Imam of Athna Ashari Sect
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IMAM OF ATHNA ASHARI SECT
Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (A.S) was born on 13th of Rajab of the 30th year of Elephant (A.D) Prophet of Allah was then 30 year old, his mother Fatma binte Asad, father Abi Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib both of the clans of Hashim.
Imam Ali was born inside the Kaaba in Makkah, Masoodi, the herodotous of the Arabs, writes on page 76 of Volume II of his book, Murooj-udh-Dahab (Golden Meadows), that one of the greatest distinction that Ali (A.S.) enjoyed was that he was born in the House of Allah.
Among the modern Historians, Abbas Mahmood al Akkad of Egypt writes in his book Al-'Abqarriet al-Imam Ali, (Cairo,1970), that Ali ibn Abu Talib was born inside the Kaaba. Another contemporary historian, Mahmood Saeed al-Tantawi, of the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, Arab Republic of Egypt, writes on page 186 of his book, Min Fada-il al Ashrat al-Mubashireen bil Janna (1976) observes :
"May God has mercy upon Ali ibn Abu Talib. He was born in Kaaba. He witnessed the rise of Islam; he witnessed the Dawa of Mohammad, and he was a witness of the Wahi (Revelation of Al-Quran al Majid). He immediately accepted Islam even though he was still a child, and he fought all his life so that the Word of Allah would be supreme"
"It was a custom of the Arabs that when a child was born, he was placed at the feet of the tribal idol or idols, thus symbolically “dedicating“ him to the pagan diety. All Arab children were “dedicated” to the idols except Ali ibn Abu Talib (A.S.). When other Arab children were born, some idolator came to greet them and to take them in his arm. But when Ali ibn Abu Talib (A.S.) was born, Mohammad (SAW), the future messenger of God, came into the precincts of the Kaaba to greet him. He took the infant into his arms, and dedicated him into the service of Allah. The future Prophet must have known that infant in his arms was some day going to be nemesis of all idolates and of their gods and godesses. When Ali (A.S.) grew up, he extirpated idolatory and ploytheism from Arabia with his sword. Birth is Kaaba was one out of many distinctions that God bestowed upon Ali (A.S.) . Another distinction that he enjoyed was that he never adored the idols. This again makes him unique since all Arabs worshipped idols for years and years before they abjured idolatory and accepted Islam. It is for this reason that he is called “he whose face was honoured by Allah”. His face was indeed honoured by Allah as it was the only face that never bowed before any idol”. Syed Asghar Ali Razwy; pp.32-33.
When Ali (A.S.) was five years old, Mohammad (SAW) adopted him, and from that moment they never to depart with each other.
Mohammad (SAW) and Khadijah (p.b.u.h) adopted Ali (A.S.) adopted Ali (A.S.) after the death of their own sons. Ali (A.S) thus filled a void in their lives. But Mohammad (SAW), the future Prophet, also had another reason for adopting Ali (A.S). He picked him to bring up, to educate him, and to groom him for the great detiny that awaited him in the times to come. Dr. Taha Hussain of Egypt says that the Messenger of God himself became Ali's guide, teacher and instructor, and this is one more distinction that he enjoys, and which no one else shares with him Ali (A.S). Razwy Ibid. pp. 33-34.
“Similarly, it may be said that of all the friends and companions of Mohammad (SAW), the Prophet of Islam, Ali (A.S.) is the only one who grew up in the full light of history. There is no part of his life, whether it is his infancy, childhood, youth, manhood, or maturity, that is hidden from the spotlight of history. He was the cynosure of all eyes from his birth to his death. On the other hand, the rest of companions of the Prophet come to the attention of the students of history only after they accepted Islam, and little, if any thing, is known about them until then". Ibid. p. 34
HIS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OCCURANCE OF HIS MARTYREDOM
It is related from Ja'far b.Sulayman al-Dabi, on the authority of al-Mullaa b. Ziyad, who said :
'Abd al-Rehman b. Muljam, may God curse him, came to the Commander of the faithfull, peace be upon him, to ask to be provided with a horse."O Commander of the faithfull", he said, "provide me with a horse". The Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, turned toward him and then said to him "You are Abd al-Rehman, b. Muljam al-Muradi?""Yes", he replied."Ghazwan," called (the Commander of the faithful, "provide him with roan."
