Rafed English

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

Lohoof (Sighs of Sorrow)

by :

Seyed Ibn Tâwûs (r.a.)

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful All praise belongs to God, and his greetings and salutations be upon His Prophet Muhammad and his Household, the best and the purest creatures (p.b.u.h.).

The tragedy of Ashura has been a shock to the souls and consciences of human beings, and raised the emotions of the Muslims to expand their social activities.

In that event the emotions and reasons of people were injured. The tears and mourning run through their faces; the hearts were drowning towards the place of martyrdom of the sons and househoulds of the holy Prophet and divine messenger. The love and affection of the Muslims, all those who trusted in the message of their grandfather, the holy Muhammad, were directed toward them; and caused the people to come nearer to each other.

This terrible tragedy has always injured the souls of the pure human beings during the history, which will never recover. By the passage of time, more dimensions of the calamity become apparent. And, at the same time, the divine virtues and characteristics of the martyred innocent persons becomes more apparent to the generations and communities more and more.

The Muslims reminded of the meaningful word of their holy Prophet who said, "Hussain is from me, and I am from Hussain!" This valuable tradition was a witness about the beginning and continuation of the pure religion of Islam. It began with the divine message brought by the holy Prophet, and continued by the terrible martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). By that great sacrifice of the holy Imam, his household, and his prominent companions, he guaranteed the future survival of Islam.

The holy Imam Hussain had in minded the considerations, problems, and difficulties of the Islamic nation. He was also looking for the establishment of a just and successful Islamic state. He expressed his intention at the time of movement to Kufa:

My movement is not a revolt, nor for seizing just the power. It is rather an evolutionary conduct in the nation of my grandfather, Muhammad (p.b.u.h.).

The progressive experience of "Ashura" reveals the honest crusade and clarity of his view. It had a tremendous and successive reaction in the long history of the Islamic world. On the opposite side, the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt (the infallible household of the holy Prophet) have always tried to change the true meaning of the message of Karbala, and take it away from the minds of the Muslims. "But the Almighty God will survive His light, even though the disbelievers do not like it."

From the time of occurrence of the event of "Karbala" till now, many books have been written about it by different persons, of different views or schools of thoughts, and in different languages. They are generally named as "Maq'tal". There are just some names remained from those books of Maqtal. The oppressors and cruel governments robbed, burnt, or destroyed those books, in order to cause the communities to forget his name (and teachings). Although they could not achieve their target.

Altogether, there are very few ancient Maq'tal available, with their original texts. Only traces or some parts of them have been narrated and transmitted through the historical texts and literatures.

It seems that the first writer, who compiled a text about the events of Karbala and Ashura, was Asbaq Ibn Nobata. He was one of the close friends, and sincere companions of Amirul Momenin Ali (p.b.u.h.). His death has been in the early years of the second century after hejrat.

The second writer was Abu Mekh'naf Lut Ibn Yahya Azdi, who was contemporary to Imam Sadiq (p.b.u.h.), and wrote the book, "Maq'tal al-Hussain (p.b.u.h.)".

During the 2nd and 3rd centuries of hejrat, some other traditions and historians wrote and compiled books about the tragic event of Karabala, and martyrdom of Imam Hussain and his beloved disciples. Some of those writers are:

" Abdul Aziz Ibn Yahya Jalloudi.
" Jaber Ibn Yazid Jo'afi.
" Muhammad Ibn Umar Waqedi.
" Muammar Ibn Mosanna Taimi.
" Nasr Ibn Mozahem Menqari.
" Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Bin Abi Donya.
" Ibn Wazeh Yaqoubi.
" Muhammad bin Zakaria bin Dinar Ghalaei.

In the next stage, some of the Shia and Sunni scholars wrote books about the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). They are:

" Shaikh Muhammad bin Hasan Tousi (died in 460 A.H.)

" Mowaffaq Ibn Ahmad Kharazmi (died in 568 A.H.)

" Ibn Shahr Ashoub (died in 588 A.H.) " Mah'moud bin Mobarak (died in 592 A.H.) " Jafar bin Najib bin Nama Helli (died in 645 A.H.)

" Ezzuddin Abdul Razzaq Jazari (died in 661 A.H.), and " Ali bin Mousa bin Jafar, Ibn Tavoos, (died in 664 A.H.) who is the author of this book.

Seyed Ibn Tavoos has reminded of this book, in his two other books. In his books Iqbal and Kashful Mahajja has said, "My book "al-Malhoof ala Qat'lalTofouf" is about the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), which is organized in a wonderful order, which has been a kindness of God, Who guided me to write it."

The late Allamah Majlesi, in Beharul Anwar (vol 107, P. 42) has stated that Seyed Ibn Tavoos has mentioned in his book, "al-Ejazat", "I have written the book "al-Malhoof ala Qatlal Tofouf" in an order which is new. Anyone who reads it will know about its preferences over similar books".

From the writings of the writer, Seyed, it becomes clear that the original title of the book has been "Malhoof…" but in the old manuscripts it is called as "Lohoof".

Lohoof, in its Arabic language, has been published more than 20 times in Iraq, Iran, and Lebanon. Some of the clergy translators have translated it in to Persian, such as Mirza Reza Qoli Khan, Ahmad Najafi, M.E. Nawab, and Seyed Ahmad Fehri.

Recently, Naba cultural organization has translated Lohoof in to English, and decided it to be published as one of the works of the library and publishing house of the holy Shrine of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.). It is the third published work of that library. I pray God to bless all those who work and cooperate with Naba cultural organization, and may He support and protect the translator and all those who participated in preparation of this book. And, at last, may the blessings and greetings of God be upon all you kind readers!


A. About the Author

Seyed Razi - Uddin Ali bin Musa, knows as Ibn - e- Tavoos (589-664 A.H., equal to 1150- 1225 A.D.) is one of the greatest Shia scholars in the 13th A.D. century. He was born in Hella city in South of Iraq. He learnt different Islamic science from his father S?dussin Musa, his grand father Varram bin Abi Foras, and some Shia and non- Shia scholars.

The grand family of Ibn- e- Tavoos was interested at scholarship and knowledge fields. Some of them have written books, and have their names in the history. For more information about them, you may refer to "Encyclopedia of Tashayyo", P. 339, and Vol: 1, title Ibn- e- Tavoos.

During his 75 years old life, Ibn- e - Tavoos traveled to different cities. He wrote more than 50 books in many fields of Islamic studies, such as commentary of Quran, history, hadith, prays, astronomy, ethics, bibliology, biography, Shia thoughts. Half of them are preserved and available. Even after the long time of about 800 years, most of them are reliable and unique. In addition to his scientific position, he had the social leadership of Shia community at his chaotic period. And it is interesting that with such occupations, he grew very polite, well educated, and learned children, so that all his sons and daughters were among the scholars of their age.

B. The book

Seyed Ibne Tavoos had prepared the book "Mesbah -u- Zaer" with the subject of visiting (Ziyarat) the holy shrines of the prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.), and the infallible Imams (p.b.u.h.). Then he thought and found it wise to write a small book about the biography of Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), the Ashura calamity, and the tragic events thereafter; so that those who go on pilgrimage of that innocent martyred Imam may get the necessary knowledge about the subject, the holy respected Imam, and his brutal enemies.

