Rafed English

Lectures on Ashura

Lectures on Ashura

This international organization named THE ISLAMIC SEMINARY, established, under the patronage of His Eminence Imam Khui (Rehmatullah alaih of Najaf of Iraq) in 1977, is endeavouring to convey authentic Islamic literature to the people of the world.

The object of this organization is to meet the spiritual needs of the present age, to draw the attention of the people to real and solid Islamic learning and to safeguard the valuable treasure of knowledge which has been entrusted to us by the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad and by his Holy Ahlul Bayt (peace be upon them).

This organization has so far published more than one hundred books in English, Urdu, Arabic, French, Malay, Hausa, Sindhi and Gujrati which enjoy a high position among the publications on Islamic literature. If Allah Wills this process of publication will continue and will show the Straight Path to the humanity.

Moreover, many madaris which are being run under the supervision of the Seminary are playing their role in spreading Islamic education among the youths of the community.

Furthermore, the Seminary also participates in the establishment and development of social and welfare projects of the community.

Spreading the message of slam is a task which needs cooperation by all of us. The Seminary invites you to participate in this noble task so that the teachings of slam may be spread round the globe.

I pray to Almighty Allah to favour us with His Kindness and Blessings.

Agha YusufAli Nafsi, Representative of

Ayatullah-al-Uzma Sistani (Najaf- Iraq)

It cannot be gainsaid that the Ashura Day or the Tragedy of Karbala has no parallel in the history of the world. Though its significance has been realized by a large number of people, yet it requires to be brought home to the ignorant masses and the educated persons, who are desirous of learning the true concepts of Islam, but have been handicapped by hearing or listening to only one-sided or biased accounts.

This tragedy occurred (61 A.H) 50 years after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (11 A.H). The hero of this tragedy was Husayn bin Ali bin Ali Talib (P) the grandson of the Holy Prophet.

The Holy Imam [ Husayn (P) ] was martyred on the l0th of Muharrum (Ashura day 61 A.H) at the plains of Karbala (Iraq).

Why was he martyred? It was because he refused to pay allegiance to Yazid who was nominated Caliph by his father Muawiyyah. Muawiyyah, who belonged to the Umayyad clan was the worst enemy of Ali (P) who, like the Holy Prophet, belonged to the Hashimiite clan. The enmity between the Umayyad and the Hashimiites was proverbial. In the battle of Badr most of the Umayyad were killed and Islam was now on a firm footing. Abu Sufyan who was always trying to kill the Holy Prophet and destroy Islam, was the leader of the Umayyad. Although later he apparently professed Islam, he was at heart the bitterest enemy of Islam and the Prophet.

When Yazid, the vilest of the vile, son of Muawiyyah and grandson of Abu Sufyan, declared himself to be the Caliph of Islam, he got martyred Husayn son of Ali and Fatima, the dearest daughter of the Prophet of Islam.

The fight between Husayn (P) and Yazid (L) was really a fight between Truth and Falsehood, and between Faith and Infidelity .Had Husayn (P) any desire for power, he would not have gone forward to sacrifice his life along with a band of less than hundred of his kith and kin including his children and women.

This tragedy occurred within fifty years of the passing away of the Holy Prophet. During the twenty-three years of the Prophetic mission an unparalleled revolution had taken place. The Holy Prophet suffered extreme troubles in propagating Islam which gloriously spread by leaps and bounds with the support of his real uncle Abu Talib who had nurtured him in his childhood and protected and defended him from his inveterate enemies.

After the demise of Abu Talib the Holy Prophet pursued

his preaching with his cousin Ali bin Abi Talib (P) at his support, until the task was accomplished in 10 A.H. It was then that after receiving Allah's command Proclaim what has been sent down to you and if you do not, you would not accomplish the mission at all. -(5 : 67). The Prophet of Islam, returning from his Farewell Hajj, ordered a halt at Ghadir-e-Khum on 18th Zil Hij, mounted the pulpit and taking Ali's(P) hand in his own proclaimed amongst multitudes of muslims. "I leave behind two grand things -Allah's Book (the Qur'an) and my Progeny (Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn). Beware! how you behave to them when I am gone from amongst you. Both of them will never separate from each other until they reach me in Heaven at the fountain of Kauther". Then he reiterated taking Ali's hand in his hand "Whomsoever I own the guardian- ship Ali also owns his guardianship?" The Divine Mission was accomplished and shortly afterwards the Holy Prophet passed away in Madina on 28th of Safer or 12th of Rabiul Awwal.

Thus ended the revelation of Wahi,since the Holy Prophet was the last Prophet and the Holy Qur'an is the last Book of Allah.

The Holy Prophet in his lifetime had forewarned the people of the atrocious activities of Bani Umayya against his progeny. The Holy Qur'an also said: Say O Prophet! I do: not require any recompense from you except love for my kin. Allah also said about the Prophet's Ahlul Bayt: Verily Allah intends but to keep off from you, O' the People of the House, every kind of uncleanness and purify you with a thorough purification. (33: 33)

The Prophet of Islam had repeatedly expressed his extreme love for his Ahlul Bayt and had announced their supreme merits. About Ali (P), he said "I am the City of Knowledge and Ali is its Gate. " About Fatima he said, "Fatima is a part of mine; whoever grieves her grieves me." He also said "Hasan and Husayn are the two youths of Paradise." He said, "Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn; Allah loves him who loves Husayn."

Now we can see what happened to Islam within fifty years of the demise of the Holy Prophet. Islam was almost metamorphosed into irreligion. Was it due to bad teachings of Islam or was it due to those in authority who held the reins of Islamic Government? The worst period, however, came when one who assumed the Caliphate proclaimed -"Neither there was any Wahi (revelation) nor there came any angel; I have taken revenge for the killings of my ancestors at Badr ."- yazid bin Muawiyyah.

And it was Husayn bin Ali and Fatima, and grandson of the Holy Prophet, who rose against that tyrant and was martyred at Karbala on the Ashura Day on the l0th of Muharram 61 A.H. along with his 72 kith and kin including a six-month-old babe Ali Asghar, who was shot dead thirsty.

The echoes of the martyrs' sufferings and the wailings of the children and women of the Prophet's Household, who were later taken prisoners, are still resounding throughout the world. A deep and unbiased study of the history of Ashura will convince the reader that Karbala has put into the shade the atrocities the world has ever seen.


Karbala presents a clear and inspiring example of a great sacrifice for Islam and humanity. The example of martyrdom set by Imam Husayn (Peace be upon him), the members of his family and his companions will continue to provide lofty values to human hearts which make man attain that exalted position of humanity which Allah expects from a true Muslim.

