Rafed English

Prohibition of fighting not in accordance with the Sunnah

Related from Zayd ibn 'Ali, from his forefathers (A) who said:

'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'If two Muslims meet with their swords not in accordance with the Sunnah, then both the killer and the one killed will be in the fire.' He was asked: 'O Messenger of Allah We understand about the killer but why the one killed also?' He (S) said: 'Because he wanted to fight.'

In the book Da'aim al-Islam, related from Imam 'Ali (A) that the Messenger of Allah (S) said to him: 'Woe betide you if you make haste to spill blood illicitly, for there is nothing worse in consequences than this.'

Cowards are not to go to war

The Ja'faris relate with a chain of narration going back to the Messenger of Allah (S) that he said : 'He who feels in himself cowardice then he should not do battle.'

The Covenanter (Dhimmi) not to be killed

Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Qummi relates fro m al-Muttalib that the Prophet (S) said:

'He who kills a man from the People of th e Dhimma 32 will be forbidden Paradise the perfume of which can be smelled at a distance of twelve years travelling.'

The noblemen of the Infidels to be respected

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabarri relates: 'When the Persian prisoners reached al-Madinah, 'Umar ibn al-Khattab wanted to sell the women, and to enslave the men, but Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'Honour the nobles of every people.' 'Umar said: 'I heard him saying: 'If a nobleman of a people comes to you then honour him even if he goes against you.' Amir-ul-Mu'mineen (A) said:

'These people have made peace with you and wish to enter Islam and they are bound to have children. Hence I testify to Allah and to you that I have set free my share of them for the sake of Allah.' The Muhajiroun and the Ansar said: 'We give up our right to you O Brother of the Messenger of Allah (S).

He (A) said: 'Allah, I testify that they have given up to me their right and I have accepted it and I testify to You that I have set them free for Your sake.' Then 'Umar said: 'Why did you contradict my decision regarding the Persians?, and what was it that made you go against my opinion regarding them.?'

Then Imam 'Ali (A) repeated for him what the Messenger of Allah had said regarding the honouring of nobles.'

Then 'Umar said: 'I give up to Allah and to you O Abu al-Hassan my share and the rest of that which has not been given to you.' Then Amir-ul-Mu'mineen said: 'O Allah, I testify to what h e has said and the responsibility is now upon my head.'

But a group of the Qureish wanted to marry the women. Amir-ul- Mu'mineen (A) said: 'They are not to be forced to do this but let them have the choice in the matter and what they choose let it be done . . .' Not taking booty is a desirable act 'Ali ibn Asbat relates, from Ibn Faddal, from Ja'far al-Saadiq (A), from his father (A), from his forefathers (A), that Imam 'Ali (A) used to partake in the fighting himself but did not use to take booty."

Children are not to be killed

This can b e found in the account of when the Messenger of Allah ratified the ruling of Sa'd who had ordered that those amongst the Jews who had not reached maturity should not be killed.

Trees are not to be felled, nor the supply of water cut off

It is related from the Messenger of Allah (S) that he forbade the cutting down or burning of fruiting trees in enemy territory and elsewhere except when this might be to the advantage of the Muslims. For Allah Almighty has said:

{ . . . and what you cut of the date palms or what you leave standing on their trunks is by the leave of Allah and to punish the evildoers}. 33

It is also reported that d uring the battle of Khaibar, the Messenger of Allah (S) was shown by a certain Jew a water source that flowed towards the Khaibar fortress. The Jew said to the Prophet (S): 'If you cut off this water supp ly then those inside the fortress will surely surrender.' The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'I will not do this.' He d id not cut the water supply off from them. Nor did Imam 'Ali (A) cut off the water supply from the company of Mu'awiya.

Islam's View on Killing

Islam only sanctio ns killing in the most grave degree of necess ity. Hence it takes a very serious view of the killing of people unjustly. What follows is an overview of some texts relating to this subject.

Islam takes a serious view of the unjust killing of people

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A) was asked about Allah's words:

{ . . . Whoso ever kills a person except for the murder of a nother or because of spreading corruption in the land, it is as if he has killed the people in their entirety.} 34 He said:

'He will have a seat in the fire. If he has killed all the people then he will only get that seat.' Author's no te: It is clear that his torment will be worse as will be mentioned later. This is because the killing of even a single person is not a small matter. Related from Hamran who said: 'I asked Muhammad al-Baqir (A) about Allah's words:

{ . . . and because of this We prescribed for the So ns of Israel that whoever kills a person except for the murder of another or for spreading corruption in the land, it is as if he has killed the people in their entirety.} 35 I said: 'How is it as if he has killed the people in their entirety when he may only have killed one?'

He (A) said: 'He will be put into a place in Hell where the worst punishment is found.' I said: 'And if he kills another?' He (A) said: 'The punishment will be doubled for him.'