Seyed Ibn Tavoos has divined the book of Lohoof in to 3 parts.

1- The events and happenings before the day of Ashura (10th of Moharram of 61 A.H.);

2- The events occurred in the evening before Ashura, and during the day of Ashura;

3- The events after the day of Ashura, with regards to Imam Hussain (p.b.u.h.), his family, and his enemies;

What we can see in these parts, are very exact and accurate narrations which from one side, show the clear, humanistic, and infallible view from Imam Hussain, and on the other hand, reveals the tyranny, cruelty, and crimes of the enemies of the family of the prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.).

C. The importance of the Book

There are thousands of books written about Imam Hussain, and the Ashura calamity. However, those words, which have been narrated and transmitted by the wise and learned scholars, through a correct and clear way, are credited and reliable. At the same time, we should know that the life and history of Imam Hussain (a.s.), just like other infallible Imams (p.b.u.t.) is like an open book of guidance that should be studied and considered. It is obvious that when we are going to introduce our noble Imams (that the holy prophet has called them as the "Lights of Guidance", and the "Ships of Rescue"), if we refer to uncredited and unknown references, we will not get a fair result from our efforts.

The importance of the books such as Lohoof lies in its right, just and authentic references and accurate narrations, which reveal the aspects of the 14 centuries old history.

Now, let us read the book of Lohoof, which is the book of life, and guidance, and is like a light that would enlighten the roads of lives of the people.

This book should be read more than once! And we should keep it not only in our memory, but also in our mind, and spirit. We should read the words and teachings of Imam Hussain and his beloved friends at the pages of this book, and hear them from the stars of the sky of Karbala, that witnessed the nights of Muharram of the year 61 A.H. We should take in to the "Ship of Rescue" in order to reach the safe shore. And we should walk through the light of this "Light of Guidance" in order to depart from the darkness of the world.

Lohoof is a favorite partner in a spiritual journey for the respected reader, and we invite you to pay due attention to every word of this noble book.

Muhammad Husain Shahri


In the Name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful

All praise belongs to Allâh Who shows His Magnificence through the horizon of wisdom; Who removes the veils from His Intentions, through the logic of the Holy Quran and Sunnah; Who has lifted His friends from the filths of the house of deception (this world), and raised them to the heights of shining happiness. This bliss to His friends is not by the way of granting them a higher status among His creation, nor is it to shelter them through nice paths; but He considered them worthy of Graceful Rewards and good morals. Therefore, He did not like that they should treed the absurd path. Rather, He granted them the good sense of adopting perfect deeds and actions.

This was until all souls became dejected from everyone except Allâh, and their hearts got adorned by the ornaments of His Pleasure. So their hearts turned towards His light, and their ambitions got tied up with His Mercy and Grace. You can observe their happiness in reaching the eternal life, and their sympathetic desire of meeting their Lord.

Invariably, they have an increasing urge toward the goals put by their God; their faces shine up by traversing towards their Lord, and their ears are attentive for listening to His secrets, and their souls enjoy the sweetness of His remembrance. Allâh bestows on them His Greetings proportionate to their acknowledgement, and rewards them with His gifts and mercy.

Hence everything, which prevents them from the area of His Majesty, is worthless in their eyes. How easy is it for them to give up everything that takes them away from His path until they taste and enjoy the pleasure and happiness due to this Bounty and Perfection? Then Allâh adorns them with a dress of dignity, grandeur and reverence.

As they realize that their (worldly) lives act as an obstacle in attaining their noble ambition, and that their stay in this world keeps them away from His Grace, they discard their dress of worldly life and put on the apparel worthy of meeting Him. On this way, they found pleasure by giving away their life, and receiving wounds of swords and arrows.

This is the lofty grandeur which raises the souls of the martyrs of Taff (Karbala) to such an extent that they compete with each other in sacrificing their lives, and their holy bodies turn into targets of arrows and swords. How beautiful has Seyyed Murtaza Alamul Huda (r.a.) praised of such noble men: 1 Their bodies lie in the sands of desert Whereas their souls are enjoying the hospitality in the vicinity of Allâh It is, as if those who wanted to harm them have benefited them And those who had killed them with swords were those who made them alive (immortal)

Had it not been incumbent upon us to put on the dress of mourning, as ordered by the Book and the Islamic Tradition, over the vanishing of the "standards of guidance" and establishment of the rule of misguidance and deviation of Umayyides, and to grieve over such losses of bounties, and the martyrdom of such great personalities, it was good to rejoice over such great bliss.

And since in this mourning is concealed the consent of Allâh and the goal of His good servants, we invariably and regularly put on the dress of mourning and bring tears in our eyes. We ask our eyes to go on weeping continuously and also ask our hearts to cry like a mother who has lost her son.

The precious trusts of the compassionate Prophet were destroyed on the day of ?shur?, and many of his wills regarding his household and sons were thrown away by his Ummah and by his enemies. For Allâh?s sake, how difficult were the calamities which made hearts sick, brought so much hardship and destruction, those troubles which were so terrible that rendered all other troubles insignificant; the events wherein the fear of Allâh was driven away and those arrows which made the blood of the holy Prophet flow on earth and those hands which arrested and imprisoned the noble Ahle Bayt (a.s.); those tragedies which rolled the heads of devotees; those catastrophes which took the lives of the best families; the trouble whereof reached even to Jibrael; those atrocities that raised the wrath of Almighty Allah.

Why should it not be so when, on that day, the flesh of the holy Prophet of Allâh (i.e. the body of Imam Husain a.s.) fell on sandy land, and his holy blood flowed on the soil by the swords of the deviated people, and when the holy faces of his daughters were exposed to the eyes of people who were condemnable, and rejoiced at the misfortune of others, and those who (the holy women) were disrobed before both the talking and the dumb, when the holy bodies were stripped and when those holy bodies were strewn on ground!

These calamities dispersed the holy family of the Holy Prophet, and arrows were pierced in the hearts of the guided ones. There were the troubled ladies the plight of whom makes the flames of sorrow and grief rise high. I wish Fâtima and her father had dared to see the plight of their daughters and sons, who were seized, wounded, chained, decapitated; the daughters of the holy Prophet with their collars rent, had none to care them, were grieved for having lost their relatives and dear ones.

Their hairs strewn and veils torn, they were slapped on their faces. They were crying and complaining with a painful feeling, and there was none to help and protect them.

And you, O men of wisdom and reason, O intelligent people, narrate to yourselves these calamities which fell on the holy household, and recite elegies for them in solitude and in public for the sake of Allâh. Accompany them by shedding tears on the plight of these dear ones, and sit in mourning for having lost the opportunity of helping them.

It is so because these precious lives are the valuable trusts of the holy Prophet, and the fruits of his holy heart, and the light of the eyes of Zahra-e-Batool. They are the ones who were kissed by the holy Prophet, and their parents were granted superiority over the Ummah (Islamic nation).

If you have any doubt about their superiority in grace Then ask the holy Quran regarding their distinction The holy Book which is the most just witness to their gracefulness for the men of reason Therein is also the will, which Jibrael brought regarding them How did they compensate all the favors of their grandfather? How did they devastate the fruits of his heart and the repository of his soul by shedding the blood of his precious son so disgracefully?