Islam is the name of a continual movement and revolution which is a perfect system in the ideological field -a living movement in the journey of historical continuity.

The following Qur'anic verse goes to show that ideologically Islam is a perfect system: ...On this day I have perfected your religion, completed my favours to you and have chosen Islam as your religion. ...(Surah Mai'dah, 5:3)

In the passage of history the following Divine verses bear witness to Islam being a perpetual movement: you are the best of the nations that existed among men. You command people to follow the Law and prohibit them from committing sins and you believe in Allah. (Surah Ali Imran, 3:111)

Let there be a group among you, who will invite others to do good deeds, command them to obey the Law, and prohibit them from committing sins. (Surah AI-e-Imran, 3:104)

As in the caravan of history Islam is a perpetual movement and a constant revolution, it offers unending sacrifices. From its very beginning it presented martyrs to combat the forces and evils of ignorance to achieve success and even after the perfection of religion it made sacrifices successively against the powers of alteration and destructive elements to safeguard its success; During every revolution the number of martyrs continued to increase and opposition to its aims and objects also increased. The object of this opposition was to annihilate the revolution and its future. And it is here that the greatness of martyrdom against the forces inimical to revolution becomes manifest, because it was the martyrdom of those 'victors' 'who were not avaricious of the honors of victory but who stuck to their ideal even after achieving victory so that they might attain the great blessing of martyrdom.

Imam Husayn (P) belonged to this very 'victorious' family and taking advantage of the honors of 'victory' he could lead a comfortable life in the Islamic society. However, he saw that anti-Islamic movement was progressing in the guise of Islam itself, Islam had fallen a prey to intellectual pollution and profanity and as the Holy Prophet had warned the Muslims, the Islamic Caliphate had changed into despotic anarchism.

Islam which according to Imam Husayn's concept is a perpetual revolution was always faced with the danger of being desecrated and destroyed by the anti- Islamic forces of the suppressive movement of autocratic rule. It was on the basis of this concept that Imam Husayn chose the path of martyrdom so that the spirit of Islam might remain alive and be protected from the pollution of the anti-Islamic government.

Islam, for the sake of which Imam Hu'sayn (P) chose martyrdom, is not an idle concept but a perfect system, which has been introduced for the benefit of Mankind. It brings into existence a Muslim society which looks after the needs of the people, protects their human rights and promises a life of prosperity in this world and the Hereafter.

Imam Husayn (P) and his companions did not become martyrs after being slain, but they were martyrs even during their lifetime. Martyrdom is not attained only through death but it also takes place during one's life. To take a just stand and to stick to it firmly for the welfare of the entire society, rising above personal, family and party interests, to make it the stand for the present and future generations of the entire Ummah, to connect that stand with Allah according to the Divine teachings and to follow the principles of political virtue, gives the meaning of martyrdom to life, and it is this act which adorns them with martyrdom.

The material life is for all the people, but the future of a martyr is connected with the spiritual uplift of man. It is this thing which gives man the distinctive sign of martyrdom and this is the reality of the highest rank of martyrdom of the martyrs of Karbala. This martyrdom is a landmark in- the history of human dignity defying all sorts of communalism, regionalism or nationalism. It was the noblest feat of humanity because it was the interpreter of the stand taken by an honourable creation like man -the same man who is entitled to honour, prosperity -and good future. The Almighty Allah says: We have exalted the children of Adam, carried them on the. land and on the sea, given them pure sustenance and exalted them above most of My creatures. (Surah Bani Israel, 17: 70)

Hence, it is the universal recognition of the Tragedy of Karbala,which has made it everlasting (and) (it is present) in the annals of History as a living memorial ( of the martyrs) till today and leads them to those sublime human values which take man out of the narrow circle of his ego and bring him into the field of effort and action for the honour, welfare and future of the entire society. The Holy Prophet says: "Every one of you is responsible and every one will be questioned about his subordinates."

When we study the revolution., brought about by Imam Husayn (P) and the martyrdom of his kith, and kin we understand the reality of the events which have taken place in the world of Islam and we also come to know where it has reached now and what dangers threaten it. Under the manifest spirit of human sacrifice staged in Karbala, a Karbala is taking place for every man and every group of men even today. Today man is standing at the parting of the ways: Either he should remain steadfast in his belief in Monotheism and should, relying on Allah, lead his life on His Path by turning away his face from the East and the West, controlling his temptations, helping the weak in seeking proximity to Allah, defending the faith, fostering brotherhood, love and unity, and make Islam honoured, or he may submit to Satan and choose the path of cruelty, treachery, fanaticism and dissension. In any case every one of us is standing at the crossroads to decide his line of action.

In the past many persons who were at the crossroads, failed. However, if we fail it will be the death of our religious existence because the deceitful enemy is sitting in ambush.

Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi Shamsuddin Vice President, Al-Majlis-al-lslami al Shi'ie al-A 'la (Lebanon)

Dr. Ibrahim Ayati

I seek refuge in the Hearer and the Omniscient Allah from the accursed Satan.

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Do not think of those slain for the cause of Allah as dead. They are alive with their Lord and receive sustenance from Him. (Surah Al Imran, 3: 169)

The subject of today's speech is the causes which obliged Imam Husayn (P) to take a stand and the events on account of which he decided that it would be a sin to sit quiet under those circumstances. I must mention at the very outset that those events did not take place all of a sudden. In other words it did not so happen that after the death of Mu'awiyyah son of Abu Sufyan in the month of Rajab in 60 A.H. a critical state of affairs appeared in the Islamic society, and obliged Imam Husayn (P) to rise to the occasion and before that there was nothing in Islamic history , which might be considered to be the introduction and prelude to the Imam's stand. In fact this is not the position and a search for the causes of Imam Husayn's (P) decision should be made in the history of at least thirty years ago. This is as regards the direct causes. If indirect causes are also taken into account we shall have to go back even beyond that. However, it is neither intended to mention these indirect causes nor is this the .proper occasion for that.

