Inevitable Commentary for Research and Investigation
From this meeting between al-'Imam Malik and the despotic Caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur, and the conversation between them, the following points can concluded:
First: The 'Abbasid Caliph has desposed his governors of al-Madinah, though being his cousin and the closest one to him, humiliating him severely. Then he apologized to Malik for what he faced, swearing that it was not by orders, nor within his awareness and consent.
This indicates the full agreement between the two men, and the position entertained by Malik near Abu Ja'far al-Mansur, that he recieves him alone, letting him sit in a place never be shared by any one.
Second: From al-Mansur's saying to Malik: The people of the Two sanctuaries are still in welfare as long as you are among them, and you are their deliverer from God's wrath and chastisement, and Allah warded them, through you, against a great disaster, we conduct that Ahl al-Haramayn intended to revolt against the Caliph and his unjust rule, but al'Imam Malik calmed them down and quelled their revolution through some verdicts (fatawa), like obligating obedience to God, His Messenger and those who are in authority (being the rulers). Thus people have been quietenced and calmed down, so the Caliph forsook fighting them. By this way, Allah has warded off the massacre by the Caliph through this fatwa.88 That is why al-Mansur has said to Malik: Ahl al-Haramayn are faster than other people in rushing toward seditions, and more vulnerable to them, Allah (Himself) fights them, how perverse are they.
Third: The Caliph has nominated. Malik to be the prospective scholar throughout all the Islamic countries, imposing his school on people, compelling them to follow it throughout all means of threatening and temptation.
One of the means of temptation was his saying: We commit ourselves to the people of all lands not to contradict it (Maliki school), and never to judge but through it, delegating to him their mission, and sending their emissaries during pilgrimage days.
Among means of threatening, we can refer to his saying: But in regard of people of Iraq, they will be complelled to follow it, or their heads will be smitten by swords, and their backs will be cut by slashes.
From this paragraph we can realize the sorts of misfortune the Shi'ah were suffering the hands of despotic rulers, including suppression and slaying for forcing them to forsake the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt and follow Malik and his likes.
Forth: We observe that al-'Imam Malik and al-Mansur were holding the same beliefs and preference concerning the Sahabah and Caliphs, who seized caliphate by force and subdual.
In this regard Malik has said: He addressed me first with speech about knowledge ('ilm) and fiqh,proving to be the most knowledgeable man, and then talked about the ancestors and earlier 'ulama', and I found him the most knowledgeable man about rijal.
Undoubtedly Abu Ja'far al-Mansur was sharing al-'Imam Malik the same feeling, and exchanged flattery with him, as once, before this meeting, he said to him: By God I will never find after Amir al-Mu'mineen (meaning himself) a more knowledgeable and better in fiqh than you.89
It becomes clear from all this, that Malik was from among the nawasib, as he never recognized the caliphate of Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali ibn Abi Talib. We proved earlier how they (Ahl al-Sunnah) disapproved of Ahmad ibn Hanbal's belief, who considered 'Ali as the Fourth Caliph, obligating for him what was obligated for the precedent Caliphs. Needless to say that Malik passed away a long time before the birth of Ibn Hanbal.
Added to this, Malik has relied, for reporting the hadith upon 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar--the nasibi--who used to declare that they couldn't find anyone- during the Prophet's lifetime -competent to be a match to Abu Bakr, then to 'Umar, and then to 'Uthman, and after that all people being equal.
It is known that 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar used to be most famous trusworthy man for Malik, and most of the tradtions cited in the book al-Muwatta' are reported from him, beside Malik's fiqh.
Fifth:It is to be noted that the policy that was founded on oppression and despotism, intends to approach people through what attains their pleasure, including the fatawa they (Sunnah) innovated without bothering themselves to abide by the Qur'anic and Prophetic texts (nusus).
It is declared in al-Mansur's speech addressed to Malik that: Put and write down this knowledge ('ilm) in books, and avert advertises of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar, permissions of Ibn 'Abbas and abnormalities of Ibn Mas'ud. Betake yourself to the moderate matters, and what attained unanimity of Imams and Sahabah, so that we can compel people to follow your knowledge and books.