How is the place and location of fulfilling the will of the holy Prophet regarding his family? What will be the answer of the Ummah in this regard? The Ummah destroyed all that the holy Prophet had established, and the wailing of the oppressed Islâm is raised high; O Allâh! What a heart which does not melt by the remembrance of these events? How strange is the negligence of an Ummah and what is the excuse of the people of Islâm regarding this tragedy?

Do not they know that the holy Prophet is injured and he is claiming revenge? That his beloved has been slain, and his blood is boiling? Those angels are giving him condolence over this calamity and prophets have shared these tragedies?

Then, O loyal followers of the Prophet Mohammed! Do not you join him in this weeping? O, follower of the son of Zahra; mourn and recite the poems of grief, and weep over the princes of Islâm for the sake of Allah. Maybe by participating in the sorrow of this great tragedy you may proceed on the Day of Judgment.

Verily, it has been narrated from Imâm Bâqir (a.s.) that Imâm Zainul ?bedin (a.s.) said, "whenever a tear drops from the eyes of a believer, While mourning for Husain (a.s.), and rolls down his cheek, Allâh will grant him a permanent home in Paradise. And for every believer, who sheds a tear because of the oppression and injustice to us by the enemy, when that tears rolls down his cheek, Allâh grants him a high position in Paradise. And when a faithful person suffers harm in our way, by our enemy, Allâh turns away the trouble from him and saves him from Hell on the Day of Judgment."

Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) is reported to have said that anyone who remembers us, and tears, even as little as a fly?s wing rolls from his eyes, Allâh will forgive his sins, even if they are equal to the bulbs of the seas. And it is reported that he said; "One who weeps over us and causes one hundred people weep, is entitled to Paradise; one who weeps over us and causes fifty people weep over us, heaven will be his abode; one who weeps and causes twenty persons weep for us will go to Paradise; and one who weeps for us and also causes ten men weep for us will be entitled to Paradise; one who weeps for us and causes one person weep for us will also go to heaven; and the one who weeps for us and makes his face sorrowful will also get Paradise."

The author, Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Ja?far Ibn Muhammad Ibn Tâwûs Husain says; "The noble impulses which inspired me to adopt the manner and method of this book, was that after the compilation of the book Misbâhuz Zaer wa Jannatul Musâfir 2, I felt that various appealing aspects of Ziyarats have been collected therein and hence one who carries it does not need to take with him heavy books to the holy tombs during the Ziyarat time."

I also wished that a person visiting the holy shrine should not be required to carry Kitâb-e-Maqtal during the Ziyarat of ?shura in Karbala.

Therefore, I wrote this book so that a visitor needs not to carry any other book along with Misbâhuz Zaer; Moreover I have tried to save his time by avoiding details and repetitions. Yet various chapters about Karbal? have been included for the faithful people, as we have infused the words with an appropriate spirit, given the title Al- Malhoof ala Qatlat Tafoof to it, and have arranged it in three parts; we seek help from the Merciful Lord.

The holy birth of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) took place on the 3rd or 5th of Shabân, 4 A.H. It is also said that he was born 3 at the end of Rabiul Awwal in 3 A.H. some other dates are given too. Ummul Fazl, 4 the wife of Abbâs 5 (r.a.) said, "Before the birth of Hussain I saw in a dream that a piece of flesh of the holy Prophet was cut off, which fell in my lap."

I narrated the dream to the holy Prophet. He said, "It is a true vision and a good dream. Very soon, Fâtima will give birth to a son and she will give him to you for nursing." It happened as the holy Prophet had said. Narrators of traditions have narrated that when Hussain (a.s.) was 1 year old, twelve angels came down to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). They had sorrowful faces and tearful eyes. They opened their wings, and said, "O Muhammad! Very soon, your son Hussain Ibn Fâtima will get what Habeel had got from Qabeel, and his killer will get the reward just as Qabeel had got as punishment. All the angels in the heavens came to the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and after salutation gave him condolence about Hussain. They also told him about his reward, and gave him Hussain?s holy dust (dust of his grave)."

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said, "O Allâh! Degrade the one who would degrade Hussain; kill his killer, and do not give him (the killer) success."

When Hussain was two years old, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) went on a journey. He halted on the way and recited with tearful eyes, "Inna lillaahe inna ilaihe raajeoon (Verily we belong to Allâh and to Him we return)". When asked for the reason, he said, "Now Jibrael informed me of a land called Karbala, 6 on the bank, of river Euphrates, that my son Hussain Ibn Fâtima will be martyred there." One of them asked, "O? Prophet of Allâh! Who will kill him?" He replied, "A man named Yazeed. As if I am looking at the place of Husain's martyrdom and burial."

Then he returned from the journey in a very sorrowful mood, climbed the pulpit and gave a speech while Hasanain (a.s.) were with him. After concluding his speech he put his right hand on the head of Hasan (a.s.) and his left hand on the head of Hussain (a.s.). He raised his head towards the sky and exclaimed; "O Lord! Muhammad is Your worshipper and messenger, and these two youth are from my pious kinsfolk and good progeny, and the founders of my family whom I am leaving in my place. Jibrael informed me that this son of mine will be killed and forsaken. O Allâh! Make his martyrdom sanctified for him, make him the leader of the martyrs, and do not bless his killers and his forsakers." Then the people cried.

The holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said: "Would you just weep and not help him?"

Then he returned and gave another (short) sermon, with tearful eyes, and said: "O people! I am leaving among you, two valuable things, i.e. the Book of Allâh, and my progeny; who are my origin, my essence, and the fruits of my life. These two things will not separate, until they meet me at the Hauz (in paradise) in the Last Day. I will be waiting for them, and I do not expect from you anything except what Allâh has ordained, that is kindness and (love for my near and dear family). So beware, do not be of those who will not see me at the Hauz, tomorrow, as a result of enmity against my household, harassing and killing them."

Be aware that on the Day of Judgment, three banners will be offered to me from this Ummah: A dark black flag, which will frighten the angels. Its bearers will halt near me. I will ask them: Who are you? They would have forgotten my name.

They will say: "We are believers in God and we are Arabs." I will say: "I am Ahmad, the Prophet for both the Arabs and non-Arabs". They will say: "O Ahmad: We are from your Ummah."

I will ask them: "What did you do, after my death, to the Book of God and to my progeny?" They will reply: "We left and wasted the Book and we totally destroyed your progeny with enmity." I will turn away from them. And they would be driven to Hell extremely thirsty and black-faced. Then the second flag bearers with a darker flag will come.

I will ask them: "What did you do with the two valuables I left (i.e. the Holy Quran, and the holy progeny)?" (In response) they will say: "We opposed the Book, and humiliated and destroyed the holy family." I will say, "Go away from me." And they would be driven to Hell with dark faces and thirsty too. Then the third group will arrive with bright and shining flags and faces. I will ask: "Who are you?"