However thirty years before 60 A.H. i.e. in 29 A.H. or 30 A.H. the causes for this sacred movement had come into existence. As is known the Umayyad Caliph, 'Uthman son of, Affan ruled the Muslims and occupied the Islamic Caliphate for about twelve years. As you have read in history the trend of the Islamic Government underwent a change during the last six years of 'Uthman's Caliphate. What should take place in the Islamic Government is that the people should enjoy full freedom in all matters except that it should be necessary for everyone to obey law. None should be under obligation to do anything except to remain within the limits of his rights and to observe law, so much so that none should be bound to act according to the Caliph's personal wish and pleasure. It was this form of government which had undergone a change. The Muslims became free from obeying law and instead of that it became necessary for them to respect the desires and policies of the Caliph. In other words the trend of the Islamic Government had become such that it became necessary for every person to act according to the policies and wishes of the Court of the Caliphate even though this might result in violating the law. Whoever took a step against the wishes of the Court of the Caliph was taken to task and considered to be a culprit, although he might be innocent and obedient to law. As you are aware ' Ammar Yasir (a renowned companion) was punished during the Caliphate of Uthman and Abuzar Ghifari (another renowned companion) was justice but protected religion and took care about lawful and unlawful things were imprisoned and tortured because they did not act according to the wishes and interests of the Caliph and his Court and did not care even for the displeasure of the Caliph in the matter of truth and justice. Contrary to this there were those who supported the policies and wishes of the court. As regards those people not only that their interests remained safe but the rights and interests of others also went into their pockets. It is evident from the history of Islam that during the last six years of the Caliphate of 'Uthman bin' Affan those who were 'People of Paradise' in the eyes of the common man had, by usurping the property of the widows and orphans, accumulated so much wealth that one wonders at it. When the activities of those who were called the 'People of Paradise' were such, it is evident as to what must have been done by those who were the 'People of Hell'. As is well-known the non-Shi'ah sources have quoted a tradition (Hadith) from the Holy Prophet. On the basis of decisive proof the Shi'ah consider this tradition to be wrong and forged and deny its authenticity. In this tradition it has been insinuated that the Holy Prophet conveyed the . good news to ten of his companions that they were the 'People of Paradise'. It can very well be seen what calamities these 'People of Paradise' let loose during the last six years of the Caliphate of 'Uthman. They usurped the rights of the helpless Muslims and misappropriated the assets of Baytul Mal (Public treasury). It was the same wealth on which Imam' Ali bad exercised strict control during the period of his Caliphate and the two Caliphs preceding 'Uthman as well as Uthman himself during the early days of his Caliphate had also considered it necessary to spend it carefully. As an example I have noted from an authentic source of the history of Islam some facts about these so-called 'People of Paradise' during the period of 'Uthman. I shall relate these facts to you so that you should also know that what I am saying is not on account of prejudice or personal fanaticism but my object is that you should study the events which took place gradually after 29- 30 A.H. You may know the reason which made: lmam Husayn's (P) action necessary and why he came to the conclusion that there was no remedy to counteract the tendency of deviation from truth which had been looming large in the minds of the people except by sacrificing his and his companions lives. God-willing my speech will make this matter sufficiently clear.

Those persons who are. acquainted with the history of Islam and its primary sources know Mas'udl very well. ' All bin al-Husayn al-Mas'udi .is a notable Islamic historian and geographer, who is relied upon by all the five-Islamic schools of thought. His book entitled 'Murujuz Zahab' is interesting, exquisite and reliable.

Writing about the Caliphate of 'Uthman, Mas'udi says: When the Caliph 'Uthman bin' Affan was murdered he left behind 150 gold dinars and 1,000,000 dirhams in cash. After 'Uthman Imam Ali (P) became the Caliph. When he was martyred Imam Hasan (P) declared from the pulpit: 'My father has not left behind any gold or silver coin as legacy except 700 dirhams.

This amount was also saved by him out of his stipend to make payment to a servant for household work'. (Murujuz Zahab (Vol. 11, p. 426; Printed in Egypt, 1948). According to a tradition Imam' Ali (P) left 250 dirhams, the Holy Qur'an and a sword as inheritance for his family.) On the other hand besides lakhs of dirhams and dinars mentioned above 'Uthman owned property in Wadi'ul-Qara, Hunayn etc. which was worth one lakh gold dinars. Moreover, he possessed innumerable horses and camels. (Murujuz Zahab, Vol. 11, p. 341.)

According to the tradition of 'Ashra-e-Mubashshira, (the ten who were given the good news) 'Uthman was a 'Man of Paradise'. As the head of the Islamic state the Holy Prophet could not collect even ten dirhams. Imam Ali (P) and Abu Bakr and 'Umar did not also make any material gain from the Office of the Caliph. However, 'Uthman gained a good deal from it.

Mas'udi also writes: Zubair bin al-' Awwam got constructed a famous palace in Basra. Besides this he also possessed many houses in Basra, Kufa and Alexandria (Egypt). According to the said tradition and in my words this Zubair was also a 'Man of Paradise'. Zubair"s legacy consisted of 50,000 gold dinars, 1000 horses, 1000 slaves and slave-girls and a large quantity of immovable property in different cities. It is 'an indisputable fact that so much wealth could not be accumulated by lawful means. A large part of it was the right of those deprived persons who were not in the good books of the government. Hence, these people appropriated their share as well.

Mas'udi also writes that Talha bin Ubaydullah Taymi who was another 'man of Paradise' got constructed a well-known palace in Kufa.

Mas'udi says: The income of Talha bin Ubaydullah Taymi from his property in only Iraq was 1000 gold dinars and according to a narration it was even more than that. Talha got his house constructed in Madina with baked bricks, lime, and costly timber.

Mas'udi says further: Abdur Rahman bin' Awl Zuhari who was another 'Man of Paradise' got a spacious house built. There were 100 horses in his stable and he also owned 1000 camels and 10,000 goats and sheep. Moreover, he had four wives at the time of his death. When a person who dies has children the eighth part of the property left by him goes to his wife or wives (i.e. whether the number of wives be one, two, three or four) She or they get only the eighth part. As Abdur Rahman bin ' Awf had f our wives each wife got 1/32 of his property and this 1/32 amounted to 84,000 gold dinars. He, too, was a man of Paradise.

Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas was also a 'Man of Paradise'. Mas'udi writes that he got a lofty and splendid palace built. Of course, Zayd bin Thabit is not included in the ten 'People of Paradise'. However, he also left so much gold at the time of his death that it had to be broken with hammers for being distributed among his successors. His movable and immovable property was worth 100,000 dinars.

