Interpretation of Sura Hud - Verses 111-113
111. "And certainly, to all will your Lord recompense them their deeds in full; verily He is aware of what they do. "
In stressing the matter further, the Qur'an adds in this verse that Allah will remunerate both groups, the faithful as well as the idol worshippers, without any failing or shortcoming, in lieu of the kind of conduct they had been engaged in. the verse says:
" And certainly, to all will your Lord recompense them their deeds in full; ..."
This does not create any difficulties for Allah, for He is well aware of everything and of what they do. It continues saying:
"... verily He is aware of what they do. "
It is interesting to note that the Qur'an says that Allah will return to them(the recompense of)their deeds. This is another allusion to the subject of the embodiment of deeds and that the reward and retribution of man, indeed, are his own deeds which will change in form and reach him.
Anyway, in the Divine system of belief, no deed will be left unanswered and uncompensated for; if it is good, it will be rewarded with good and if it is evil it will be compensated for with the same.
112. " Therefore stand firm(O Prophet)as you are commanded, and(also)he who has turned(unto Allah)with you, and(O' men)do not transgress(from the Path ); verily He sees well what you do. "
The Command of Steadfastness:
After recounting the lives of the prophets and former tribes and the reasons for their success, and after reinforcing the will of the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) , thereby in this verse He commands him(p.b.u.h.) the most important duty, saying that he must stand firm as he had been commanded. The verse says:
" Therefore stand firm(O Prophet)as you are commanded, ..."
He must stand firm in propagation and guidance, in his struggles and battles, in carrying out Allah's orders, and in implementing the instructions of the Qur'an.
However, this stance must not be for the sake of pleasing others, nor should it be for bigotry, nor for the acquisition of titles, nor for acquiring wealth, position, success and power. It must be for the execution of Allah's command as he had been instructed. However, this order does not concern the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) only, it also instructs those who are following in his footsteps for approaching Allah. The verse continues saying:
"... and (also)he who has turned(unto Allah)with you, ..."
The Qur'an advises the kind of persistence which avoids both extremes, neither more nor less, and the order not to be unruly, signifies the kind of persistence which avoids all kinds of transgression, for Allah is well aware of every action which we do. No cessation of movement or pause, and word or schedule remains hidden from Him. It says:
"... and (O' men)do not transgress(from the Path); verily He sees well what you do. "
This is a sensitive yet disturbing verse. There is a hadith from Ibn Abbas which says: "There is no verse revealed more severe and more difficult for the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) than this verse. Therefore, when the companions of the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) asked him why his hair had turned gray so soon, and the signs of age prematurely appeared on his face, he said: "The Sura Al- Waqi'ah and the Sura Hud made me age. " Some other traditions indicate that when the above verse was revealed, the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) said: "Fasten your belts! Fasten your belts(as it is time for struggling and working)"; and since that time, he was never seen smiling.
The reason is clear, for there are four commands in this verse, each of which imposes a heavy duty upon man.
Today, our responsibilities as Muslim leaders can also be summarized as: persistence, sincerity, leadership of the believers, abstinence from unruliness, and non- violence. Victory over our enemies, who have been surrounding us from all sides, exploiting us in all cultural, political, economic, social, and military spheres, might not be possible without the implementation of the four principles mentioned above.
113. " And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the Fire will touch you; and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor shall you be helped.
Reliance upon the Unjust! This verse explains one of the most fundamental programs in the realm of social, political, military, and ideological spheres of activity. It addresses all Muslims, putting forward a decisive duty, it implies that we should not seek support from oppressors, and never rely upon them for such an act for it causes us to be surrounded by the Fire of Hell and we have no one from whom to expect support but Allah. The verse says:
" And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the Fire will touch you; and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor shall you be helped.
In which matters must one not rely upon the transgressors In the first instance, obviously, we must not share in the atrocities they commit and seek support from them in this regard. Secondly, reliance upon them must stop where the Muslim community stands to be weakened, and its independence and self sufficiency jeopardized, this type of dependency will bear no fruit but frustration and loss of independence on the part of Islamic communities.
As to the idea that Muslims should establish commercial or scientific relations with non Muslim communities on the basis of protecting Muslim interests and independence as well as their security is not unprecedented in the history of Islam nor is it forbidden in Islam and it does not fit into the meaning of seeking assistance from the oppressors. During the era of the Prophet(p.b.u.h.) and after him such relationships with non Muslims had also existed.
However, one must not, at the same time, obey the oppressors or put his hope in them, for we read in the narrations that friendship with the unjust and obedience to them are examples of submission to tyranny. In a narration, it has been said: "Do not put your hope in an oppressor even if he is a member of your family or a friend. " In Al- Kafi, there is also a narration which says: "Allah has forbidden you to spare even one minute when an oppressor is to be hanged, for, in such a case, you would have supported him. " Refer to Tafsir al Burhan- As- Safi, Usul Al- Kafi, and the Bihar- ul- 'Anwar for further information.
1- Every kind of dependence on internal and external oppressors is prohibited.
2- Oppression and assisting the oppressors or even relying upon them constitute capital sins and those affiliated with it are subversives.(Every sin which Allah has spoken of as being punishable with the Fire is considered as a capital sin)
3- Relying upon and trusting the oppressor will lead to Allah's Hell. Therefore, how is the situation of the oppressor himself going to be 4- Instead of taking recourse to the unjust, put your trust in Allah.
5- The result of relying upon tyrants is isolation and estrangement.
6- As the obedience from/ ulul- 'amr/(the political and religions chiefs appointed to issue decrees on behalf of Allah), is obligatory and, on the other hand, since relying upon and seeking the support of the unjust is forbidden, therefore the/ ulul- 'amr/ cannot be unjust, they must necessarily be "immaculate", too, because sin is considered an example of injustice.(And do not incline to those who are unjust,)
Adopted from the book : "The Light of the Holy Qur'an; Interpretation of Surah Hud" by : "Sayyid Kamal Faghih Imani and a Group of Muslim Scholars"
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