They will reply: "We are believers in Oneness of God and righteous. We are the followers of Muhammad (s.a.w.s.). We are the survivors of the rightful nation. We respected the holy Book of God and obeyed whatever was mentioned as permissible or forbidden in it. We befriended the progeny of the holy Prophet. We willfully helped them and fought against their enemies." I would tell them: "Congratulations! I am Muhammad, your Prophet. You lived in the world as you described." Then I will give them water from the Hauz of Kauthar, and then they will happily enter Paradise and enjoy there forever.

In the year 60 A.H., when Muawiya 7 Ibn Abi Sofyân died, his son Yazeed 8 Ibn Muawiya, wrote a letter to the governor of Medina, Walid Ibn Utbah, 9 and ordered him to get allegiance from the people of Medina, 10 especially from Hussain ibn Ali (a.s.) and if Hussain refused, he should cut off his head and send it to Yazeed. he was at once removed from the governorship by Ali (a.s.). Before the dismissal order reached him, Muawiyah raised the bogey of taking revenge from the killers of Uthmân and alleged that Ali (a.s.) had killed him, thus creating an excuse for war. Muawiyah is notorious for taking undue advantages through treachery and deceit. [Târikh Ibne Athir 4/2 Târikh Tabari 6/180; Al-Badu Wat Târikh 6/5; Al-Alâm 7/261-262]

Shameful sins took place in Medina and many companions of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and Tabein were killed. He died in 64 A.H. [Târikh Tabari: Events of the year 64; Târikhul Khamis 2/300; Târikh Ibne Athir 4/94; Jumahartul Ansâb: 103; Al-Alâm 8/ 189]

Walid called Marwân Ibn Hakam 11 for consultation regarding Hussain (a.s.). Marwân said, "Hussain will not give allegiance, and if I were you, I would have cut off his head." Walid said, "I wish my mother had not given birth to me and I had not existed!" Then he summoned Husain (a.s.). Hussain approached him with thirty members of his family. Walid informed him about the death of Muawiya, and asked him to give allegiance to Yazeed.

He said, "O? Sir! Since allegiance is not a secret affair whenever you invite the people, you may call me too." Marwân said, "O Amir! Do not accept his excuse and if he refuses, cut off his neck." Hussain (a.s.) became angry and said: "Woe unto you, O son of bustard! You order my beheading! You are a liar and you have, by Allâh, shown meanness." Then he turned towards Walid, and said: "O Amir! We are the members of the Holy family of the prophetic mission. We are the mines of prophethood, and our house is the thoroughfare of angels. Allâh initiated and concluded with us (the divine knowledge) Yazeed is a debauchee, a drunkard; a murderer, and has shed much holy blood. All these factors have made him unworthy of caliphate. A man like me cannot give allegiance to him; however, tomorrow morning I will study about this matter, and will see who is worthy of being caliph."

Then the Imâm (p.b.u.h.) left there. Marwân said to Walid: "You didn?t act as I advised you?" Walid said: "Woe unto you. Through your advice, you wished to destroy my world and the Hereafter? By Allâh! I do not like to get the worldly kingdom by shedding the blood of Hussain. By Allâh! I don?t think that one meets Allâh with the sin of murdering Hussain (a.s.) except that his balance (of deeds) is light, and Allâh will not be kind to him, and will punish him in Hell." Next morning Hussain (a.s.) came out of his house to get news, and he came across Marwân. Marwân said: "O Aba Abdillâh! I want to give you an advice. Rather hear me and accept it."

He said: Tell me, so that I may hear it. Marwan said: "I tell you to give allegiance to Yazeed, Amirul Momineen. It is better for your world and your Hereafter."

Hussain (a.s.) said: "(Inna lillâh wa inna ilaiheh Râjeoon) Indeed we belong to Allâh, and to Him is our return." When the Ummah (society) falls into the leadership of men like Yazeed, it would mean an end to Islâm. Verily, I have heard from my grandfather the holy

Prophet who said, "Caliphate is forbidden for the household of Abi Sofyân." The conversation between Hussain (a.s.) and Marwân went on until the latter became furious and went away. 12

He said: What will happen to me in that I will be martyred through poison. But, O Aba Abdillâh! There is no day like your day when thirty thousand people who consider themselves as the followers of our grandfather and who call themselves Muslims, will gather around you, shed your blood, dishonor you and capture your sons and women, and plunder your property. Then cursing of Bani Umayyah will be lawful. Dust and blood will rain from the sky. Everything including wild animals and fish in the sea will weep over you.

A group of those at whom I have hinted…As is mentioned at the end of the book Shâfi, his grandfather Muhammad bin Umar narrates that: My father Umar bin Ali (a.s.) talked about Dais from ?le Aquil and said: As my brother Hussain (a.s.) refused to give allegiance to Yazeed in Medina, I went to him in private and told him: May I be thy ransom, O Aba Abdillâh! Hasan Mujtaba, your brother (a.s.) has narrated from his fathers: At this moment weeping stalled my talking and I wept loudly. Hussain embraced me and said: Did he tell you that I would be killed? I said: Alas, O son of the Prophet. He said: By your father, did he inform you about my murder. He said: Yes, if you did not give allegiance. He said: Brother my father narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that I would be killed and my grave would be near his grave. Do you think that I do not know what you know? No. By Allâh, I will never accept humiliation. It is Fâtima who complained to her father about what her progeny received from the Ummat. Those who tormented her progeny will not be taken to Paradise. I say:

Maybe some who have not recognized the gracefulness in martyrdom may understand that devoutness to Allâh is not like this, as if they have not heard the True Quran saying that sometimes devoutness lies in self killing: Then repent before your Creator by killing yourselves as it, in the sight of your Creator, is better for you. Perhaps they have relied on the verse: Do not destroy yourselves by your own hands and imagined that in this ayat the word Tahlakah means killing whereas the question is not like that. Tabbud (devoutness means man should make himself reach the stages of Sa?adat (bliss of salvation). The author of Maqtal, while explaining this verse, narrates from Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.), which conforms to intelligence. Aslam narrates that: We went to the battle of Nahavand and perhaps to other battles too. We arranged our rows and so also the enemy. They had unprecedented lengths and widths. The army of the Byzantines had their back to the city wall and their face towards us.

One of us attacked. People exclaimed: La Ilâha Illallâh. This man is throwing himself into destruction (halakat). Abu Ayyub Ansâri said:

Perhaps you have taken a wrong meaning from this verse and thereby you have mistaken the desire for martyrdom of this man as jumping into halakat. This verse is revealed in connection with us because we, instead of rushing to help the Prophet of Allâh remained stuck with our women and children and property and consequently refrained from assisting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and this ayat has been revealed by way of admonishing and denouncing us. Its meaning is: By violating the command of the Holy Prophet and by remaining in the house with women and children you have thrown yourselves into halakat (destruction). This verse is for refuting our dead and for inspiring us to fight against the enemy in Jihâd. Thus the action of the said man was either for getting martyrdom or for inspiring the army against the enemy to get its reward in the Hereafter.

We say: We have brought these reminders in the Preface and in the discourse of this book and the same will also be repeated henceforth.