Related from Abu Usamah Zayd al-Shahham, from Imam Saadiq (A), that the Messenger of Allah (S) stopped at Mina when he performed the prayers there during the farewell pilgrimage when he said to his companions: 'What day is the most sacred?'

They said: 'This day.'

He (S) said: 'And what month is most sacred?'

They said: 'This month.'

He (S) said: 'And what land is the most sacred?'

They said: 'This land.'

Then he (S) said:

'Then your blood and your wealth are sacred just as is this day and this month and this land are sacred until the day you will meet Him and he will ask you about your actions. Have I delivered the message?'

They said: 'Yes' He (S) said: 'Allah is a better witness to that. Whoever has been entrusted with something then he must return it to its owner; that the blood of a Muslim shall not be spilt nor his wealth taken except that which he gives out of the goodness of himself. Do not do injustice to yourselves and do not return to disbelief after I have gone.' Related from Abu Hamza al-Thumali, from Imam 'Ali ibn al-Hussein (A) who said:

'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'Do not take pride in a masterful warrior, for with Allah there is a killer (waiting for him) who has not died yet."

Related from Jabir ibn Yazid, from Muhammad al-Baqir (A) who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S) said: 'The first thing that Allah will pass judgement upon on the Day of Resurrection will be blood.

The killer and the one he killed will be brought before him, then the blood relatives, then the people, until the one killed will come with his killer and will say: 'He killed me.' He will be asked: Did you kill him?, and he will not be able to conceal from Allah anything.'

Related from Abu Jaroud, from Muhammad al-Baqir (A) who said: 'No soul will be killed excep t that it will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection attached to its killer by its right hand and to its head by the left hand with his veins pouring out blood. He will say to Allah: 'O Lord, ask him why he killed me.

' If he killed him in obedience to Allah then the killer will be rewarded with Paradise and the one killed will be sent to the fire. If the killing was in obedience to another, the one killed will be told: 'Kill him a s he killed you.

' After that, Allah will do with him as He wishes.' Related from Hisham ibn Salim, from Ja'far al-Saadiq (A) who said: 'The believer remains within his religion as long as he does not spill sacred blood.'

He also said: 'The one who kills a believer deliberately will not have his repentance accepted.'

Author's note: That is he deserves not to have it accepted. Related from 'Abdullah ibn Sanan, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said: 'Neither the shedder of blood, the drinker of wine, nor the ba ckbiter will enter Paradise.' Related from Hanan ibn Sudeir, from Imam Saadiq (A) regarding Allah's words:

{ . . . Whoso ever kills a person except for the murder of another or because of spreading corruption in the land, it is as if he has killed the people in their entirety.} 36 He (A) said: 'It is a valley in Hell which he will be in if he killed all the people and even if he killed one person he will be in it.'

Related from Muhammad ibn Sanan from the answer Imam al-Ridha (A) gave to some of his questions: 'Allah ha s forbidden killing, for the reason that if the killing of people was allowed then the whole of creation would become corrupted and the people would be destroyed . . .' Related from Iban, from a source, who asked Imam Saadiq (A) about one who kills a person deliberately. He said: 'His reward is Hell.'

Related from Hafs ibn al-Bakhtari, from Imam Saadiq (A): 'A woman was punished for a cat she had tied up until it died of th irst.' Related from al-Halabi, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

'The most arrogant of people in the sight of Allah is one who kills someone other than is trying to kill him, or to beat someone who has not beaten him.'

Relate from Suleiman ibn Khalid, who said: 'I heard Imam Saadiq (A) saying:

'Allah revealed through inspiration to Moses Son of 'Emran saying: 'O Moses, Say to the nation of the Children of Israel; Woe betide that you kill the sacred soul (the person) unjustly for whoever kills a person on Earth, I (meaning Allah) will kill him one-hundred thousand times in the same way he has killed his companion.'

Author's note: This because the single seed can produce thousands of other seeds, for the Hereafter is the result of this worldly life. Related from 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim, fro m his father, who said: Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (A) said:

'Whoever kills a believer on purp ose will h ave all his sins confirmed by Allah and the sins of the person he killed will be lifted from him, and this because of the quote in the Qur'an:

{ . . . I intend that you are covered with my sin as well as yours and you will be of the Companions of the fire.} 37 Related from Ayyoub ibn 'Atiyyah al-Hudha who said: 'I heard Imam Saadiq (A) saying that Imam 'Ali (A) found a letter in the scabbard of the Messenger of Allah's sword in which was written: 'The worst of people in the sight of Allah is th e killer of one who does not fight him, and the one who beats one who does not beat him, and the one who pledges allegiance to other than his rightful allies, for he has committed the crime of Kufr (disbelief) in what Allah has sent down upon Muhammad (S). And whoever commits a crime or gives refuge to a criminal will not have his repentance nor his offer of compensation accepted and it is not allowed that a Muslim be given intercession in the case of a Hadd crime (a crime with a fixed punishment).