The man came with a roan horse and Ibn Muljam, may God curse him, mounted it and took it reins. When he had gone away, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him said :
I want his friendship and he wants my death. The one who makes excuses to you on one of your bosom friends from (the tribe) Murad.
(Ismail b. Ziyad reported, on the authority of Umm Musa, a woman servant of Ali, peace be on him, and the wet-nurse of his daughter, peace be on her, who told me:)
'Ali, little time is left for me to be with you""Why is that father"? she asked? "I have seen the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in my sleep," he replied. "He was rubbing the dust from my face and saying: 'O' Ali, do not be concerned, ?you have accomplished what you had to do'. Kitab-al Irshad pp.7,8,9.
When death was close to the Commander of the faithful he said to al-Hasan and al-Hussain, peace be on them "When I die, you two put me on my bier. Then take me out and carry (me) in the back of the bier. You two will protect the front of it. Thus bring me to al-Ghariyyayn. You will see a white rock shining with light .Dig there and you will find a shield and bury me at it" Kitab-al Irshad, opp.cit p. 15.
REPORT ON PRIORITY IN BELIEF IN GOD
On the authority of Afif b. Qays who narrated; "I was sitting with al-Abbas b. Abd-al Muttalib, may God be pleased with him, in Mecca, before the affairs of the Prophet became known to the public. A man came and looked toward the sky where the sun hovered above. He turned in the direction of the Ka'ba and stood to pray. Then a youth came and stood at his right and a woman came and stood behind them both. The man bowed, and the youth and the woman bowed. The man raised his hands and the youth and woman raised their hands. Then he prostrated and they both prostrated.
"Abbas!" I exclaimed, "it is fantastic affair!"
"Indeed, it is a fantastic affair" replied al-Abbas. "Do you know who that man is? He is Muhammad b. Abd Allah b. Abd al Muttalib, my cousin. Do you know who that youth is? He is Ali b. Abi Talib, my cousin. Do you know who that woman is? She is Khadija, daughter of Khuwaylid. This cousin of mine (i.e.Muhammad) has told me that his lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. Who has ordered him to carry out this religion (din) which he is practicing No, by God, except these three."
The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, said : "The angels bless me and Ali for seventy years, because (for a time) only Ali and I raised testimony to heaven that there is no God but God and Muhammad is the Apostle of God". Abu Sukhayla has narrated : "I and Ammar went on the pilgrimage. We stopped at the house of Abu Dharr, may God be pleased with him, and stayed with him for three days. When the time of our departure was at hand, I said to him : “Abu Dharr, we consider that nothing except confusion has come over the people. What is your view?”.
“Cleave to the book and Ali b. Abi Talib.” he replied, “then bear witness to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, who said “Ali was the first to believe in me and will be the first to shake my hand in greetings on the Day of Ressurection. He is the greatest testifier of the truth (siddiq) and discerner of truth and falsehood. He is the chief of the believers and money is the chief cause of wrong-doing” (Kitabul Irshad). Ibid. pp. 18-19.
REPORTS OF HIS OUTSTANDING MERIT OVER EVERYBODY IN RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE
On the authority of Ibn'Abbas, it is narrated : The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, said : "Ali b. Abi Talib is the most learned of my community and the most capable of giving legal decisions after me in (matters upon) which (men) differ." Ibid p. 20
Abu Sai'd al Khudri said : "I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, say: "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. Therefore whoever wants knowledge should learn it from Ali, peace be upon him".