Mas'udi writes further: Ya'la bin Umayyah who is also called Ya'la bin Munayyah (Munayyah was his mother's name and Uinayyah was his father) held important political and administrative offices during the period of the Caliphate of 'Uthman. In our terminology he was the Finance Minister. Mas'udi says: Ya'ala bin Umayyah left 500,000 gold dinars at the time of his death. Moreover, the people owed him a large amount of debt. His property and other legacy valued 300,000 dinars. Thereafter, Mas'udi says: "This was not the state of affairs during the period of 'Umar bin Khattii.b and the policy at that time was straightforward and clear'. As you know both you and I are Shi'ah. However, this is the true position and what Mas'udi says is correct. As I have said it was during the period of Uthman that in the event of one being faithful to government one could violate the law to any extent. When a person won the favor of the court. he had nothing to fear if he infringed the law. Anyhow Mas'udi says that this was not the position during the Caliphate of 'Umar i.e. the system of government and the method of collection and distribution of wealth was such that Talha, Zubair, Sa'd bin Abi 'Waqas and others could not pick up courage to appropriate the property of the Muslims and accumulate such a large quantity of wealth. (Murujuz Zahab vol. II p. 342 - 343.)

As you are aware the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (P) became Caliph after the murder of 'Uthman. The difficulty which Imam Ali (P) had to face was as to how he could eradicate greed and other bad habits which had taken root in the society. During the four years and six months' period of his Caliphate he continued to campaign against this difficulty. His confrontation was with those very people who wished to accumulate wealth during the Caliphate of Imam Ali (P) as well. Imam Ali (P) did not accept this position and said: "This is not possible. On the other hand I shall take back from you the wealth which you have acquired by unlawful means and shall deposit it in Baytul Mal (Public Treasury). It was this tussle which eventually cost Imam Ali (P) his life.

As you are aware, after Imam Ali (P) the Caliphate was transferred to Imam Hasan (P) and he became his father's successor. You must be knowing that during the time of Imam Hasan (P) the social and political conditions of the Muslims had assumed a special shape. If Imam Hasan (P) had continued fighting against Mu'awiyyah bin Abu Sufyan at that time none of the two parties could achieve easy success, because the strength of the Muslims was almost equally divided in the two armies. In the circumstances no alternative was left for Imam Hasan (P) but to abandon fighting in order to avoid futile blood- shed. This futile bloodshed could only benefit the Eastern Roman Empire or internally the Khawaraj. If as a result of fighting four or five lakh Muslims had lost their lives only Allah knows what the fate of the Muslims would have been if they had fought against the Romans, what shape the danger from Khawaraj would have assumed and what course the Islamic history would have adopted. This is my explanation of the situation. You should also ponder over it. This is not the subject of our discussion at present and I do not, therefore, wish to go into detail. Anyhow, Imam Hasan (P) secluded himself from Caliphate. However, it does not mean that he submitted to Mu'awiyyah and accepted him as Caliph and Commander of the Faithful. One of the terms of the peace pact which was concluded between Imam Hasan (P) and Mu'awiyya was this:

"Imam Hasan (P) hereby makes peace with Mu'awiyya and retires on the condition that he will never address Mu'awiyya as Commander of the Faithful i.e. he does not acknowledge Mu'awiyya to be the Caliph of the Muslims and Commander of the Faithful." I conclude this discussion here. In my view this matter is a decisive proof against those who think that Imam Hasan (P) had submitted to Mu'awiyyah, acknowledged him Caliph of the Muslims and became one of his obedient subjects. This did not happen at all. I have noted an extract about this matter from Kamilut Tawarikh of Ibne Athir which I would like to narrate before you. Ibne Athir is the author of Kamilut Tawarikh and Usudul Ghabah Ma'rifatis Sahabah. Both of these books are valuable Islamic writings. Ibne Athir writes that when Imam Hasan (P) retired and Mu'awiyya assumed the reins of the office of Caliph, the Kharijite Farwah bin Naufal Shuja'ie, who had previously separated and gone to Sehrzur along with five hundred men said: "There is no doubt about it that it is now necessary to fight against the government of the time, and after Mu'awiyyah's coming to power and becoming Caliph, war has become obligatory for us." Then these people proceeded to Iraq and reached the palm-grove of Kufa. By that time Imam Hasan (P) had left Iraq and was on his way to Madina. When Mu'awiyyah came to know that the Khaijite Farwah, along with , his five hundred men, was ready to revolt, he, in order to strengthen the peace made with Imam Hasan ( as thought by him) sent a message to Imam Hasan (P). This letter was written when Imam Hasan was on his way to the Hijaz. Mu'awiyyah said: "The Kharijite Farwah bin Naufal is proceeding to Kufa along with five hundred companions. You are directed to go there and fight against him and save Kufa. Thereafter, you will be free to proceed to Madina."

When Mu'awiyyah's letter was delivered to Imam Hasan(P) he was in Qadisiyyah. In his reply the Holy Imam wrote the following bold letter to Mu'awiyyah: "If I had wished to fight against one of the people of Qibla I would first of all have fought against you. I have left you only for the sake of the welfare of the Ummah and to save it from bloodshed.

"O Mu'awiyyah! You wish that Hasan bin Ali (P) should quell the revolt of a Kharijite in the capacity of one of your officers. I have renounced the Caliphate in the interest of the Muslims. If I had wished to fight against the people of the Qibla or against one who is apparently a Muslim, I would first of all have fought against you (i.e. you are worst amongst the Muslims)."

Ponder on the word 'taraktuk' (1 have left you). The Imam says: "I have left you and have not fought against you." The meaning is the same which I have stated and in my view it is the best meaning here i.e. '1 abdicated and left you in the interest of the Ummah and to save it from bloodshed.' As I have already stated the reason of the Holy Imam's action was that it was useless to fight, because the armies of the two sides were almost equally strong and if they had weakened each other by fighting and shedding blood, both of them would have been annihibilated. Only the enemy could benefit from this state of affairs and that was what Imam Hasan (P) had written to Mu'awiyyah. [ Tarikh al Kamil, Vol. III, p. 205 (Printed at Muniriyah Press, Egypt) ]

It should not be thought that after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan (P), Imam Husayn (P) sat calm and quiet during the period of ten years when Mu'awiyyah was still alive (i.e. from 50 A.H. to 60 A.H.). It is true that during this period he did not consider it necessary to draw his sword against Mu'awiyyah as he considered it necessary to draw it against Yazid. However, he continued to point out the mistakes of Mu'awiyyah and to criticize him. His brother Imam Hasan (P) had also rejected the validity of the Caliphate of Mu' awiyyah in the sentences which you have just heard and Imam Husayn (P) also did the same thing.

