Miscellaneous Matters relating to Zakat
1969. On the basis of precaution when wheat and barley are separated from chaff, and when palm-dates and grapes become dry their owner should give Zakat to a pauper or separate it from his property. And as regards gold, silver, cow, sheep and camel Zakat on them should be given to a pauper or separated from one's property after the expiry of eleven months. However, if he awaits a particular pauper or wishes to give it to a pauper who is superior for some reason, he may not separate the Zakat.
1970. It is not necessary that after separating zakat, a person should pay it at once to a person entitled to it. However, if a person to whom Zakat can be given is available the recommended precaution is that payment of Zakat should not be delayed.
1971. If a person who can deliver Zakat to a person entitled to it does not give it to him and it perishes on account of his negligence he should give compensation for it.
1972. If a person, who can deliver Zakat to a person entitled to it does not give the Zakat and it perishes without his being negligent in looking after it, and if he has delayed its payment so much that people do not say that he has paid it at once, he should give its substitute. And if he has not delayed it so much - for example, if he has delayed its payment for two or three hours and if a person entitled to Zakat was not available, he is not required to pay anything. And if a person entitled to receive Zakat was available the person concerned should, on the basis of obligatory precaution, give its substitute.
1973. If a person separates Zakat hem that very property. on which it has become due, he can appropriate the remaining quantity, and if he separates it from another property owned by him he can appropriate the entire property.
1974. When a person has separated Zakat from his property. he cannot utilize it and place something else in its place.
1975. If some profit accrues from the Zakat which a person has set apart - for example, it a sheep which has been ear-marked for Zakat gives birth to a lamb - it is the property of a pauper.
1976. If one entitled to Zakat is present when a person separates Zakat from his property, it is better that he should give the Zakat to him except that he has a person in view to whom it is better for some reason to give Zakat.
1977. If a person trades with the property set apart for Zakat without obtaining the permission of the Religious Head and sustains loss, he should not reduce anything from Zakat. How- ever, if he makes profit, he should give it to a person entitled to receive Zakat.
1978. If a person gives something to a pauper by way of Zakat when it has not yet become obligatory for him to pay Zakat. it cannot be treated to be Zakat. And if, after payment of Zakat becomes obligatory for him, the thing, which he gave to the pauper has not perished, and the pauper, too, is still a pauper, the Zakat payer can adjust the thing given by him to the pauper against Zakat.
1979. If a pauper knows that it has not become obligatory on a particular person to pay Zakat, and takes something from him by way of zakat, and it perishes while it is with him, he is responsible for it. And when it becomes obligatory on the person to pay Zakat and the pauper is still a pauper, the Zakat payer can adjust the substitute of the thing, which he gave to the pauper, against Zakat.
1980. If a pauper, who does not know that it has not become obligatory for a particular person to pay Zakat, takes something from him by way.of Zakat and it perishes while it is with him (i.e. the pauper) he is not responsible for it, and the person. who gives Zakat, cannot adjust its substitute against Zakat.
1981. It is recommended for a-person to give Zakat on cows, sheep and camels to respectable pauper and while giving Zakat he should prefer his relatives to others, learned and capable persons to those who are not learned and capable, and those who do not beg to those who beg. However, if giving zakat to a particular pauper is fetter for some other reason it is recommended that Zakat may be given to him.
1982. It is better that Zakat is given openly and recommended alms are given secretly.
1983. If none of those, who are entitled to receive Zakat. is available in the home town of a person, who wants to pay Zakat, and he cannot also spend it for any other purpose prescribed for Zakat, and he does not hope that he will be able to find a deserving person later, he should take Zakat to some other town, and spend it for an appropriate purpose. He can deduct from Zakat the expenses of taking it to the other town, and he is not responsible if it perishes.
1984. Even if a person entitled to receive zakat becomes avail- able in the home town of a person, he can take Zakat to another town. However, he will have to pay himself the expenses of taking it to the other town, and will be responsible if it perishes except when he takes it there in compliance with the orders of the Religious Head.