The next morning, 3rd of the month of Shabân, 60 A.H. Imâm (a.s) departed for Mecca. He stayed the rest of Shabân, Ramadân, and Zilqada in Mecca. 13 Abdullâh Ibn Abbâs 14 and Abdullâh IBn Zubair 15 came to him and proposed him to reside in Mecca. He said: "Indeed the holy Prophet has ordered me to fulfill a task, which I am carrying out." Ibn Abbâs went out exclaiming: "Wa Hussaina!"

Thereafter Abdullâh Ibn Umar 16 came and invited Imâm Hussain (p.b.u.h.) to ally with the deviated government to keep away from war and bloodshed.

Imâm (a.s.) said: "O Aba Abdul Rahmân! Don?t you know that it is a dirty world which caused people so lowthat the holy head of Yahya Ibn Zakariya is sent to one of the bastards of the children of Israel? Don't you know that the Jewish people killed seventy prophets, from dawn to sunrise, during a day? Yet they went to their work in market, as if nothing had happened at all. Allâh did not make haste in punishing them, but gave them respite. Thereafter, He chastised them severely, which was a very hard chastisement from the Almighty God. O Aba Abdul Rahmân! Fear Allâh and do not refrain from assisting me."

The narrator says, "The people of Kufa heard the news of the dignified arrival of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) in Mecca and his denial to give allegiance to Yazeed. 17 Many people gathered in the house of Sulaimân Ibn Surad Khozâei." 18

Sulaimân stood up, gave a sermon and at the end of his speech said: "Oh Shias! You know that Muawiyah has died and is getting the recompense of his deeds. He has nominated his son, Yazeed, on the throne of kingdom." Here is Hussain (a.s.) who has refused to confirm him, and he has migrated to Mecca, due to the rebellious Ommayides. You are the followers of him and his father. Today he needs your help. So think over. If you can fight with him against his enemy, then inform him. Otherwise if you are lazy, disunited, and fearful then do not capture him in deception and complacency.

Then they wrote the following letter to Imâm Hussain (p.b.u.h.) and dispatched it: In the name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful Submitted respectfully to Imâm Husain Ibn Ali Amirul Momineen (a.s.), from Sulaimân Ibn Surad Khozâei, Musayyab Ibn Najbah 19, Rafah Ibn Shaddâd 20, Habib Ibn Mozâhir, 21 and Abdullâh Ibn Vail 22 and his other Shias (followers):

Peace of Allâh be upon you. Praise is for Allâh Who defeated the enemy of you and your father, i.e. one who was selfish, arrogant and jealous oppressor, who forcibly snatched the right of this Ummah, and deprived them from their rights; one who became sovereign without the consent of the community, who killed the good people and kept the evil ones and mischief-mongers alive and handed over the public treasury to the rebels and dictators, and thus we wish that he would have been driven away from the mercy of Allâh, like the people of Tham?d. Now we do not have any leader except you. So please come to us, so that Allâh may gather us for truth through you.

Here, Nomân Ibn Bashir 23 (the governor) has remained through Nomân to Syria. He was with Muawiyah in Siffeen. He had become the Qâzi (judge) of Damascus and thereafter governor of Yemen then of Kufa and thereafter of Hims. He was there when Yazeed died. Then Nomân gave allegiance to Ibne Zubair and people of Hims rose against him. So he fled. Khâlid bin khilli al-Qalai alone in the government palace, and we are not on his side in Friday pray and other ceremonies.

If we come to know that you are coming toward us, we shall drive him out to Syria (Shâm) 24. Blessings and greetings to you inadvance, O son of the holy Prophet, and may Allâh have mercy on you and on your father, and there is no strength and might except that of Allâh, the High and the Great. They sent this letter. After two days, the people dispatched through another group 150 letters, which were signed by one, two, three, or four persons… all of them requested the arrival of the Imâm to Kufa. The Imâm delayed response and did not reply to those letters. Then once he got 600 letters. Letters came constantly, and exceeded to 12000 letters. The latest Kufian couriers were Hâni Ibn Hâni as Sabiee, 25 and Saeed Ibn Abdullâh al- Hanafi, 26 who brought the following letter and it, was the last letter from the people of Kufa:

In the name of Allâh, the Beneficent, the Merciful To Hussain son of Amir- ul- Momineen Ali (p.b.u.h.) from his Shias, and the Shias of Amir -ul- Momineen (a.s.) Now, all people are waiting for you, and they have none other than you, in their mind, for leadership. So please hurry. Make haste, O? son of the holy Prophet. The gardens and field are green and full of fruits. The ground is full of grass and trees with sprouting branches and leaves. When your intention accrues, do come here so that you may lead the army which is ready. Salutation on you and your father in advance. Hussain (a.s.) asked Hâni and Saeed, "Whose letter is this?"

They replied: Shabas Ibn Rabaee, 27 Hajar Ibn Abjar, 28 Yazeed Ibn Harith, 29 Yazeed Ibn Raveem, Urwah Ibn Qais, 30 Umar Ibn Hajjâj, 31 and Muhammad Ibn Amir Ibn Atarad. 32 It is narrated that, at that time, Imâm got up and prayed between Rukn and Maqâm, and wished good affairs from Allâh. Then he called Moslem Ibn Aquil 33 and acquainted him with the situation. He sent the reply to Kufa through him, wherein he had mentioned his intention to go to Kufa.

The text of the letter was: "I am dispatching my cousin Moslem Ibn Aquil to you, so that he may convey to me your opinion and views."

Moslem went with the Imâm?s letter and reached Kufa. As the people knew about the Imâm?s letter and his program, they were pleased with the arrival of Moslem.They invited Moslem to stay in the house of Mukhtâr Ibn Abi Ubaidah Thaqafi, 34 and the Shias began to come to that place. When the people gathered around Moslem, he read the Imâm?s letter. 18000 persons paid allegiance to him. Abdullâh Ibn Moslem al-Bahili, Ammârah Ibn Walid, and Umar Ibn Sa?ad 35 wrote a letter to Yazeed, informing him about Moslem Ibn Aquil and the situation in Kufa. They advised him to dismiss Nomân Ibn Bashir and replace him by someone else.

Yazeed wrote to Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd, 36 the Governor of Basra, 37 "We gave you the governorship of Kufa (in addition to Basra)." He informed him about Moslem Ibn Aquil?s affair, and ordered that he should be arrested and killed. Ubaidullâh prepared to move towards Kufa.

Hussain (a.s.) wrote a letter to the nobles of Basra, and sent it through one of his friends, Sulaimân Abârzin 38, and invited them to assist him. He reminded them of their responsibility to obey the Imâm. This group included Yazeed Ibn Masood Nahsali and Munzir Ibn Jârood Abdi. 39

Yazeed Ibn Masood gathered Bani Tamim, Bani Hanzala, and Bani Sa?ad and told them, "O Bani Tamim! How do you find my character, condition, and family, and nobility among you?" They said, "Well, very good! You are the pillar and head of every excellence, the center of nobility, and in the forefront of eminence." He said, "I have called you for obtaining your opinion and assistance in my affairs." They replied, "By Allâh! We will do our best to express our view. Tell us, so that we may know."