On the authority of Abd Allah b. Masud it is narrated : The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, summoned Ali and went apart with him. When he returned to us, we asked him : What covenant (ahd) did he make with you"? He replied : "He (the Prophet) taught me a thousand doors of knowledge and he opened from each (of these) doors a thousand (more doors)". Ibid. p. 21
REPORTS OF THE OUTSTANDING MERIT
It is reported on the authority of Says b.Abi Harun who said : I went to Abu Sa id al-Kudri and asked him whether he had witnessed (the battle of Badr. He said.) On that day (the battle of Badr) I heard the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, speak to Fatima, peace be upon her, when she came to him weeping and saying "O Opostle of God, the women of Quraysh are reviling me because of the poverty of Ali, peace be upon him"
"Are not you satisfied that I have married you to first Muslim and the most knowledgeable “? the Prophet God bless him and his family, asked her. "Indeed, God , the Most High, looked most thoroughly over the people of earth and chose your father from them and made him Prophet. Then he looked over them second time and chose your (present) husband (ba'l) and made him a trustee of authority (wasi). God inspired me to marry you to him. Didn't you know, Fatima, that through God's kindness to you, your husband is the greatest of men in clemency, the most knowledgeable of men and first of them in Islam".
Fatima laughed and rejoiced. Then the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, continued : "Fatima,' Ali has eight molar teeth. No one before and after him will have the like. He is my brother in the world and the here after. No one else of the people has that (rank). Fatima, the mistress of the women of heaven, is his wife. The grandsons of mercy, my grand sons, will be his sons. Ibid pp 22-23.
On the authority of 'Abd Allah b. al-Abbas it is quoted :
We, (the members) of the House (ahl al-bayat) have seven qualities none of which the (rest of the ) people have;
From us (came) the Porphet , God bless him and his family.
From us came the trustee of authority (wasi), the best of this community after him ( i.e. the Propet) Ali. Abi Talib, peace be upon him.
From us came Humza, the Lion of God and his Apostle, and the lord of martyrs.
From us came Jafar b. Abi Talib, who is adorned by two wings with which he flies in heaven wherever he wishes;
From us (came) the two grandsons of this community, the two lords of the youth of paradise, al Hasan and al-Hussain;
From us came the (one who will undertake the imamat for the rest of time) Qaim of the family of Muhammad, by which God graced His Prophet;
From us (came) the one who was given (final) victory (al-mansoor). Ibid p. 23
REPORTS OF LOVE FOR HIM
On the authority of Zirr b. Hubaysh, it is reported as saying : "I saw the Commander of the faithfull, 'Ali b.Abitalib, on the pulpit and I heard him say" By him Who spilit the seed and brought the soul into being, the Prophet made a promise ('ahd) : 'Only believers will love you and only hypocrites will hate you! On the authority of al-Harith al Hamadani, Ali (S.A.) is reported one day he came and went on the pulpit. He praised and glorified God. Then he said : "A decree which God, the most High, decreed by the tongue of Prophet, may God bless him and his family,was that only believers will love me and only and only hypcrites will hate me. Whoever forges lie is lost". Ibid pp-24-25.
QUALITIES OF IMAM Ali (A.S.)
His qualities are so many and famous, well authenticated and reported by traditions, the chain of authority is avoided and some extracts are derived from Kitab al Irshad referred earlier.
(a) Among these is the account that Prophet (S.A.W.) gathered his own family members and tribal kin together at the beginning of his mission for Islam. He showed them the faith and sought their help against the people of unbelief and enmity, and guaranteed for them, if they did that, favor and honor in this world and a reward in heaven. None of them answered him except the Commander of the fiathful, Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.). Because of that he granted him the achievement of brotherhood (with himself), the office of helping him, of being his nominated trustee, his inheritor, and his successor, and announced that his going to heaven is inevitable. Ibid. p. 29-30
(b) Prophet, may God bless him and his family, ordered the emigration after the council of Quraysh had decided to kill him and he,peace be on him,would not have been to defeat their plans by leaving Makka. For he, peace be upon him, wanted to keep his departure secret and keep the reports about him hidden from them so that he could carry out his departure in safety from them. He told this news to the Commander of the faithful who kept it secret and slept on his bed .The Commander of the faithful, peace be on him dedicated his life to God, the exalted, devouted it to God, the Exalted, in obedience and exchanged it for His Prophet, the blessings and peace of God be on him and his family.
