Rafed English

Islamic Countries - Egypt

www.touregypt.net/ehistory.htm http://www.austarab.com.au/Egypt/Egypt_history.html

The regularity and richness of the annualNileRiver flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest by Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip
Geographic coordinates:
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Land boundaries:
total: 2,665 km
border countries:
Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
: 2,450 km
70,712,345 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 33.96% (male 12,292,185; female 11,721,469)
15-64 years: 62.18% (male 22,190,637; female 21,775,504)
65 years and over: 3.86% (male 1,191,091; female 1,541,459) (2002 est.)

 Noun: Egyptian(s); adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Egypt improved its macroeconomic performance throughout most of the last decade by following IMF advice on fiscal, monetary, and structural reform policies. As a result, Cairo managed to tame inflation, slash budget deficits, and attract more foreign investment. In the past three years, however, the pace of reform has slackened, and excessive spending on national infrastructure projects has widened budget deficits again. Lower foreign exchange earnings since 1998 resulted in pressure on the Egyptian pound and periodic dollar shortages. Monetary pressures have increased since 11 September 2001 because of declines in tourism, Suez Canal tolls, and exports, and Cairo has devalued the pound several times in the past year. The development of a gas export market is a major bright spot for future growth prospects.
Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals
Telephones - main lines in use:
3,971,500 (December 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
380,000 (1999)
Telephone system:
general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen (a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
20.5 million (1997)
7.7 million (1997)
Internet users:
600,000 (2002)

Total: 4,955 km
standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km double-track) (2000 est.)
Total: 64,000 km
paved: 50,000 km
unpaved: 14,000 km (1996)
3,500 km
including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water
92 (2001)
Egypt had the first politically developed society, around 5000 BC. For more than 5,000 years the Egyptian state was ruled by 30 dynastic families, reaching its zenith under the New Kingdom (1,580 -1,085 BC) with flourishing of trade with Asia, great architectural works, formal art, religious cults.
These are the periods of those ages:
.Lower Paleolithic (c. 2 Million - 100000 BC)
. Middle Paleolithic (100000 - 30000 BC)
.Upper Paleolithic (30000 - 10000 BC)
. Epipaleolithic Era (10000 - c. 5500 BC)
. Predynastic Period (5500 - 3100 BC)
Early Dynastic Period
.1st Dynasty (2920 - 2770 BC)
.2nd Dynasty (2770 - 2650 BC)
Old Kingdom
.3rd Dynasty (2650 - 2575 BC)
.4th Dynasty (2575 - 2467 BC)
.5th Dynasty (2465 - 2323 BC)
.6th Dynasty (2323 - 2152 BC)
First Intermediate Period (7th - 11th Dynasties) (2150 -1986 BC)
Middle Kingdom
.11th Dynasty (1986 - 1937 BC)
.12th Dynasty (1937 - 1759 BC)
Second Intermediate Period (13th - 17th Dynasties) (1759 - 1539 BC)
New Kingdom
.18th Dynasty (1539 - 1295 BC)
.19th Dynasty (1295 - 1186 BC)
.20th Dynasty (1186 - 1069 BC)
Persian kings ruled Egypt form 525-404 BC, and Alexander the Great conquered it in 332 BC. Alexander’s general Ptolemy established a dynasty continuing the pharaonic tradition until the defeat of its last ruler Cleopatra, in 30 BC. Egypt became a part of the Roman Empire, new cultural traditions were imposed, and Christianity arrived in 40 AD.
The Arab conquest in AD 632 brought little change to the traditional forms of government, but Arabic became the official language. The Fatimids from Maghreb came in 905, and under their rule Egypt became a wealthy focus of East-West trade.Cairo, founded late in 10th century, became a center of intellectual and cultural life. Christianity was gradually driven out andEgypt became an Islamic stronghold.
In 1517 the Ottomans seizedCairo and ruled Egypt until 1914, although their control was nominal after Napoleon’s occupation (1798-1801). In1804 Mohammad Ali, an officer in the Turkish army seized power and became the Viceroy of Egypt. He modernized the country’s institutions and his successors won total responsibility for governing Egypt. However, heavy borrowings opened the way to foreign intervention and the Suez Canal (1869) was jointly owned by Egypt and France. Soon Britain and France had dual control over the budget. After a period of unrest (the Ottoman control was threatened by “Egypt for Egyptians” movement), the British fleet bombardedAlexandria and Britain occupied Cairo in 1882. The British were the dominant control force in Egypt until it was formally declared a British protectorate in 1914.
Nationalism grew after World War I, and in 1922 Britain unilaterally granted Egypt a limited independence. In 1923 Egypt became a constitutional monarchy and in 1924 had its first democratic elections.
In 1953Egypt became a republic. The government proclaimed a new constitution with the National Union as the sole party. Egypt became a leading force in the Arab world, advancing the concept of pan-Arab socialism. It was one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement In 1971 the country’s official name became the Arab Republic of Egypt.

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