Now I would like to narrate one or two sentences of Ibn-e-Qutaibah Dinori. Ibn Qutaibah is one of the distinguished ulema of Islam and definitely a Sunni and not a Shi'ah. In his famous book' AI-Imamah wal Siyasah' he writes: "This is the letter which Imam Husayn (P) wrote to Mu'awiyyah."I mention a few sentences of this letter "so that it may become clear as to what attitude Imam Husayn (P) had adopted towards Mu'awiyyah and whether he acknowledged him to be a Caliph and an honourable head of the State. During the said period of ten years had he really acknowledged the Caliphate, government and leadership of Mu'awiyyah? Or is it correct what Ibn Qutaibah writes? Now I reproduce a few sentences of this letter. Imam Husayn (P) writes to Mu'awiyyah:

"Did you not murder Hujr bin Adi and his companions although they were devout and pious? They hated heresies and ordered the people to do good and restrained them from doing bad deeds. You murdered them cruelly and broke' promises while earlier you had granted them security. This was boldness against the Command of Allah and infringement of your promises. Did you not murder' Amr bin alHumuq who was a distinguished companion of the Holy Prophet? Amr bin al. Humuq was the man whose body was melted by worship. You murdered him after granting him security and making such promises that if those promises had been made to the deer of the desert they too would have come down from the mountains. Did you not declare the pretender Ziyad to be the son of Abu Sufyan although the Holy Prophet had declared that the child belonged to the person in whose house it is born and the adulterer should be stoned to death. Then you set Ziyad over the followers of Islam so that he might kill them, amputate their hands and feet and hang them on palm trees. Praise be to Allah! O Mu'awiyyah! It appears that neither you have any connection with this Ummah nor this Ummah has any connection with you. O Mu'awiyyah! fear Allah and understand that Allah has a Record Book in which everything, whether big or small, is recorded. O Muawiyyah! Know it for certain that Allah cannot ignore the fact that you accuse the people merely because they resent that you have nominated an ignorant and inexperienced boy ruler, who drinks wine and plays with the dogs. I think you have destroyed yourself, lost your faith and twined the subjects. Peace be upon you." (AI-Imamah wal Siyasah, Vol. I, p. 190, written by Ibn-e-Qutaibah Abdullah bin Muslim (died 287 A.H.) Printed in Egypt 1356 A.H).

This was the manner in which Imam Hasan (P) and Imam Husayn (P) addressed Mu'awiyyah and criticized his policies and government. Ali bin al- Husayn Mas'udi has written some sentences which explain the last sentences of Imam Husayn (P) about Yazid and have a great effect on Islam and the history of Islam. He says: "Yazid was a pleasure-seeking man. He had with him hunting animals, dogs, monkeys and leopards. He arranged parties in which wine was served. One day after the murder of Imam Husayn (P) wine was being drunk. Ibn-e-Ziyad was sitting on the right hand side of Yazid. Addressing the cup-bearer Yazid said: "O Cup-bearer! Give me a cup of wine which should quench my thirst thoroughly. Then give another cup like that to Ibn-e-Ziyad who is my confidant and who strengthens my successes and efforts."

Thereafter, mentioning the cruelty and injustice of Yazid Mas'udi writes (Maroon al Sahib, Val. III, p. 77-78.): "For his subjects Yazid was like Pharaoh," Then he says: "Rather Pharaoh treated his subjects more equitably and, as compared with Yazid, was more just with the upper classes as well as the common people. In other words he was better thanYazid." Then Mas'udi says: "The common Muslims also began to be affected by the extravagance, shameless intrepidity and irreligiousness of Yazid. It means that according to the proverb "The people follow the religion of the rulers" the sins which were committed by Yazid were also committed by the dignitaries of the State. It was during his time that music became prevalent in Makkah and Madina. When the dignitaries of the State and the Caliph himself followed the path of sin, the common people also went the same way. In Makkah and Madina the people became habituated to singing and hearing songs. The instruments of amusement began to be used. As the Caliph himself was a drunkard the people also began to drink wine openly." Mas'udi says that Yazid, i.e. the man who called himself the Caliph of the Muslims, had a monkey whose "Kunyah" (Patronymic appellation) was Abu Qays. This monkey was brought in the parties in which wine was drunk and wine was put for it in a basin. This monkey was very wicked. It was made to ride a trained wild she-ass which took part in horse race. The she-ass was saddled and the rein was given in the hand of the monkey and thus the she-ass of Abu Qays took part in the race. At times the monkey won the race. Abu Qays was made to wear a red and yellow silken garment and the lap of the garment was tied to its waist. A coloured silken cap was placed on its head. The she-ass was also adorned with multicoloured clothes. This is referred to in the sentence which Imam Husayn (P) wrote in his letter to Mu'3wiyyah about Yazid.

Muawiyyah died in Rajab 60 A.H. and as you are aware Yazid succeeded him. I saw a strange sentence in a book. It was written in it: "The correct answer to the question as to why Imam Husayn (P) accepted martyrdom and did not swear allegiance to Yazid is that he realized that whether he swore allegiance to Yazid or not he would be murdered. And when he saw that his death was certain in either case he decided to die honourably in the path of Allah." This curious remark is absolutely baseless. The martyrdom of the Doyen of the Martyrs is something much higher than this that, when he felt that he was sure to be killed, he thought of dying respectably and to acquire the honour of martyrdom for the sake of Islam. After studying the circumstances and events, which had taken place during at last thirty preceding years, Imam Husayn (P) came to the conclusion that the deviation of the government and the Muslims from the path of religion had become so acute that it could not be remedied by sermons and speeches or by writing books and treatises. This acute deviation could not be corrected by these methods. An ordinary deviation and especially of an individual can be remedied by means of a brief movement and a brief action and effort and the misguided person can be brought to the right path. However, if the deviation is acute and unusual and concerns the basic problems of the Islamic society and especially if it expands and becomes common, no result can be achieved from an ordinary movement or usual writing and speech. Imam Husayn (P) had realized it fully that in order to make fruitful the steps taken by Imam Ali (P), the Commander of the Faithful and Imam Hasan (P) it was necessary that a pungent rising and an unusual bloody movement should be resorted to, because without it, it was not possible to combat the activities of Mu'awiyyah and others like him. Evidently none can nar

Dr. Husaini Bahishti

I seek refuge in the Hearer and the Omniscient Allah from the accursed Satan.

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Believers, shall I show you a bargain which will save you from the painful torment. Have faith in Allah and His Messenger and strive hard for His cause with your wealth and your selves.

This is better for you if only you knew it.