(c) The Commander of the Faithful fulfilled the Prophet's (S.A.W.) Obligations in Mecca.
(d). The prophet, may God bless him and his family, sent Khalid b. Walid to Banu Jadhima to summon them to Islam and he did not send him to make war (on them). He disobeyed his order, renounced his treaty, rebelled against his religion and killed people who had embrassed Islam. He betrayed their protected status when they were people who had accepted the faith. The Commande of the Faithful was sent to undo the unjust, to conciliate the people and to draw out their hatred and compensate them for their lives and material. The Commander of the faithful did justice to them.
(e) He kept the mission of conquest of Macca as secret, and intercepted the messenger of Quraysh, a lady, who was carrying the information regarding
movement of of army of Islam. The lady first lied to al Zubayr b. Awwam who believed her denial of carrying any letter but when the Commander of the faithful, drew his sword and threatened her to kill, she took off her veil and took letter from her. The Commander of the faithful took and and showed to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family.
(f) The Prophet, may God bless him and his family, gave the standard to Sa'd b. Ubada on the day of the conquest of Macca and ordered him to carry it in front of him into Mecca. Sa'd took it and began to declare : "Today is the day of slaughter, the day of capturing (any) daughter".
"Haven't you heard what Sa'd b. Ubada is saying"? some of the people asked the Prophet, may God bless him and his family. "We are afraid that today will (simply mean) to him, attacking Quraysh. "The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family ordered the Commander of the faithful to take standard from Ubada and to enter with it.
(g) Another fact which is agreed by historians (biographers ahl-al sira) is that the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, sent Khalid b. Walid to the people of Yemen to call them to Islam. He stayed with the people for six months, including a group of Muslims, calling them (to Islam) but not one of them responded. That depressed the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family.He summoned the Commander of the faithful, peace be upon him, and ordered him to send back Khalid and those who were with him. However, he told him that if anyone of those who had been with Khalid wanted to stay, he should let him. [Al-Bara reported :] I was one of those who followed him. When we came to the first people among the Yemeni's and the news reached the people (generally), they gathered before him. Ali b.Abi Talib, peace be on him, prayed the dawn prayer with us, then advanced in front of us. He praised and glorified God. Then he read the letter of the Apostle of God. The whole of Hamdan became Muslim in one day.
(h) The exalted rank of carrying the standard is considered highly (in such a disarray) as could not be hidden from those with discrement. Then the standard was given to another man after that. However, he was put to flight in the same way as the first man had been before. In that there was fear for Islam and its position after two men (carrying its standard) had not been succeeded in capturing the Fort of Qumuss (Khaiber). That troubled the Apostle of God, peace be upon him and his family, and made public the disobedience to him and bad attitude towards him. So he said in a public announcement "Tomorrow, I shall give the standard to no one but to the hero of attack who never flees, who loves God and the Apostle, and whom God and the Apostle love. Allah will give us the victory through him.
He, peace be upon him, went to the battle field accepted the challenge of Marhab the great Jew fighter killed him in one go and conquered the fort of Qumuss.
( i) Lastly he delivered the documents of renunciation which the the Prophet, may God bless him and his family gave to Abu Bakr (R.U.) so that he could abrogate the alliance with the polytheists through it. When he had traveled far away, Gabriel, peace be on him descended to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family. He told him : "God recites His greetings to you and says to you that the act of renunciation should not be performed for you except by yourself or a man (related) to you. He did it and asked Ali Ibn.Abi Talib (A.S.) to follow Abu Bakr (R.U.), get the documents and deliver the document by himself. [EXTRACTED FROM KITAB Al IRSHAD (SHAIKH MUFEED, Translated by, I.K. Howard, pp.29-43.”
