Islamic Rule System
Ahl al-Sunnah hold that the Messenger of Allah has never determined or appointed anyone to be his successor, leaving it to be determined by the shura (counsel) among people, to alert whoever they like. This being their belief in the caliphate from the day of the Prophet's demise up to date.
They are supposed to apply this principle in which they believe and defend, but we are told that they have done exactly the opposite. Apart of swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr, which they call as a slip may Allah Protect the Muslims against its evil, it is Abu Bakr who has invented the Principle of crown prince in Islam as he committed the caliphate--before his death --to 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, who has, in turn, recommended 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf to choose one of the fiive persons he nomited for caliphate, with smitting the necks of the opposers renouncing allegiance.
This principle has been applied by Mu'awiyah on assuming caliphate, when he appointed his son Yazid as an heir, who has, in turn, appointed his son Mu'awiyah to succeed him.Thus caliphate remained as inheritance by the tulaqa' and their sons throughout generations, as every caliph would appoint his brother or one of his relations, the process that continued by the Abbasid Caliphs throughout their rule. So also is done by the 'Uthman state Caliphs, till the fading away of caliphate age, during the era of Kamal Ataturk in the current century.
Since Ahl al-Sunnah represen that caliphate, or those consecutive governments represent Ahl al-Sunnah all over the world, and throughout Islamic history. So, we nowadays see some countries like Saudi Arabia, Morroco, Jordan and Gulf states, adopt and apply the systems of wilayat al-'ahd (crown prince) which they inherited from their pious ancestors (al-salaf al-sahih), and all representing Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah. To believe -supposedly in the veracity of the idea adopted by them, that the Prophet (S) has left the affair as shura, which is determined by the Qur'an but they have contradicted the Qur'an and the Sunnah, preverting the "Democratic " shura system.
Presuming that the Prophet (S) has appointed -by a text -'Ali Talib as beklieved by the shi'ah, the Ahl al-Sunnah have then contradicted the very Prophet Sunnah and the Qur'an, as the Messenger is not to do anything but by the permission of his Lord.
Therefore they are aware of the validity of this theory (shura), since it has never been applied or adopted by the earlier Caliphs, beside the invalidity of the crown prince theory, justifying this with the hadih: "The caliphate after me seems that they intend to convince others with which they were convinced, that sovereingnty is for Allah, Who puts it wherever He wills, and that the kings and sovereingns have been appointed by God to rule over mankind, their obedience thus beng obligatory upon all with no permission to revolt against them.
This is a legthy discussion, taking us to the subject of qada' and qadar (fate and destiny), we exposed in the book of Ma'a al-Sadiqin, which we dont itend to refer to, being sufficed with knowing that Ahl als-Sunnah are also called "al-Qadariyah" for believing in this.
We conclude that Ahl al-Sunnah in wilayat al-'ahd , considering it as a legitimate caliphate, not due to the Prophet's ordaining it, or his appointing an heir apparent for him, as this is denied by them but due to the fact that Abu Bakr has committed to 'Umar amd 'Umar to the six men, and Mu'awiyah to Yazid and so on. We are not told by any of their 'ulama' or leaders of four schools (madhahib), that the Umayyad or 'Abbasid rulrship or 'Uthmani caliphat being illegitimate, but they have rushed to announce allegiance, support and confirmation for their caliphate. Most of them have even called for legitimacy of caliphate of anyone seizing it with force and supression, regardless of his being righteous or wanton, pious or debauchee, a Qurashi Arab, or Turkish or kurdish.
Dr. Ahmad Mahmud Subhi says in this respect: ''Ahl al-Sunnah's stand regarding the caliphate is to accept the status qua, without supporting it is revolting against it''.298
But the fact is that Ahl al-Sunnah support too, as reported by Abu Ya'la al-Farra' from al-'Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal that he said:'' The caliphate is established by overcoming and subdiong, needing no covenant''.
He reported also the narration of 'Abdus ibn Malik al-'At tar: ''Whoever conquers by the sword till becoming a caliph and being called Amir al-Mu'minin, then it is impermissible for anyone believing in Allah and the Last Day to pass the night without the night without believeing in his imamate, whether being righteous or licentious''. ''We are with that wh cnquers''. So Ahl al-Sunnah have turned to be accoutable for this bid'ah (heresy) -- the bid'ah of crown prince-- as they swear allegiance unto the conqueror, piety and knowledge (whether being pious or wanton). The evidence for this fact is that most of the Sahabah who fought beside the Prophet (S) against Mu'awiyah in several battles, have themselves asknowledged him (Mu'awiyah) afterwards as Amir al-Muminin, recognizing also the caliphate of Marwan ibn al-Hakam, whom the Prophet has vehemently censured and expelled from al-Madinah, saying: He is forbidden from sharing me a house alive and dead''.
They have exceeded the limits and acknowledged the caliphate of Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah, admitting him as Amir al-Mu'minin, helping him in slaying al'-Imam al-Husayn with his household when revolting against him, for reinforcing Yazid's sovereignty and establishing his caliphate. Some of their ulama' have even dared to say, that al-Husayn was killed by his grandfather's sword, and some nowadays compile books about the facts of ''Amir al-Mu'minin Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah'', only for backing Yazid's caliphate and condemning al-Husyan, due to revolting against him.
After realizing all these facts, no alternative is left before us, but to admit that Ahl al-Sunnah have contradicted the Sunnah they ascribed to the Propphet (S), which being their claim that he has left the affair (of caliphate) to be determined through shura among people.
Whereas the Shi'ah have led fast to the principle of Imamah through one word: "The text (nass) is from Allah and His Messenger upon the caliph", as Imamah can't be established through a revealed text (nass), and it is invalid but only for the infallible (ma'sum), the most knowledgeable, the most pious and superior one. They never permit to prefer the mafdul (less in virtue) over the fadil (virtuous), so they have rejected first the caliphate of the Sahabah, and that Ahl al-Sunnah afterwards.
Since the same Sihah of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jam'ah, actually contain in express indication to the nusus claimed by the Shi'ah regarding the affair of caliphate, so we are but to admit it is the Shi'ah who have actually adhered to the sahih (true) Prophet Sunnah.
Whether believing that caliphate is determined by shura or by nass, still the right (haqq) be on the side of the Shi'ah alone, as the only person appointed by the nass and shura together being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. No one among Muslims, Shi'i or Sunni, deresays that the Prophet (S) has refered, in a way or another, to the system of wilayah al-'ahd (crown prince), or can claim that the Prophet (S) has said to his Companions: "I am leaving your affair to be (determined) through shura, so you can elect whomever you wish for succeeding me"
We challenge all the worlds to bring even one hadith of this kind, if they don't do, and verily will be unable to do, they are asked to refer to the established Prophetic Sunnah are real Islamic history, in order that they may be led aright. Or do they claim that the Messenger of Allah has neglected this critical and sensitive affair, without manifesting its earmarks, causing thus his Ummah to enter in eternal struggle and blind sedition, tearing thier unity, disintegrating them, and diverting them away from God'd straight Path? Whereas we nowadays see the debauches among the despotic rulers, care for the fate of their people after their caliphate era, embarking on to appoint a successor for them in case of vacacy, so how about who was sent by Allah as a blessing for all the worlds!?
298. Mahmud Subhi ,Nazariyyat al-'Imamah, p.23.
Adapted from the book: "The Shi'ah; The Real Followers of the Sunnah" by: "Dr. Muhamad al-Tijahi al-Samawi"
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