He said: "Certainly Allâh has dragged Muawiyah into disgrace and destruction, and has removed his mark. It was he who opened the floodgates of sin and oppression, and it was he who laid the foundation of tyranny. He imposed the allegiance of his son on the people by force, and imagined that he had established him firmly state. Woe unto what he intended. He made an effort and failed. He called for advice and did not get support. Now his son, Yazeed, the drunkard and he who heads every evil and sin, claims to be the caliph of Muslims, and wants to be their ruler without their consent and approval. This is, while he does not know the path of truth, because of his being weak in knowledge and tolerance. I believe that war and fight against Yazeed is more urgent than war against polytheists."

And here is Husain Ibn Ali, son of the dear daughter of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), who enjoys dismissed. Ubaidullâh made him the governor of the borders of India in 61 A.H. and died at the end of the same year. [Al-Isâbah Part 8336; Jumharatul Ansâb: 279; Al-?ghâni 11/117; Al-Elâm 7/292] nobility, dignity, and wisdom. His distinction is beyond the ability of the pen to write, and the tongue to speak. He is an ocean of knowledge, which has no shore. He is the suitable person for the post of caliphate. He enjoys a brilliant record, an age full of experience, a glorious background, and honorable kinship. He is very affectionate to the youngsters and kind to the elders. How nice it would be if people had a leader like him, and if he had become the Imâm of the Ummah. Allâh has made his plea incumbent and his sermon very audible.

Do not run away from the Divine Radiance, and do not grope in darkness of falsehood. It was Sakhr Ibn Qais 40 who brought on you the disgrace of not participating in Jamal war. Today you may clean that blot by rising help to the son of the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). By Allâh anyone who refrains from helping him, Allâh has prepared humiliation and shortage for him and his family. And now behold! I am the one who has worn the dress of war and have put on the armor. Now the one who is not martyred will die, and the one, who flees, will certainly meet death.

May Allâh have mercy on you. Give me a good response. Banu Hanzala said, We always have been the arrows of your bow, and the horsemen of your family. If you come out for a fight along with us you will be victorious and conqueror. If you see difficulties, again we will be with you, and will help you with our swords and will protect you at the cost of our lives. So rise up for whatever you wish. The Banu Sa?ad got up to speak and said, "O Aba (father of) Khâlid: The most inappropriate deed, in our eyes, is to oppose you and to disobey your command and opinion. If Sakhr Ibn Qais has ordered us to give up war he has eulogized us, and our honor, and pride has remained intact as before. Please permit us to consult one another so that we may convey to you the outcome." Thereafter Banu Amer Ibn Tamim spoke, "O, Aba Khâlid! We are sons of your father, and your confederates. If you become angry then we do not like to remain happy and silent. If you march we shall not sit at home. Every command of yours is right. So call us up so that we may respond, and give order to us so that we may obey. Issue order whenever you wish. It is only up to you." He said, "O Banu Sa?ad! If you will obey the command, then Allâh will not deprive you from power and the sword. It will always remain in your hand." Thereafter, a letter was written accordingly (unanimously) to the Imâm (a.s.):

Bismillâhir Rahmânir Raheem

I have been honored by your graceful letter and I have come to know about its contents; wherein you have summoned me, and have invited me that I should profit from your obedience and become fortunate by helping your honor. The Almighty Allâh never keeps the world without the one who does well and who guides towards salvation. You are Allâh?s perfect Sign for the entire creation and His Trust on earth. Yes, you are the fruitful branches of the Prophetic Olive tree, which was planted by the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The highflying bird acquires its graceful flying through your holy hand. I have made Bani Tamim subservient to you, and they are your total and perfect followers. They are rushing to you for obeying you, just as a thirsty camel rushes towards water. I hand over to you the obeyance of Bani Sa?ad and have washed away the internal dirt from their souls so thoroughly that it shines nicely before every eye to observe.

After reading this letter Imâm Hussain (a.s.) said: May Allâh protect you on the Frightful day (Hereafter), and gratify you on the Day of terrible thirst. Ibn Masood Nahsali had just made preparations to move towards Imâm Hussain (a.s.) when he got the news of Hazrat?s martyrdom. As he could not get the opportunity of helping the Imâm, he got restless. Munzir Ibn Jârood handed over the message of Imâm Hussain (a.s.) and the messenger to Ubaidullâh Ibn Ziyâd because he feared that he could be a spy of Ubaidullâh and Bahriya, daughter of Munzir, was wife of Ubaidullâh. Ubaidullâh hanged the messenger, and gave a speech warning the people against revolting and fanning troublesome news. The next morning Ubaidullâh assigned his brother Uthmân Ibn Ziyâd in his office in Basra, and he himself rushed to Kufa.

Spending that evening near Kufa, he entered the city at night. People imagined that Hussain (a.s.) had arrived. So they became happy and rushed to greet him. But on seeing Ibne Ziyâd they dispersed. Ibne Ziyâd went to the Government House. He stayed there overnight. Next morning he went to the mosque and through his speech warned people against disobeying the ruler, and promised rewards for obedience.

When Moslem Ibn Aquil got this news he feared identification. So got out of Mukhtâr?s house and went to the house of Hâni bin Urwah. Hâni gave him a good welcome. Shias began to meet him at the house of Hâni. Ibn Ziyâd planted his spies over them. When Ibn Ziyâd came to know that Moslem was in Hâni?s house, he summoned Muhammad Ibn Ash'ath 41, Asma Ibn Kharja 42, and Amr bin Hajjâj and asked, "What is the matter? Why is Hâni not coming to meet me?" They said, "We do not know. It is said that he is ill."

He said: "I have heard that he has now recovered and that he sits at the door of his house. If we know that he is not well we may go to see him. Go to him and remind him not to ignore our due right. Since he is a noble Arab, I do not like that he should be charged with corruption." They went to Hâni, stayed there with him and asked him: "What happened, why not you go to see the Amir (Ibn Ziyad)? He has remembered you saying, If I know that he is ill. I may go to see him." Hâni said: Illness prevented me.

They said, "He has heard that you have recovered and that you sit at the door of your house in the evening. The ruler will not tolerate this drawback and disloyalty, especially from someone like you. You are a nobleman of your community. We ask under oath to get up, take a ride and come along with us to him."

Hâni put on his dress and rode on his animal. On reaching the palace, Hâni was fearful and said to Hassân bin Asma Ibn Khâriji, "O my nephew! By Allâh, I fear this man. What do you think?" He said: "O uncle! Do not be afraid. I do not feel worry about you." (Hassân did not know what was going on behind the curtain and why Ibn Ziyâd had sent him to Hâni). Hâni went to Ubaidullâh along with other companions. Seeing Hâni, Ubaidullâh said: Dishonesty has dragged him to you (it is an Arabic proverb). Then he looked at Qâzi Shureih 43 who was sitting by his side, pointed towards Hâni and recited the following couplets of poet of Madi Karb Zubedi. 44 I desired life for him, and he wanted death for me. This is meant by the excuse of your friend.

Hâni said: What has happened to the Amir?

