Peanut oil nutrition facts
Flavorful peanut oil is organic edible oil obtained from peanut kernels. Peanuts are believed to be originating in Central American region from where they spread to other parts of the world by Spanish explorers. Today, peanuts are widely cultivated as an important oil seeds and a prime commercial crop in China, India, African nations, and the United States of America.
Peanut plant is a low growing, annual plant belonging to the family of fabaceae (Leguminosae) of the genus Arachis and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Some common names are groundnut, earthnut, goober, pinder, and ground pea. Peanut kernels are eaten fresh or roasted and are used in cookery, confectionery and pressed for edible oil.
The plant is a small annual herb, belonging to the family of fabaceae of the genus Arachis and botanically named as Arachis hypogaea. Some common names are groundnut, earthnuts etc.
Physical characteristics of peanut oil
Cold pressed peanut oil has deep yellow color with pleasant nutty aroma and sweet taste. Refined oil has light yellow color and has neutral taste. However, highly refined oil makes it virtually devoid of impurities and allergens. Its specific gravity @ 25 °C is 0.912-0.920, Iodine value-84–100, and saponification value-185–195.
Peanut oil nutrition facts
Peanut oil is high in energy; 100 g oil provides 884 calories.
It is one of the cooking oils with high smoke point; 450 °F. The property can be employed in setting oil temperatures while deep-frying food items.
Peanut oil has very good lipid profile. It has saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (SFA: MUFA: PUFA= 18: 49: 33) fats in healthy proportions.
It is one of the stable cooking oils having long shelf life.
Health benefits of Peanut oil
Wonderfully pleasant, sweet flavored peanut oil is low in saturated fats, free from cholesterol, contains essential fatty acid ( linoleic acid (omega-6)) making it as one of the healthiest cooking oils.
Being a vegetable oil, it is a good source of plant sterols, especially ?-sitosterol. The FDA has approved the following claim for phytosterols: "Foods containing at least 0.4 gram per serving of plant sterols, eaten twice a day with meals for a daily total intake of at least 0.8 gram, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." Phyto-sterols competitively inhibit cholesterol absorption in the gut and thereby can reduce cholesterol levels by 10% to 15%.
Peanut oil is high in calories. The high calorie content is because of its fats. However, it is especially rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) like oleic acid (18:1) that helps to lower LDL or "bad cholesterol" and increase HDL or "good cholesterol" in the blood. Research studies suggest that Mediterranean diet, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids helps to prevent coronary artery disease and strokes by favoring healthy blood lipid profile.
Peanut oil contains resveratrol, a polyphenol antioxidant, which has been found to have protective function against cancers, heart disease, degenerative nerve disease, Alzheimer's disease, and viral/fungal infections.
Studies suggests that resveratrol reduces stroke risk by alteration of molecular mechanisms in blood vessels (reducing susceptibility to vascular damage through decreased activity of angiotensin, a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure) and by increasing production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide.
Peanut oil contains valuable amounts of anti-oxidant vitamin E. 100 g fresh oil has 15.69 mcg of alpha-tocopherol and 15.91 mcg of gamma-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant, required for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucus membranes and skin by protecting it from harmful oxygen free radicals.
In addition to being a vegetable source, peanut oil is also an ideal choice for deep-frying because it can be heated to a higher temperature (smoke point -450 °F). This results in lower oil retention in the fried foods.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||100 g||500%|
|Dietary Fiber||0 g||0%|
|Pantothenic acid||0 mg||0%|
|Vitamin A||0 IU||0%|
|Vitamin E||815.69 mg||105%|
|Vitamin K||0.7 µg||0.5%|
Selection and storage
Peanut oil is available in the markets year around. In the store, different forms are available such as cold pressed, roasted, refined, double refined etc. Oftentimes, the oil may be blended with other cheap vegetable oils like cottonseed oil. Buy fresh oil from authentic sources.
Pure peanut oil is amber yellow in color and has sweet nutty flavor. Refined oil is very light in color and is devoid of impurities and allergens. Avoid off-smelling old stocks as the oil might have turned rancid.
Shelf life of peanut oil is about 6 months in ordinary conditions. When preserved in airtight container in cool, dry, dark and moisture free environments its quality may remain good for up to 9 months. Its shelf may be extended for more than 12 months with the addition of anti-oxidants like vitamin E.
Peanut oil is another healthy source of edible cooking oil like soy or olive oils. It is widely used for cooking purposes for its aromatic flavor, especially in many Southeast and South Asian countries. It has great taste suitable especially for frying and sautéing. The oil is also used in the manufacture of margarines and salad dressing.
Peanut oil allergy is a type of hypersensitivity response in some people to food substances prepared using this oil. The reactions may include symptoms like vomiting, pain abdomen, swelling of lips and throat leading to breathing difficulty, chest congestion, and death. It is, therefore, advisable to avoid any food preparations that contain peanut products in these individuals.
Research shows, however, that highly refined peanut oil, which has had all of the allergic proteins and impurities removed, does not cause an allergic response even in severely allergic individuals.
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