir]. The other type belongs to one of the said two aspects.

The first type consists of two groups.

The first group are those who are called "the Passionate [muhayyimah] Angels". They are those who are infatuated with the Beauty of the Beautiful, absorbed in the Essence of His Majesty, unaware of all other creatures, paying no attention to other beings.

Among the friends of Allah [auliya''ullah] there is a group like them. While we are indulged in the dark sea of nature, and are completely unaware of the unseen world and the Essence of His Majesty, despite the fact that He is apparent by His Essence [bidh-dhat] and that every appearance is a reflection of His appearance, they are unaware of the world and of whatever is in it, and are engaged only in the Haqq and His Beautiful Beauty. A narrative says that Allah has some creatures who know nothing of His creating Adam and Iblis. [566]

The second group are those whom Allah, the Exalted, has made the means of the mercy of His Being. They are the beginning of the series of the beings and the goal of their longings. They are called ahlul jabarut (the Owners of Power), and their chief and leader is "the Greatest Spirit". It may be that "The angels and the Spirit descend," is a reference to this group of the angels of Allah. Describing him as "the Spirit", though he is an angel, is a hint at his greatness, as is in the noble ayah: "On the day when the angels and the Spirit stand arrayed." [567] From a point of view, the Spirit is called "the Highest Pen" [qalam-i ala], as it is said that: "The first that Allah created was the Pen". [568] According to another point of view, it is called "the First Intellect" [aql-i awwal], as it is also said that: "The first that Allah created was the Intellect". [569] Some others take "The Spirit" to be Gabriel. Some philosophers consider Gabriel to be the last of the Cherubic angels; some call him "The Holy Spirit"; and they regard the "Spirit" to be the first of the Cherubic angels. The noble narratives also state that "the Spirit" is greater than Gabriel. The noble al-Kafi, quotes Abu Basir, who said: "I asked Abu Abdullah, as-Sadiq, (AS) about the words of Allah, the Exalted" ''They will ask you concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit is of the bidding of my Lord'' (surah as-Isra'': 85). He said: (It is) a creature [khalq] greater than Gabriel and Michael. It was with the Messenger of Allah (SA), it is with the Imams (AS), and it is from the heavenly kingdom."'' [570] Some narratives say that the Spirit is not of the angels, it is greater than them. [571]

Probably "The Spirit" has two meanings in terms of the Qur''an and the Traditions, as it has its meanings in other terms. A Spirit is of the angels'' type, since it was said to be of "the heavenly kingdom". Another Spirit is that of the holy men [auliya''], which is not of the angels, but greater than them. Therefore, the Spirit in the noble surah of al-Qadr may refer to "the Faithful Spirit" [ruhul amin] or "the Greatest Spirit", because the surah was revealed on "the night of qadr " . In the noble ayah : " They will ask you about the Spirit ", [571a] the reference may be to the spirit of the human beings, which, in its perfect degree, is greater than Gabriel and other angels. It is of "the World of Command" [alam-i amr], and sometimes combined with His "Will" [mashiyat] which is absolute command.

Another group of the angels of Allah are those who are in charge of the corporeal beings and of managing them. These are of so many types and uncountable kinds, because for every being, high or low, celestial or terrestial, there is a heavenly aspect [wijhah] through which it is connected to the world of the angels and the host [junud] of Allah, the Exalted, as Allah refers to the heavenly domain of the things in the noble ayah: "Therefore, glory be to Him in Whose hand is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be brought back. " [572]

The Messenger of Allah (SA), concerning the host of the angels, say (as it has been narrated): "The heaven clamored, and it had the right to do so, as there was no place for a foot without there being an angel bowing or kneeling down." [573] Noble narratives speak much of the multitude of the angels and their numerous ranks. [574]

The second point concerns the descent of the angels upon the walayul amr (the legal guardian).


[562]. Biharul Anwar, vol. 94, p. 8, quoting Majalis-i Shaykh, the Tafsir of Ali ibn Ibrahim, p. 732. Al-Burhan Exegesis, vol. 4, p. 486. Raudatul Kafi, p. 222, hadith 280.

[563]. Source unknown.

[564]. Such as the narrative quoted from Imam as-Sadiq (AS) to the effect that: "When the soul is taken (in death), it remains hovering over the body..." On this he comments: "This narrative and the one after it, and the many other similar narratives, and the other successive narratives, as well as the apparent literal meanings of the Qur''anic ayahs, all prove the spiritual resurrection, i.e. the survival of the soul after the destruction of the body..." Raudatul Muttaqin, vol. 1, p. 492.

[565]. Surah al-Muddaththir: 31.

[566]. Ilmul Yaqin, vol. 1, p. 250. Al-Kafi (ar-Raudah), p. 231, hadith 301.

[567]. Surah an-Naba'': 38.

[568]. Nuruth-Thaqalayn Exegesis, vol. 5, p. 389, hadith 9. Ilmul Yaqin, vol. 1, p. 154.

[569]. Biharul Anwar, vol. 1, p. 97.

[570]. Usulul Kafi, vol. 2, p. 18, "The Book of Divine Proof'', ch. on "The Spirit by which Allah Directs the Steps of the Imams" (AS), hadith 3.

[571]. Biharul Anwar, vol. 25, p. 64, "The Book of the Imamah", chs. on "Their Creation, Nature and Spirits", ch. 3, hadith 45.

[571a]. Surah Isra'': 85.

[572]. Surah Ya-Sin: 83.

[573]. Ilmul Yaqin, vol. 1, p. 259.

[574]. Biharul Anwar, vol. 56, p. 144 ff. ch. on "The Angels".

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