Allah will forgive your sins and admit you into Paradise wherein streams flow, and you will live in the lofty mansions of the Garden of Eden. This is indeed the greatest triumph. {Besides forgiveness) you will receive other favours which you will love: Help from Allah and an immediate victory. O Prophet, give such glad news to the believers. (Surah Saf, Verses 10 -13)

Ever since man was created he has been destined to make continuous efforts. In his very nature factors opposed to one another are at work. He is a compound of various passions and desires. Some of his inclinations fall under the category of perverted desires which may also be called baser animal instincts. Their object is to avail oneself of animal enjoyments like eating, drinking and reveling. There are other inclinations in him which divert him from the sensual enjoyments to higher spiritual, intellectual and human perfections. The power and will of man is the arena of his contrary and varied desires. It is due to his conflicting desires that man is always perplexed. For example if a person wants to do an ordinary task and if he is habituated to do it, he does it quite easily on account of his habit. However, if the task is new and he is not accustomed to it, he cannot do it straightaway. Many doubts rise in his mind.

At one time he thinks that he should perform the task and at another time he thinks that he should not. Sometimes he says that the task is right and sometimes he imagines that it is not right. Desire demands that he should perform that task but reason advises him that he should not do it. Or reason demands that he should perform a task but desire insists that he should not. A conflict of this kind continues between his mind and heart for sometime. Eventually, however, one of the inclinations dominates and he utilizes his power and determination according to it. Desire and reason and materialism and spiritualism are at war with each other since eternity and the foundation of life has been laid on this conflict. Besides this internal conflict man has to face innumerable difficulties and obstacles in the outer world also in the fulfillment of his desires and achievement of his objects. As we have got accustomed to these difficulties and they are not new for us, we do not even feel them in every day life. However, if observed carefully, it becomes known that during a day a man has to face various obstacles against which he has to combat.

In every environment human life has to face a continuous conflict and dispute. Not to speak of the life of an individual this way of conflict and opposition continue to be present in the life of every tribe, every society and every nation. Dispute and confrontation continue between persons belonging to one profession and another profession, between one brotherhood and another brotherhood, between one nation and another nation, between one society and another society and between one class and another class. As a result of this, civil wars and international wars take place from time to time. It is not wrong to say that disputes and confrontations are inevitable reality of human life. Where are those, who think that from the time they arrive in this world they should spend a very happy life for fifty, seventy or one hundred years and eat, drink and be merry .In the morning they should take rest at home till 10 O'clock and thereafter they mayor may not perform any task. If they go out to do some work they return home by noon, have a siesta and then go to sleep at night at the usual time. Although it may not be seen by us, such a person is also faced with an internal conflict. If observed carefully it becomes known that such a person does not possess that joy and cheerfulness which is possessed by one who makes effort. No doubt he walks, eats and drinks but he is like a dead person who is devoid of enthusiasm and ambition. In spite of this he suffers from an internal strife and worry .It is possible that owing to his having become accustomed to this strife he may not feel it. However, the thought always crosses his mind as to why he is sitting idle Why has he lagged behind others? Why does he not possess honor and renown? What is the use of this futile life? Why does he lack enthusiasm and ambition? He spends most of the moments of his idleness and leisure in a dilemma. The fact is that it is not possible to live without effort and striving. Whether it be the life of an individual or of a society the law of competition, effort and conflict applies everywhere. And as it is the law and it is the fate of man that strenuous effort is unavoidable, it is necessary that we should select a work which is useful, and our competition in the field of our choice should be honourable, fruitful and purposeful. And this is the topic of today's speech. This topic that is "Successful striving" has taken into account the historical events which took place on certain dates.

There are some pre-conditions for a successful effort which it is necessary to know and to keep in mind in, the struggle of life:

The first thing is that there should be a specific and clear aim of our effort. An aimless effort is meaningless. Every effort has no doubt an aim but that aim is usually ambiguous and not clear. It is often seen that a person struggles throughout his life but eventually achieves nothing. Why? It is because his struggle and effort did not have a specified path. He worked and made effort but his aim was not clear and fixed. He roamed about in a blind alley. His labor was lost and he got nothing. If the history of the nations of the world is studied, numerous examples of futile and purposeless efforts will be found. It is possible that everyone of you may have seen the examples of aimless effort in your own life or in the life of your nation or you may have read about them in books. It is necessary that the target and aim of the effort should be clear and unambiguous and at the same time it should be sublime and meaningful. At times it is seen that the object is clear and fixed and the person concerned can also spend his time to achieve it but does not agree to spend money for it. At times, however, he considers his object to be more important than wealth and does not mind spending money to achieve it, but steps back if his health is to be staked. At times a person is prepared even to sacrifice his health but when he finds his life to be in danger he becomes nervous and withdraws from the field. At times, however, the object is so lofty that a person gets ready to sacrifice not only his own life but also to sacrifice, with perfect sincerity, the lives of his most dear ones. This is the precious object to which every human being should pay attention. This object is acquires the pleasure of Allah.

This is the first condition of successful effort. The second condition is that the person concerned should be talented, fond of his work and be steadfast. Allah Himself says in the Holy Qur'an: To those who have said, "Allah is our Lord" and who have remained steadfast to their belief, the angels will descend saying, Do not be afraid or grieved. Receive the glad news of Paradise which was promised to you. We are your guardians in this world and in the life to come, where you will have whatever you call for, a hospitable welcome from the All-forgiving and All- merciful Allah. (Surah Ha Mim Sajdah, Verses 30 -31)

O Believers! i.e. O those persons whom the prophet invited to the Unity of Allah for thirteen years in Mecca you did not accept his invitation (except a small number from amongst you) but when he arrived in Madina and set up the Islamic government you also became the lovers of Islam and began supporting it! why do you preach what you do not practice ? It is most hateful in the sight of Allah if you say something and do it not. Allah loves those who fight in His way in ranks as if they were an unbreakable metalled rock. (Surah Saf, 2- 4).

Some Muslims saw that the martyrs of Badr enjoyed great honour and position in the eyes of Allah, the Holy Prophet and the Muslims, and acquired the spiritual as well as the worldly blessings and respect and would get spiritual reward in the Hereafter, they sat together and said: Would that we too had participated in the battle of Badr and performed Jihad and enjoyed the honour which has fallen to the share of those who took part in that battle. It was just as the Shi'ah of today address the martyrs of Karbala occasionally and some of them perhaps every day and say: "Would that we had been with you and this great blessing had also fallen to our share!" Whenever they sat together after the battle of Badr, they said the same thing.

It so happened that after some time the battle of Uhud took place. During this battle some of those persons who had been saying continuously: 'Would that we had attained the blessing of martyrdom in the battle of Badr' retreated at the very outset and at last it so happened that the life of the Holy Prophet was endangered. When the Holy Prophet and the Muslims were faced with danger those very people who had desired martyrdom thought of saving their own' lives and seeking refuge here and there.