Author's note: What is meant here by kufr is that of actio ns. Al-Sayyid Murtada relates in his treatise The Clear and the Ambiguous (verses of the Qur'an), from the exegesis of al-Nu'mani with the chain of narration from Imam 'Ali (A) who said in a hadith: 'As regards those verses whose exp ression is particular but whose meaning is general, for the words of Allah:

{ . . . and because of this We prescribed for the Sons of Isra'il that whoever kills a person except for the murder of another o r for spreading corruption in the land, it is as if he has killed the people in their entirety.} 38

The expression (form) of the verse was revealed regarding the Children of Israel in particular but applies to all o f creatio n in general to all the servants o f Allah from the Children of Israel and all the other nations. This is a common occurrence in the Qur'an.

Related from Ja'far ibn Muhammad (A), from Zayd ibn Aslam, that the Messenger of Allah (S) was asked about the person who commits a crime or gives refuge to a criminal.' He said: 'He is the one who introduces an innovation into Islam, or kills except in Hadd (mandatory punishment), or plunders or steals something regarded as dear by the Muslims, or defends a criminal or aids and abets him.'

Related from Ja'far ibn Muhammad (A), from his forefathers, in the will of the Prophet (S) to Imam 'Ali (A):

'He who joins up with those who are not his rightful allies will have the curse of Allah upon him. He who denies the labourer his rightful wage will have the curse of Allah upon him. He who commits a hadath (crime) or aids a criminal will have the curse of Allah upon him.' He was asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, what do you mean by this hadath?' He said: 'Murder . . . then he said:

'O 'Ali, the worst of people in the sight of Allah is the killer of one who does not fight him, or he who beats one who does not beat him, or he gives allegiance to other than his rightful allies. They have committed disbelief (kufr) in what Allah Almighty is He has sent down.'

Related from Umayyah ibn Yazid, who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S) said:

'Whoever commits a crime (hadath) or gives refuge to a criminal then the curse of Allah is upon him as well as that of the Angels and the people in general. Neither repentance nor compensation will be accepted from him.' He was asked: 'What is this hadath?'

He said: 'The killing of a person except for the murder of another, or mutilation in other than equal punishment (such as an eye for an eye), or the introduction of an innovation into the religion not part of the tradition (Sunnah), or the plundering or stealing of something regarded as dear.'

Forbidding the taking part in killing

Related from Muhammad ibn Muslim, from Muhammad al-Baqir (A) who said:

'A man will come on the Day of Resurrection with a pot full to the brim of blood. He will say: By Allah I did not kill, nor did I take part in bloodshed. But he will be told: On the contrary, you mentioned (with foul intentions) my servant so-and-so. (That is in front of the one who killed him.)

Related from Abu Hamza, from one of the Imams who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (S) arrived and he was told: 'O Messenger of Allah, there is a person murdered in Juheinah. The Messenger of Allah (S) stood up and walked until he reached their mosque (i.e. the people of Juheinah). The people heard about this and came to him. He said: 'Who has killed this person?' They said: 'O Messenger of Allah, We do not know.' He said:

'One of the Muslims has been killed and no one knows who killed him! By He who has sent me with the truth, were the people of the Heavens and the Earth to take part in the killing of a Muslim and be content with that, Allah would throw them on their faces in the fire.'

Related from Hamad ibn 'Uthman, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said: 'A man will come on the Day of Resurrection to another man and splatter his face with blood, when the people are being held to account for (their deeds).' He says: 'What have I and you got to do with it?' He (A) said: 'You aided (someone) against me on such and such a day with a word and I was killed.'

Related from Ibn Abi 'Umeir, from others, from Imam Saadiq (A) who said:

'He who aids in the death of a believer even by a word will come on the Day of Resurrection and written between his eyes will be the words: 'Despaired of the Mercy of Allah.'

Related from Mas'ada ibn Ziyad, from Ja'far ibn Muhammad (A), from his forefathers (A) that the Messenger of Allah (S) said:

'The worst of people on the Day of Resurrection is the muthallath.' He was asked: 'What O Messenger of Allah is the muthallath?' He (S) said: 'The man who strives against his brother and kills him for he will destroy himself and his brother and his guardian or leader.'

Notes:

32. People of the Dhimma are the non-Muslims who live under the protection of an Islamic system of government.

33. The Holy Qur'an: Banishment (59):5.

34. The Holy Qur'an: The Table Spread (5): 32.

35. The Holy Qur'an: The Table Spread (5): 32.

36. The Holy Qur'an: The Table Spread (5): 32.

37. The Holy Qur'an: The Table Spread (5): 29.

38. The Holy Qur'an: The Table Spread (5): 32.

Adapted from the book: "War, Peace & Non-Violence" by: "Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq Shirazi"

Share this article

Comments 0

Your comment

Comment description

Most Reviews