MARRIAGE OF ALI - SEE SECTION’ NOBLE DAUGHTERS
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE MILLITAR EXPLOITS OF IMAM ALI (A.S.)
Record of the battles carry with them chronicles of his bravery, courage and chivalry. Even his enemies sang songs of his valor and gallantry.
Every one of these battles was an outcome of very grave circumstances and conditions, and combinations of very serious events and very harmful forces against the safety of Muslims and Islam. There were many such encounters but only a selected few have been reproduced here.
The First of these battles was Badr. It took place in the month of Ramdhan of the 2nd year of Hijrah. Muslims were not prepared for a battle and could ill afford to fight against superior forces. But Medina was being invaded and necessarily the Holy Prophet (A.S.) was forced to defend himself and his followers. He decided to leave Makka and fight out the battle in a open field. He had only 313 Muslims who were not adequately armed for a battle, victory of Muslims the Holy Quran says : 'INDEED THERE WAS A SIGN FOR YOU IN THE TWO HOSTS (WHICH) MET TOGETHER IN ENCOUNTER; ONE PARTY FIGHTING IN THE WAY OF ALLAH AND THE OTHER UNBELIEVING,WHOM THEY SAW TWICE AS MANY AS THEMSELVES WITH THE SIGHT OF EYE;AND ALLAH IS LESSON IN IT FOR THOSE WHO HAVE SIGHT" Al-Quran (4-12)
'AND ALLAH DID CERTAINLY ASSIST YOU AT BADR WHEN YOU WERE WEAK,BE CAREFUL OF (YOUR DUTY TO) ALLAH THEN, THAT YOU MAY GIVE THANKS". (Al-Quran) (4-122)
WHEN YOU SAID TO THE BELIEVERS:DOES IT NOT SUFFICE YOU THAT YOUR LORD SHOULD ASSIST YOU WITH THREE THOUSAND ANGELS?" Al-Quran (4-123)
The Second most important battles was that of Ohud. Quraysh and their leader Abu Sufyan were smarting under the defeat of Badr and had sworn to retaliate. The idolaters were burning for revenge. Thus they mobilized an army of 3000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. The Holy Prophet (A.S.) could muster only 700 Muslims to face this horde. They faced each other in the battle of Uhd.The battle took place on 11th Shawwal 3 A.H, (a year after the battle of Badr).The command of Muslim Army was divided betwen Ali (A.S.) and Hamza (peace be upon him) and Abu Sufyan appointed Khalid ibne Walid Akramn Ibn Abu Jehal and Omer Ibne Aass as the three Commanders to command the right and left wing and the center respectively.
The first encounter took place between Ali (A.S) and Talha ibn Talha.This encounter carries with it an incident of marvelous cavalry by Ali (A.S). Talha suffered defeat at the hands of Ali (A.S) and died. He was the flag bearer of Quraysh's army His death brought his four sons and one grand son to face Ali (A.S) and each one of them was killed by and other flag bearers followed them and were in turn killed by Ali (A.S.), then a general encounter took place in which Ali (A.S) and Hamza carried the day and Muslims came out victorious" But the eagerness for spoils threw the ranks of Muslim Army into disorder, Ali (A.S) tried to keep them in order but it was not to be. Khalid ibne Waleed attacked them from the rear (where the Holy prophet posted some archers to defend any advance of the enemy, they left their place for the war booty) flank, he wounded the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), with a Javelin; and also stoned him, face of the prophet was also wounded and he had fallen down from the horse. Khalid ibne waleed started shouting with a loud voice' the lying prophet is slain' upon which