On this occasion Allah says: What has happened to your desire for martyrdom? You used to say: Would that the battle of Badr had taken place once again so that we could be blessed with martyrdom! Why do you preach what you do not practice? Allah is very much annoyed with those who only speak and say: 'We are ready to make sacrifices' but at the time of action they hide themselves and seek refuge. Allah hates such people because they deceive their leaders and lower the name of successful effort. Allah loves those who fight for His cause in ranks firm as an unbreakable concrete wall. It is they who make the campaign successful.

Another condition, which is very important and is rarely seen amongst us people, is the selection of the correct method of making effort. There are numerous kinds of effort e.g. individual effort, collective effort, secret effort, open effort mild effort, hard effort, armed effort, unarmed effort, effort with cold weapons, effort with hot weapons, local effort away from the battlefield, effort in the battlefield etc. Every one of them has its own occasion, time, and method. In European terminology every effort has its own tactics. Those persons who undertake to make effort to achieve an object should also know its method. Relationship between the object and the manner and method of the effort are absolutely necessary. It is very unfortunate that we see that, in order to achieve an object some people spend money and time and at times sacrifice even their lives but, in spite of their sincerity and good intention their method is not correct. According to their own thinking they do all this for a good purpose but their method is wrong and there is no congruity between their object and their way of working.

I say once again that congruity of an object with the method adopted to achieve it is absolutely necessary and important. Many efforts have failed because the correct method for their achievement was not adopted. Now if you keep these three conditions in mind it, will not be difficult to understand what course the tragedy of Karbala adopted. After Muawiyyah, Yazid, whose debauchery was no secret, ruled the Muslims as the King of Islam and successor of the Holy Prophet. He drank wine and gambled openly and created class and family distinction in the classless Muslim society. This was the result of his rule.

On such a drunkard and an ignorant person becoming the Caliph some brave men declined to acknowledge his corrupt government. They were not prepared to cooperate with him. However, Yazid was not prepared to leave them alone. He issued orders to all his functionaries, officers and governors to obtain bay'at (allegiance -i.e. promise to cooperate) for him from all the people and especially the distinguished persons. In Madina, which was the cradle of Islam some distinguished and famous persons declined to acknowledge Yazid's government formally and to take oath of allegiance to him at the hands of his representatives. One amongst them was Imam Husayn (P).

In the meantime some persons gathered together in Kufa. It will be better if I introduce Kufa to you briefly. Kufa was a bad city as well as a good city .It was bad because a large number of its residents were cowardly; they wavered in taking decisions, and were, therefore, unreliable. And it was good for the reason that there also lived those brilliant personalities of Islam, who had been educated and trained under the patronage of Imam Ali (P). Although their number was small, they reflected as to whether it was proper to swear allegiance to Yazid. Then they consulted the people. All of them replied in the negative and said that Yazid was not at all fit for the office of Caliphate. Now the question arose as to who should be approached in the matter. On making enquiries they came to know that in the Hijaz two or three and even more distinguished persons had declined to swear allegiance to Yazid, and the most towering personality among them was Imam Husayn (P). They, therefore, started correspondence with him and invited him to come to the capital of his father. They wrote: "We wish to fight under your command against the Yazid's government. The circumstances are favourable for the purpose. Imam Husayn (P) received one letter and then another and then the fourth, so much so that a chain was formed of the messengers bringing the letters. They brought ten, twenty or hundred letters. Some letters bore the signatures of one man, others of two and still other of five or ten. Thus a stack was formed of the letters received by Imam Husayn (P) from different places. In short. as you know very well the Holy Imam sent Muslim bin Aqueel to Kufa so that after finding out the correct situation he might obtain bay'at for the Holy Imam from the people of Kufa and send a report to him to enable him to decide the future line of action. This was the beginning of the rising and campaign of the Holy Imam.

But what was the object of Abu Abdullah Imam Husayn (P)? Did he want to take possession of government? Did he want to rule the Islamic territories, especially Iraq and Kufa? No. It was not his object to possess government. His object was to exalt truth and to differentiate between truth and falsehood. It was his wish that, whether he attained ruler ship or not. it might become quite clear to the people as to what is truth and what is falsehood. If he attained government well and good. In that event he could utilize the power of government for performing those tasks, which are liked by Allah. But even if he did not get government he would achieve his object. The events which took place in Karbala have been recorded by history in golden words for all times to come. The Jihad of the Muslims in Karbala has become the greatest model of fight between truth and falsehood till eternity. Allah be praised! How lofty was the object of the Holy Imam and at the same time how clear and decisive!

Who were the persons that were selected by the Holy Imam for the battle? They were those steadfast men who were keen to take the lead in the collective effort and wanted to learn a lesson from the Holy Imam .

Two kinds of persons were participating in this campaign. One group consisted of those who were playing the central role in the battle. It was necessary that they should be experienced and reliable; their arms should be strong' and their spirits high. They should be steadfast and should know their duty. They should be obedient and sincere. One specimen of theirs is Muslim bin Aqueel and the other was Qais bin Mashar Saidavi who delivered the Holy Imam's letter in Kufa. Imam Husayn (P) had selected these persons very carefully.

There was another group which consisted of the syrnpathisers of the movement Their assistance could be sought when necessary but deep investigation was not possible in their selection. Their task was only to obey. Some of them had joined the caravan of Imam Rusayn (P).

When Muslim left Madina and reached Kufa some new events took place. A large crowd gathered round him. Noman bin Bashir, the governor of Kufa, was dismissed from office and was replaced by Ibne Ziad. Ibne Ziad was a blood -thirsty and cruel person. Now within twenty four hours the circumstances took a new turn. In the afternoon of 8th Zil-Raj Muslim received the news that through some weak-minded persons his host Rani bin Urwah had been taken deceitfully to the Governor's Rouse. There Ibne Ziad insulted Rani very much, struck him on his head and face with a stick and then imprisoned him After Rani's imprisonment Muslim asked his special men to inform the supporters of the movement to gather in the Masjid of Kufa and around it so that he might address them there. The Governor's Rouse was situated opposite the Masjid.

Ibne Ziad had been the ruler of Kufa for many days then and was busy in his work but he did not have more than thirty policemen. Besides them there were twenty supporters of Bani Oma'yyah who were with him at that time. Ibne Ziad and about fifty of his companions went on the upper story of the house to see what was happening in the Masjid. As soon as the people saw Ibne Ziad and his friends they raised slogans against them and began to pelt stones and abused Ibne Ziad and the government of Yazid. At that time this was the position of Ibne Ziad vis-a-vis Muslim

In the evening of 8th Zil Haj Ibne Ziad studied the situation carefully. At last he took some clever steps which cannot be narrated here in detail. He sent some persons each of whom took away one, two or four persons out of the Masjid. A mother came and took away her son. A father came and he also took away his son.