This indicates explicity that the school of ''Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-jama'ah" is only a combination of Ibn 'Umar's adversities, Ibn 'Abbas's permission, Ibn Mas'ud's abnormalities, and what Malik approved of the moderate matters followed by the Imams, with whom they meant Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman, and what attained agreement of the Sahabah, and approved by the Caliph Abu Ja'far al-Mansur. It is evident that this school has nothing to do with the Prophet's Sunnah that is reported from is kindred, the Pure Imams, with some of whom the lives of al-Mansur and Malik were contemporaneous, and who were secluded and suppressed by the Caliph.
Sixth: It is noted that the first book written about tadwin al-Sunnahfrom the traditions of the Sahabah and Tabi'un, is the book al-Muwatta' by al-'Imam and according to a request by the ruling authority and the Caliph himself to compel people to follow it by force, by smiling with swords if necessary, as expressed by al-Mansur.
These traditions have been certainly composed by the Umayyads and 'Abbasids, in a way to serve their interests and consolidate their influence and sovereignty, and isolate people from Islam's realities proclaimed by the Prophet (S).
Seventh: It can be noted that al-'Imam Malik has feared none but people of Iraq, due to their being followers (Shi'ah) of 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, who have been satisfied with his knowledge and fiqh, having devoted themselves to imitate the pure Imams among his sons, and taking no consideration for Malik or his likes, as being aware that they were nawasib fawning upon the rulers and selling their religion by dirham and dinar.
That is why Malik has said to the Caliph: May God amend the Amir, the people of Iraq never rocognize our knowledge, and never follow our opinion in their acts.
Thereat al-Mansur replied arrogantly: We compel them to follow it by force, smiting their top heads by swords, and cutting their backs by slashes.
Thus we come to realize the way of spreading abroad of the schools innovated by the ruling authorities, calling them the schools of "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah".
The point striking our wonder here is to see that Abu Hanifah differs with Malik, and Malik differs with him, and both differ with al-Shafi'i, al-Hanbali, and the latters disagree with each other and both differ with the former two. The four have never agreed upon one issue but very rarely, nevertheless they are all "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama'ah! What kind of Jama'ah is this? Are they Maliks, or Hanfafis, or Shafis or Hanabalis?? None of the sort, but it is a Jama'ah of Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, agreeing with him upon cursing 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, making it a sunnah used to be followed for eight years.
And why have they diagreement and holding different opinions and verdicts concerning one matter been permitted, and how has their differing become a mercy though being confined to the four schools, but in case of there being a mujtahid contradicting their beliefs, they would charge him with disbelief and exclude him out of the pale of Islam?
Had they been equitable and rational, why wouldn't they regard the disagreement among the Shi'ah like that one held among them?
But the Shi'ah sin is unforgivable, since they never prefer any of the companions to Amir al-Mu'mineen 'Ali, the fact being the essence of disagreement that can never be endured by "Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamah'ah", who have agreed upon one point, and that is: excluding 'Ali out of Caliphate, beside concealing and obliterating his virtues and real traits.
Eighth: The rulers that seized, by subdual and force, the funds and properties of Muslims, have embarked on distributing them generously among the court 'ulama' and their sycophants, for the sake of gaining their hearts and purchasing their consciences and religion in exchange of their world.
Said Malik: He (al-Mansur) then ordered to grant me one thousand dinars in gold, and a splendid raiment, and another thousand dinars for my son.
This began an explicit self-confession by Malik, and there may be much more than this, that was never mentioned by Malik, as he felt straitened of accepting apparent gifts, desiring not be seen by people, as can be apprehended from his saying:
"When the lad put the raiment on my shoulders, I refrained from wearing it disdainfully". 'As al-Mansur knew of this he ordered his lad to let it be with Malik's luggage to be kept from people's awareness.
88. There is no contradiction between his fatwa concerning the invalidity of compulsory allegiance, and athe one obligin the obedience for the sultan. They have narrated many ahadith in this respect, for example: "Whoever revolts against obediance of the monarch and dies on this, his death is of Jahiliyyah ". And their saying: "You have obey to obey and adhere even if the emir takes your property and slashes your back"
89. Ta'rikh al-Khulafa', by Ibn Qutaybah, vol. ii, p.142.
Adapted from the book: "The Shi'ah; The Real Followers of the Sunnah" by: "Dr. Muhamad al-Tijahi al-Samawi"
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