without stopping to ascertain the followers of Islam fled panicky stricken" (Davenport). The wounded prophet was left in the battlefield with only Ali (A.S), Hamza and Abu Dajana and Zakwan to defend him. These brave warriors fought fiercely and during this encounter Hamza was killed, by a Javeline, Zakwan and Abu Dujana seriously wounded and Ali (A.S) was left alone in the battlefield. He had received 16 wounds but he searched and found the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) lying wounded and surrounded by enemies under command of Khalid who were trying to kill him, he fought against these six men, killed two of them and scattered the rest: he bodily lifted the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) and carried him to a mount; he kept on attacking the rallying armies of the enemy; and kept on shouting" the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) is alive and calling Muslims to come back.Those Muslims who had not fled very far came back saw the wounded prophet, saw his daughter, Fatima, (who had come out of Medina hearing the rumor of her fathers death) attending him, they took heart and gathered again under the command of Ali (A.S.) and started fighting again and victory was gained. The most peculiar aspect was the greed of Muslim warriors had converted a hard earned victory into ignominious defeat and Ali (A.S.) had reconverted this defeat into a glorious victory THE HOLY QURAN SAYS : "AND CERTAINLY ALLAH MAKE GOOD TO YOU HIS PROMISE, WHEN YOU SLEW THEM BY HIS PERMISSlON, UNTILL YOU BECAME WEAK HEARTED AND DISPUTED ABOUT THE AFFAIRS AND DISOBEYED AFTER HE HAD SHOWN YOU THAT WHICH YOU LOVED; OF YOU WERE SOME WHO DESIRED THE HEREAFTER,THEN HE TURNED YOU AWAY FROM THEM THAT HE MIGHT TRY YOU;AND HE HAS CERTAINLY PARDONED YOU AND ALLAH IS GRACIOUS'. Al Quran (4-151)
WHEN YOU RAN OF PRECIPITATELY AND DID NOT WAIT FOR ANY ONE,AND THE OPOSTLE WAS CALLING YOU FROM REAR, SO HE GAVE YOU ANOTHER SORROW INSTEAD OF (your) SORROW SO THAT YOU MIGHT NOT GRIEVE AT WHAT HAD ESCAPED YOU, NOR (AT) WHAT BEFELLYOU;AND ALLAH IS AWARE OF WHAT YOU DO". Al Quran (4-152)
He thus once again saved the day,saved the face of the fleeing Muslims and the most important of all he saved was the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) but without Ali (A.S.) the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) would have been killed (Nehjul Balagha, Translated by Ali Reza, Introduction by Syed Mohammad Askari Jafery, Islamic FoundationPress, Mallipuram, Kerala, India. Pp. 25-26.
The THIRD encounter of Muslims with Quraysh is called the battle of Clans (Ahzab) or battle of the Moat or ditch (Khandaq. It is so called because many clans of Arabs were persuaded by Abu Sufyan to help him to annihilate Islam and the Muslims and because when these forces invaded Madina, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was obliged to dig a moat or ditch around his army. This battle also proves that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was forced to take up arms in defence of his followers and his mission. It took place on the 23rd Zeeqad in the year 5 A.H.
Abu Sufyan while retreating from Ohd had promised that he will come back again to avenge defeat. He mobilized the clans of Bani Nazeer, Bani Ghuftan, Bani Saleem and Bani Kinana and Bani Khariza. He was very sure of his success relying on the fame of Omer ibne Abd-e-Wood, who was as famous in Arabic as Rustom in Persia.