Ustaz Moosvi

I seek refuge in the Hearer and the Omniscient Allah from the accursed Satan.

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

The believers fight for the cause of Allah. The unbelievers fight for the cause of the Devil. So fight against the friends of Satan, for the evil plans of Satan are certainly weak. (Surah Nisa, verse 76).

One of the important Islamic subjects which have often been discussed is Jihad. If most of the Quranic verses are studied carefully and in a proper manner it will be observed that every time after a few verses there occurs a verse which contains an order regarding Jihad. On the one hand fighting and Jihad has been mentioned on one ground or another in the verses containing religious, social and moral principles and orders, and on the other hand the propaganda is being carried on for a few centuries that Islam spread through sword and made advances and con- quests so much so that this vicious propaganda has impressed even our educated young men. The Muslim and impartial non-Muslim scholars have also written books on the Islamic principles of defence and Jihad. What does Jihad mean in Islam and how did Islam make progress? Did a revolution take place in the Arabian Peninsula? How many lives did each party lose in this intellectual, moral and social revolution? Were the battles fought in the early days of Islam defensive or offensive? All these questions are important m themselves. However, if we start discussing these matters it is feared that we shall he digressing from our real subject and the things which it is proposed to narrate now will he left unsaid

Apart from the religious and social orders, laws and rules, defence is a natural and psychological matter Allah has created a power m human nature which is called the power of anger This power is also present in animals in different forms and its object is the defence of their life Every animate being has a right to live and in order to defend this right it makes use of its limbs. The Almighty Allah has not only deposited this power in every animate being hut has also created it m the plants It appears that some kinds of vegetations are meant for the living beings like fruits and flowers, and there are some other kinds which exist only for procreation although other beings are no doubt pleased with their beauty and they enjoy it. It is for this reason that there are sharp and dry thorns m some fruit-hearing r trees Similarly there are sharp thorns in some flowers Dagger like thorns around a flower indicate its internal power which says with dumb language that its beauty, elegance and sweet smell demand that the hand of an oppressor should not reach it.

In yesterday's meeting a young man recited some verses. (These verses are of Nizami of Ganja. (The translation of) the first verse is as follows: How long will you be frozen like ice and be like a rat which is dead in water.) In any case some one has said well "Man falls a prey to disorder (Khalal) owing to abject life and becomes helpless as a result of cruelty and oppression If you wish to have a hunch of flowers in your lap remain armed and ready for defence like a thorn"

From the point of view of eloquence these verses are in a way a miracle and express a reality in the form of poetry. It is a fact that owing to abjectness and humiliation the psychological equilibrium of a person is destroyed It is possible that those who live the life of abjectness and humiliation may very well perceive the realities, but they cannot express them with their hands and tongue. This is what 'Khalal' (disorder) means. No doubt it cannot be explained in a better way. 'Disorder' means that harmony ceases to exist between man's powers of deliberation, understanding and action. Humiliation creates psychological disorder. If the flower wants to preserve its freshness and beauty and remain fixed to the branch, it is necessary that the thorns should not allow the hand of an oppressor to approach it. Hence this is the natural law of defence which appears in the animals in the shape of horns, paws and teeth, and in the human beings in the shape of the power of anger. As man has been granted reason which is responsible for utilizing all his natural powers in a correct manner he uses his power of anger to safeguard his right, honour, reputation and national interest. Hence, if we suppose that some law- giver or prophet comes and says that a nation should be deprived of competence to fight and to defend itself, it will be just like a reformer saying that as sexual power is the cause of bad conduct and occasionally of harm, the men and women should be totally deprived of this power. This example shows that the power of anger should continue to exist in the human beings although it should, no doubt, be put on the right path. Allah has created various powers and abilities in man, but has also advised that they should be utilized in a correct manner for the benefit and welfare of mankind. For example the object of the creation of sexual power is the procreation of human species. Similarly desire for food and hunger have been created in man so that he may eat enough food to remain alive. If the sexual power is not used properly it can, instead of becoming the cause of procreation of species, become the cause of extinction of species. The result of gluttony and sensuality is that instead of living for eighty or one hundred years one passes away at the age of thirty or forty years which is a sort of suicide. If the sexual power is used in an unlawful manner a man instead of being the agent of reproduction falls a prey to gonorrhea and syphilis and his power to generate comes to an end.

Same is the case with the power of anger. When this power appears in man he should use this weapon in a proper manner and should defend his right, honour, reputation and country. However, if this power is used in a manner other than the one prescribed by Allah, for example, if wars are started on lame excuses or an effort is made to attack and occupy the territories of others without just cause, this very power will become the source of genocide. As the power of anger is present in man, it should be bound by rules, and the manner in which it should appear should be wise and healthy. Even if religion and law had not existed the wise and righteous men of the world would have desired to sit together and find out ways and means for reformation. Now as regards the question as to what they would have done 'we can say that it is possible that they might have thought of a plan to eliminate war totally from the world. However, this is more easily said than done. Even today such claims are made. Arms reduction and control committees and reconciliation commissions work day and night. This is, how- ever, in conference rooms and palaces, but the underground factories remain busy in manufacturing most destructive arms. Meetings are held to discuss peace, banning of wars and stopping of atomic experiments and right under the very nose of the participants of those meetings atom bombs are manufactured. Then what should be done? What should be done is that the power of anger should be spent in the path of Allah.

This is what Islam says. Islam has given dispute and fighting the name of Jihad and has also imposed the condition of its being in the path of Allah. Jihad in the path of Allah has been ordered in the Quran, Hadith and our religious teachings. Now where and on which side is the path of Allah? Is it towards the sky, towards the Ka'abah or towards Jerusalem? In fact the path of Allah means the path of human welfare i.e. the path of truth and justice. It means the path of human freedom in which some people or some persons belonging to a particular class should not dominate others. The general public should have equal opportunities in the acquisition of knowledge. N o particular class should monopolize the natural resources which have been created by Allah for all. Allah has bestowed internal strength and spiritual competence on all human beings. He has created this air, this atmosphere and this light for the benefit of all, so that they may make use of their capabilities and corporeal and spiritual powers. It is to maintain this freedom that the believers have been ordered to perform Jihad in the path of Allah. In our jurisprudence there is a chapter on Jihad, which may please be looked into. Jihad is discussed in connection with the Articles of Worship. There are two parts of our Jurisprudence out of which one deals with the Articles of Worship and the other wit

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