Insurance in Islam Vs. Marxism
Insurance in Islam differs from socialist insur- ance which is based upon the Marxist bases in many respects due to the difference between the two sys tems of insurance in the bases, frameworks and ob- jectives.
We cannot attempt here except to display some of the aspects of such difference, having been sat- isfied with our detailed study thereof in our book Our Economy 1) Social Insurance in Islam: It is one of the hu- man rights enforced by Allah Almighty. As such, it does not differ according to circumstances or civil levels. As for insurance according to Marxism, it is the right of the machine, rather than of man. When the producing machine reaches a particular point, social insurance becomes an essential condition for its growth and increase of production. Unless the producing powers reach this point, the idea of insurance does not make any sense. For this reason, Marxism considers insurance to belong to particular societies during a limited period of their history.
2) Islamic Concept of Practising Social Insurance: It is the result of fraternal sympathy prevalent in the Islamic society. Islamic brotherhood is the frame which does the role of insurance therein. The hadith says: "The Muslim is the brother of every Muslim; he neither does him injustice, nor does he abstain from his rescue. He does not deprive him. Therefore;
Muslims have to persevere, visit each other, cooperate with each other and console those who are in need."
As for Marxism, it regards social insurance, as nothing but the result of a huge and bitter struggle which must be enflamed and widened, so that when the class struggle starts, and one class victoriously wipes out the other, only then shall social insurance prevail ... ! Insurance according to Marxism is but an expression of a tight unity and overwhelming fraternity; it hinges but upon a polar contradiction and a destructive struggle ... !
3) Insurance, as a human right according to Islam, does not concern one group rather than the other. It concludes even those who are incapable of par- ticipating in the general production at all. They are, however, insured in the shade of the Islamic society, and the State has to make available for them all means of livelihood. As for the Marxist insurance, it derives its existence from the class struggle between the working class and the capitalist class the result of which is a victory for the working class and its cooperation with and participation in that wealth. For this purpose, there is no Marxist explanation to the insurance of the life of those disabled who live far away from the class struggle because of their affiliation with the working class rather than the capitalist class, since they have no right to take any gains from the struggle and its booties . .
4) Insurance according to Marxism is the respon- sibility of the State alone. In Islam, it is the respon- sibility of the individuals and the State; therefore, Islam has set two principles: one of them is the prin- ciple of general cooperation; and the other is the principle of social insurance.
The principle of cooperation means that each Muslim individual is responsible for ensuring the livelihood of others according to his capacity. Mus lims should practise this principle even during the cases when they lose the State which practises the legislative injunctions. The hadith states that: "Any believer who denies another believer the use of some- thing he needs, while he or someone else is able to let him do so, then Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Judgement with a black face, blue eyes, his hands tied up to his neck. It will be said: `This is a traitor who betrayed Allah and His Messenger'; then he will be thrown into Hell-fire."
The principle of social insurance determines the responsibility of the State in this respect. It has to ensure a level of honourable prosperity for all citizens from the State and general sources of in- come, and also from its budget.
lo For the clarification of this principle, the hadith says: "The ruler receives wealth and distributes it, according to the Commandments of Allah, to eight shares: to the poor, the destitutes, the tax-collectors, those who do not mind helping Muslims, the slaves, those incapable of. paying their debts in the Way of Allah and to those wayfarers who are unable to buy their journey back home. Eight shares he distributes among them, each according to his need, without stringency or fear. Whatever remains will be turned back to the ruler. Whatever lacks, and people do not have enough, the State has to finance their need from its own budget according to their need, so that they will all have enough."
Adopted from the book: "Contemporary Man and The Social Problem" by: "Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr"
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