1985. The wages for weighing and scaling of wheat, barley. raisins and palm-dates, which a person gives as Zakat, are to be paid by him.
1986. If a person has to pay as Zakat 2 mithqals and 15 grams of silver or more than that, he should not on the basis of recommended precaution, give less than 2 mithqals and 15 gams to one pauper. Furthermore, if he has to pay something other than silver (e.g. wheat or barley) and its value reaches 2 mithqals and 15 grams, he should not, on the basis of re- commended precaution, give less than that to one pauper.
1987. It is abominable for a man to request the person entitled to receive Zakat to sell to him the Zakat which he has taken from him. However, if the person entitled to Zakat wishes to sell the thing which he has received after its price has been settled, the man who has given him Zakat has the prior right as compared with others, to purchase it.
1988. If a person doubts whether or not he gave the Zakat which became obligatory on him. and the property, on which Zakat was due, is also available, he should give Zakat, though his doubt is with regard to Zakat for earlier years. And if the original property has perished, no Zakat is due on it although the doubt relates to Zakat for the present year.
1989. X pauper cannot make compromise for a quantity less than the quantity of Zakat, or accept as Zakat something at a price higher than its real price, or take Zakat from its owner and then make a present of it to him. However, if a person owes too much Zakat, and has become a pauper and cannot pay Zakat, and repents, the pauper can take Zakat from him and then make a present of it to him.
1990. A person can purchase the Holy Qur'an or religious books or prayer books from the Zakat property and give them in trust, even though the trust is in favor of his children or persons whose expenditure is obligatory on him to bear. Moreover, he himself or his children can be the custodians of that trust.
1991.A person cannot purchase property with Zakat and endow it upon his children or upon persons whose expenditure is obligatory on him to bear, so that they may meet their expenses with the income accruing from it.
1992. A person can take Zakat from the share of 'Cause of Allah' to go for Hajj,. Ziyarat etc. although he may not be a pauper or may have taken Zakat for his expenses for the year.
1993. If the owner of a property makes a pauper his agent to give away Zakat of his property, and the pauper is not certain that the intention of the owner was that he himself (i.e. the pauper) should not take anything out of Zakat, he can take as much out of it as he gives to the other pauper.
1994. If a pauper gets camel, cow, sheep, gold and silver as zakat and the conditions for Zakat becoming obligatory. are present in them, he should give Zakat on them.
1995. If two persons are joint owners of a property. on which Zakat has become obligatory, and one of them pays Zakat for his share, and thereafter they divide the property then if he knows that his partner has not paid Zakat on his share, and is not going to pay it even afterwards, it is difficult that his appropriation of his own share may also be valid, except when he pays the Zakat of his partner cautiously with his permission or in the event of his refusing to accord permission, with the permission of the Religious Head.
1996. If a person owes Khums or Zakat and it is also obligatory for him to make atonement and to give 'nazr'(vow) etc. and he is also indebted and cannot make all these payments, and if the property on which Khums or Zakat has become obligatory has not perished, he should give Khums and Zakat, and if it has perished it is optional for him either to pay Khums or Zakat or to make payment of atonement, vow, debt etc.
1997. If a person owes Khums or zakat and it is obligatory on him to perform Hajj and is also indebted, and dies, and his property is not sufficient for all these things, and in case the property on which Khums and Zakat became obligatory has not perished, Khums or Zakat should be paid, and the remaining property d his should be spent on Hajj and debt. And if the property on which Khums and Zakat became obligatory has perished his property should be spent on Hajj, and if anything remains it should be spent on Khums, Zakat and debt.
1998. If a person is busy acquiring knowledge, and if he does not acquire knowledge he can earn his livelihood and if the acquisition of that knowledge is obligatory, Zakat can be given to him. And if the acquisition of that knowledge is recommended. Zakat can be given to him only from the share of 'Cause of Allah' And it that knowledge is neither obligatory nor re- commended, it is not permissible to give him Zakat.
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