They marched upon Madina, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) could barely muster 2000 Muslims to face the army. For nearly a month the armies stood facing each other and one day Omer ibne Abde-wood jumped the moat and faced the Muslim Army, challenging them for an encounter. He was accompanied by Akrama-ibne-Abu Jehl, Abdullah-ibne-Mogheera, Zarar-ibne-Khattab, Nofil-ibne Abdullah and others. His bravery, his valor and courage was so well known in Arabia that none of the Muslims except Ali dared to face him. The assemblage of famous warrior tribes and presence of Umer ibne-Abd-wood as their commander had made the Muslims so nervous that even the Quran says that "Their eyes were petrified and their hearts were beating violently and they were thinking of running away". Thrice Omer-ibne-Abde-Woodth challenged them to out and every time none but Ali (A.S.) stood up and asked the permission of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) to face him. Twice the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) refused him permission, but in the end he allowed him, saying that "Today faith in embodiment is facing embodied infidelity" then he raised his hands in prayers and beseeched God, saying "Lord! I am sending Ali (A.S.) alone in the battle field, do not allow me to be left alone, you are the best companion and the best Guardian". Muslims were so certain of Ali (A.S.) being killed by Omer that some of them came forward to have a look at his face. The encounter ended in Ali's (A.S.) success and Omer's death, after Omer he faced Abdullah Ibne Mugheera and Nofil Ibne Abdullah and killed both of them. Thus a victory was won without any Muslim, except Ali (A.S.), coming out of the ranks. In the encounter with Omer and the defeat and death of this great warrior Ali (A.S.) again exhibited such a chivalrous attitude that the sister of Omer composed a poem in praise of the man who faced her brother .In it she said "If anyone else then Ali (A.S.) had killed her brother, she would have wept over the infamy her life long, but not now". Thus Ali (A.S.) brought an end to the hostilities of Quraysh in three encounters of Badr, Ohad, and Khandaq.Nahjul Balagha Opp. cit pp 26-27
The Fourth encounter was with Jews named as the Conquest of Khyber. Khyber is a township 90 miles north of Madina, situated on a volcanic tract.. Long before the time of Prophet of Islam, valley of Khyber and other valleys in its north and south, were colonized by the Jews. These Jews were not only the best farmers of the country, they were also leaders in industry and business, and they enjoyed a monopoly of the armament industry. The Jews of Khyber also heard about the Treaty of Hudaybia and its terms. Just the Quraysh in Makka and Ummer bin al-Khattab (R.U.) and some other "hawks" among the Muslims in Madina has interpreted the treaty as the "surrender of the Muslims, so also did the Jews of Khyber considered it a symptom of the incipient decline of the power of the State of Medina. Banking on this theory of 'decline' they began to instigate the Arab tribes between Khyber and Medina to attack the Muslims. On one occasion, the son of Abu Dharr el Ghaffari was grazing the camels of the Prophet (S.A.W.) when the Ghatafan struck. They killed him, and captured his mother who was with him,and they drove with them the herd of camels. The Muslims, however, were able, just in time to overtake the marauders and to rescue the wife of Abu Dharr el-Ghaffari.
Mohammad (S.A.W.) decided to put an end to these gratuitous provocations. He thought that it would not be prudent to wait untill the Jews and their allies laid another siege to Medina and that it would be better to forestall them. He therefore, ordered the Muslims to mobilize, and to march to Khyber. In September 628 A.D. the Phophet (S.A.W.) left Medina with 1600 soldiers. Some Muslim Women also accompanied the army to work as nurses and to give first aid to the wounded and the sick.
Khyber had eight fortresses, the strongest and most famous was al-Qumus. The captain of its garrison was a famous champion called Marhab. He had, under his command the best fighting men of Khyber. "The compaign of Khyber was one of the greatest. The masses of Jews living in Khyber were the strongest, the richest, and the best equipped for war of all people of Arabia "Muhammad Husayn Haykal; The life of Mohammad, Cairo, 1935.
The Muslims, however, were able to capture all the fortresses of Khyber except Al Qamus which proved impregnable. Mohammad (S.A.W.) sent Abu Bakr (R.U.) on one occasion, and Ummar (R.U.) on another, with hand picked warriors. Both made the attempt and both failed, some other captains also tried to capture the fortress but they also failed. These repeated failures began to undermine the morale of the army.
Mohammad (S.A.W.) realized that something dramatic had to be done to restore the wilting morale of the Muslims. And when one more attempt to capture al-Qamus had also aborted, his mind was made up and he declared : "Tomorrow I shall give the banner of Islam to hero who loves God and His Apostle, and God and His Apostle love him. He is one who attacks the enemy but does not run, and he will conquer Khyber".