Ibn Ziyâd said, "Shut up, O Hâni! What is going in your house against Amir-ul- Momineen and the Muslims? You brought Moslem Ibn Aquil in your premises, and you are gathering fighters and arms for him there?" Hâni said: I have done nothing. Ibn Ziyâd: Call my servant, Ma?qqal. This Ma?qqal was a spy of Ibn Ziyâd who knew many secret of Hâni?s house. Ma?qqal came and stood near Ibn Ziyâd. When Hâni saw Ma?qqal, he understood that he was Ibn Ziyâd?s spy, said, "By God! Neither I had called him to my house nor did I invite him to rise in revolt. But he took shelter in my house. I felt ashamed in refusing shelter. This sheltering made me responsible for him. I gave him protection. Now since you have known this matter let me go and relieve him from my house so that he may go wherever he likes and that my responsibility is over."

Ibn Ziyâd said: "No, by Allâh. You cannot leave here until you hand over Moslem to me." Hâni: "No, by Allâh. I will never do such a shameless thing. I cannot hand over my guest to you so that you kill him." Ibn Ziyâd: "By Allâh, you must deliver him." Hâni: "I will never do so."

Dialogue between them prolonged. Moslem Ibn Amr Bahli got up to say: If the Amir allows I may talk to Hâni in privacy. Both went aside in such a way that Ibn Ziyâd could see them. When their talk became loud Ibne Ziyâd also heard it.

Moslem told Hâni: "O Hâni, I administer oath of Allâh to you. Do not kill yourself, and do not put your tribe in trouble. I am afraid you will be killed. This man, Moslem Ibn Aquil is the cousin of Ibn Ziyad. He will never be harmed or killed by them. Hand him over to them as this deed will not cause any disgrace or loss to you, since you will be handing him over to the ruler." Hâni said: By Allâh, it is disgrace on my part if I hand over my refugee, my guest, and the representative of the son of the holy Prophet to his enemy, shile my hands are powerful and I have many friends. Even if I were alone and without helpers, I would not hand him over until I sacrifice my life for him.

Bahli administered him an oath. But Hâni declined emphatically. Ibn Ziyâd, who heard these words said, "Bring him to me. So he was brought near him." Ibn Ziyâd said: "By Allâh. I say, hand him over. Otherwise I will behead you." Hâni replied: "Then light of the edges of swords will light up around your palace." Ibn Ziyâd said: "Woe unto you. Do you threaten me with your sword?" Hâni thought that his tribesmen had heard his voice. Ibn Ziyâd said: Bring him close to me. Then he beat him up on his head, face, nose and cheeks with his whip so much that his nose broke and flesh fell off his face, and blood rolled over his clothes. The whip was also broken.

Hâni stretched out his hands and took hold of the handle of the guard?s sword to snatch it and to attack. The guard caught him. Ibn Ziyâd shouted: Hold him. They grabbed him and dragged and imprisoned him in one of the palace rooms, and closed its door. Ibn Ziyâd also ordered posting of warders to watch him.

Asma Ibn Kharja or Hassân Ibn Asma rose up and said: "Deceptive indeed was today. O Amir! You asked us to bring this man to you. Now when he arrived you broke and disfigured his face, and colored his beard with blood and tried to kill him." Ibn Ziyâd became angry at his words and said: You are also from him. On his order, they beat him up, chained him and jailed him in a corner of the palace. He exclaimed: Inna lillâh wa inna ilaihi Râjeoon. O Hâni! I offer you condolences.

The narrator says: Amr bin Hajjâj heard that Hâni was killed. Raviha, daughter of Amr was Hâni?s wife. Amr came to government Palace along with the entire tribe of Mizhaj. He shouted: I am Amr Ibn Hajjâj, and all these are the warriors of Mizhaj, and its leading personalities. We have not left obedience and we do not want disintegration in the community. We have got news that our chief Hâni has been killed. Ibn Ziyâd understood the reason of the assembly of those people. He asked (Judge) Shureih to call on Hâni, and to inform the community about his being safe. Shureih (who was a liar Judge) did so, and the gathering became glad and returned.

Moslem Ibn Aquil got this news. So he stood up along with his friends to fight against Ibn Ziyâd. They surrounded the palace of Ibn Ziyâd. Ibn Ziyâd was beseiged in his palace. The battle began between the army of Ibn Ziyâd and the army of Moslem.

The companions of Ibn Ziyâd who were with him inside the palace, warned the friends of Moslem against war and asked them to fear the Syrian army. This condition continued till nightfall. When night fell, the friends of Moslem left him and talked to one another: "What can we do for this sedition that has come on us so rapidly? It is better to remain in our houses, and leave these two parties to themselves until Allâh improves their affairs." Except ten persons from his friends no one remained with Moslem. He went to the mosque to offer evening prayers. The last ten also dispersed.

When Moslem saw such a situation, he moved alone in the Bazar and streets of Kufa, until he reached and halted at the door of the house of a lady named Tooa. He asked for water and she provided it. Then he sought shelter which also she extended. Tooa?s son knew this and he informed Ibn Ziyâd. Ibn Ziyâd summoned Muhammad Ibn Ashath and sent him with soldiers to arrest Moslem. As Moslem heard the noise of the horse hooves, he put on the war dress, mounted a horse and proceeded to fight with the enemy.

Moslem, who was a brave man, killed a number of enemies. The sword in his hand moved in such a way that people remembered the wielding of Zulfiqâr in the hand of Haider Karrar Ali (p.b.u.h.). Muhammad Ibn Ashath cried. "O Moslem. You are given amnesty." Moslem replied: "The amnesty offered by you liars, and misdoers does not have any value."

Then he renewed fighting and recited the lyric poem of Humran bin Mâlik Khasami: I have vowed not to die but as a free man, even if death looks ugly. I dislike cheat and fraud or the mixture of cool and palatable drink with hot and bitter substance. Every man must once meet with hardship and trouble. I shall strike you, I am not afraid of harm and loss. They said: "Our words are not deceitful." Moslem did not care. He continued his constant attacks. Then the enemy rushed to him collectively. He became very weak due to frequent wounds. A man hit him with his spear from behind, whereby Moslem fell down and was captured.

When they took him to Ibn Ziyâd, Moslem did not salute him. The guard said: Salute the commander. Moslem replied: You shut up. Woe unto you. He is not my commander. Ibn Ziyâd said: Salute me or not, you will be killed. Moslem told him: "It is no wonder if you kill me, as there were people worst than you who killed men better than me. If you cut my body in the worst way, it would only expose your inner dirt and meanness; as such crimes have been imbibed in your nature."

Ibn Ziyâd said: "O disobedient and mischief- maker! Having left the chief, you have broken the power of the muslims and are now creating trouble." Moslem: "O Ibn Ziyâd! You have lied. It was Muawiyah and his son Yazeed who broke the strength of the muslims. With regards to trouble, it is you and your father Ziyâd, bondsman of Bani Allâj of Thaqeef, 45 who is the real germ of every hypocrisy and mischief. I hope Allâh will grant me martyrdom through the hand of the most corrupt person!"

Ibn Ziyâd said: You desired something which Allâh withdrew it from you and granted it to the deserving one. Moslem asked: "O son of Marjâna! Who deserves it?" Ibne Ziyâd: "Yazeed bin Muawiyah." Moslem replied: "Thanks to God! I am pleased with Allâh?s Judgment between you and us." Ibn Ziyâd said: "Do you think that you have a right in caliphate?"

Moslem replied: "No doubt, I am certain of it." Ibn Ziyâd: "Tell me, why did you come to this peaceful city and caused conflicts among its residents and disturbed their affairs?" Moslem said: "I did not come to do anything like that. But it is you who uplifted evils, buried virtues, and imposed yourself on people without their consent. You dragged people against Allâh's commandments. You are ruling the people like those dictators. We came to order good and prohibit evil, and make people to follow the Book of Allâh and, as averred by the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) this responsibility suits us." Ibn Ziyâd (may God?s curse overtake his soul) began to curse Moslem, Ali, Hasan and Husain. Moslem said: "It is you and your father who are the worst of the people. O enemy of Allâh! Do whatever you like."

Ibn Ziyâd ordered Bukair Ibn Umrân, the malicious and the accursed one, to take Moslem to the top of the palace and kill him. They took Moslem upstairs, who engaged himself in words of prayers and seeking Allâh?s rewards for the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Then they decapitated him and came down fearful and trembling. Ibn Ziyâd asked: "What is happening to you?" He said: "While killing him, I saw a black colored and ugly faced man standing in front of me, who was biting his nails - or biting his lips -I was not afraid like that ever before."

Ibn Ziyâd: "Perhaps you are frightened." Then he ordered for killing of Hâni Ibn Urwah. They took him for execution while he was shouting: O Mazhaja, where are Mazhajis? And where are our tribesmen and relatives? The executers said: Raise your head. Hâni said: I am not generous in giving away my own life and will not help you in assassinating me. Ibn Ziyâd?s slave, Rashid, hit at his neck and killed Hâni.

About the martyrdom of Moslem and Hâni, Abdullâh Ibn Zubair Asadi 46 (according to another statement, Farazdaq 47 recited thus: If you do not know what death is, then look at Hâni and the son of Aquil in the market field; That brave man whose face was disfigured with a sword and another one who was fell from the top of a wall; These two were crushed under the feet of oppression and yet their names are on the tongues of everyone; You see a body that death changed its color and blood that continues to gush from it; This is the young courageous man, whose modesty is higher than the modesty of a chaste young girl; His power stronger than the power of a double edged sharpened sword;

Is there anyone else who sits so comfortably on a horse? Now Mizhaj forgets him totally; The one whom everyone was ready to obey; If you have no guts to avenge the blood of your brothers; Then play music for a while, with the bastards.

Imâm Hussain (a.s.) left Mecca on Tuesday, the 3rd or 8th of Zilhajj 60 A.H., that is, on the day of Moslem?s martyrdom. Abu Ja?far bin Muhammad bin Jurair Tabari Imâmi in his book Dalâil Al-Imâmah 49 says; "Abu Muhammad Sufyân Ibn Waqee 50 from his father Waqee, 51 from A'mash 52(his uncle), from Abu Muhammad Wâqidi and Zurârah Ibn Khalaj 53 We met Husain (a.s.) three days prior to his movement towards Iraq. 54 We informed him about the weakness of the Kufians, and that their hearts were with him, but their swords were against him." Imâm Hussain (a.s.) pointed his blessed hand towards the sky. The gates of the sky opened and innumerable angels, whose number is not known to anyone except the Almighty Allâh, came down.

Imâm (a.s.) said: If it was not for the causality in this world and had not the fixed time (death) arrived, I would fight them with these powers. But I know, with certainty, that the place of the martyrdom of me and my companions is there, from where none, but my son Ali would be saved.

It is mentioned in narrations that when Imam Husain (p.b.u.h.) wanted to proceed towards Iraq, he stood up and gave a sermon and said: All praise is for the Almighty Allâh, and only His will prevails; power and strength is not available except from Allah (sustenance too is only from Him); may Allâh?s mercy be upon His revered messenger (and his progeny), may Allâh shed His peace on him. The adoration of death on the son of Adam is like the adoration of a necklace on the neck of a maiden. My longing to meet my predecessors (my grandfather, father, mother, and brother) is like the longing of Jâcob to meet Joseph. A place for my killing has already been selected where I must reach. As if I see those wild wolves tearing apart pieces of my body between Nawawees 55 and Karbala.

How many stomachs shall be filled with me (my flesh and blood) and how many leather bags stuffed with my stuff? There is no escape from what has been inscribed on the state of destiny. We, the holy Ahle Bayt have considered the happiness of Allâh as our happiness, and we perform His tests patiently. He grants us the reward of the patient ones. Part of the prophet gets separated from him but that it returns to him in Hazeerat-ul-Quds, whereby his eyes become bright and His promise fulfilled. Whosoever wished to shed and sacrifice his life on our path and feels gratification of soul in meeting Allâh may get ready to march with us, as we are to move next morning, Insha Allâh. 56

It is mentioned: Muammar bin Musannus has written in Maqtalal Hussain that: when the Day of Tarviyah (8th of Zilhajj) dawned, Umar bin Sa?ad arrived in Mecca with a huge army, Yazeed had ordered him to fight and kill Hussain (a.s.) and Hussain (a.s.) had left Mecca on that very day of Tarviyah. This writing does not appear in the copy of R.B. and we have mentioned in the footnote considering it probable that perhaps it was from the comments of the Muhammad Ibn Dâwood Qummi 57 narrates from Abi Abdullâh (a.s.) who said: During the night by the end of which Husain (a.s.) decided to leave Mecca, Muhammad Ibn Hanafiya 58 went to the Imâm and said: O my brother! The disloyalty of the people of Kufa to your father and your brother is known to you. I am afraid they will do to you what they had done earlier. If you stay in holy city- Mecca- your respect, honor, and magnanimity would be apparent.

Imâm replied: "My brother! I fear that Yazeed Ibn Muawiyah may assassinate me in the limits of the holy Sanctuary, thereby violating its sanctity." He said: "In view of it you may go towards Yemen or proceed towards the desert. As your dignity is higher than everyone, nobody will touch you." He replied: "I consider your proposal."

Next morning Hussain (a.s.) became ready to move. Muhammad Ibn Hanafiya got the news. He rushed to Imam, and held the rein of his camel saying: Didn?t you promise to think over my suggestion? author on the work and thereafter he might have got into the text while producing copies.

He said: "Yes, I did." He submitted: "Then why are you so hurry for moving?" Imâm said: When you left, the holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) appeared to tell me, "O Hussain! Leave this place. Allâh certainly Wills to see you slain." He exclaimed: "Inna lillâhe inna ilaihe râjeoon. If it is so what is the use of taking the womenfolk with you?" Hussain (a.s.): "The holy Prophet said: Allâh desires to see them in the apparel of captives. Then he said farewell and departed." 59

Those who join me shall attain martyrdom and who oppose not succeed.

Was Salâm

In his book Mulâdunnabi wa mulâd Al-awsiya, Shaykh Mufid quotes his teacher Imâm Sâdiq (a.s.) saying: When Hussain (a.s.) left Mecca and proceeded towards Medina (It should be Medina to Mecca - Translator) armies of angels covered with armaments came riding heavily on horses to Hussain (a.s.) and said: O Proof (Hujjat) of Allâh for the creation after the grandfather and father and brother, Allâh had helped His messenger through us and now He has sent us to help y

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