On the following morning, the companions gathered in front of the tent of the Prophet (S.A.W.). Each of them was decked out in martial array, and was vying with others in looking the most impressive figure. The Messenger of God (S.A.W.) came out and ignored all and only posed one question "Where is Ali". Ali (A.S.) was at this time in his tent. He knew that if he was the "beloved of God and His Apostle", then he, and no one else would capture the fortress of al-Qamus. The Prophet (S.A.W.) sent for him.
When Ali (A.S.) came, the Prophet solemnly placed the banner of Islam in his hand. He invoked God's blessings upon him, prayed for his victory. The young hero then advanced towards the most formidable fortress in all Arabia where the bravest of the Hebrew warriors were awaiting him. He fought against them all, overcame them, and planted the banner of Islam on its main tower. When the conquerer returned to the camp, the Messenger of God (S.A.W.) greeted him with smiles, kisses and embraces, and prayed to God to bestow His best rewards upon His lion. "The conquest of Khyber is a landmark in the history of Islam as it is the beginning of the Islamic state and empire. A. A.Rizwy op.cit. pp-152-157, for further details see the same book, Nahjul Balagha, op. cit pp 28-29, Kitabul Irshad, pp 83-88.
IMAM ALI's COLLECTED SERMONS, LETTERS, AND SAYINGS COLLECTED BY ALLAMA SYED RAZI
Translared by Sheikh Hasan SaeedChehel Soton Library and Theological SchoolMasjid e Jame, Tehran, Iran, 1977.
The book comprises 245 sermons, 79 letters and 210 sayings. The compiler has only extracted parts from sermons, letters and sayings are reproduced as it is, readers should not infer that the material which is not reproduced is less important and meaningful. In the opinion of the compiler, the evolution of this volume and opinions of the Ulemai Ahle Sunnat from 1st century (Hijri) till the 15th century is most important to be highlighted for all sects of Muslims, so that part is reproduced in full.
"This book is a translation of the sermons, letters, orders and some of the saying of Hazrat Ali (A.S.) as compiled by Syed Razi and named "NEHJUL BALAGHA."
ABOUT THE BOOK
"These sermons and preachings of Hazrat Ali (A.S.) were so highly valued and venerated in the Islamic world that within a century of his death they were taught and read as the last word on the Phylosophy of mono-theism,as the best lectures for character building, as exalted source of inspiration, as very persuasive sermons toward piety, as guiding beacons toward truth and justice, as marvelous eulogies of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and the Holy Quran, as convincing discourses on the spiritual values of Islam, as awe inspiring discussions about the attributes of God, as master piece of literature, and as models of the art of rhetorics". Nehj. Balagha. p. 4
1st CENTURY : According to the famous book of biographies Rejal-e-Kabeer, the first person to collect these sermons in a book form was Zaid Ibne Wahab Jehny, who died in 90 A.H. and who was regarded as a narrator of Ahadees (Traditions). Thus within 30 years of Hazrat Ali's (A.S.) death and during the first century of Hijrah, his sermons, letters, sayings, Ahadees etc. were collected ,quoted and preserved". Nehjul Balagha. p. 4
2nd CENTURY : With the dawn of 2nd century Ibne Wahab's example was followed by (1) the famous caligraphist of the Abbasite regime,Abdul Hameed-bin-Yahya (132 A.H), (2) and then In-u-l Moqquffa (142 A.H) took up this work of compilation. (3) Ibne-Nadeem in his biographies "The Fahrist" says that Husham Ibne Saeeb-e-KALBEE (146 A.H) had also collected these sermons.
3rd CENTURY : During the third century five famous men took up this work :
1. Abu Oosamn Omero-bin-Bahr-ul-Jahiz who died in 255 A.H. (868 A.D), quoted many sermons in his book Al-bayan-wo-Tabyan.
2. Ibne-Qateeba-e-Daynoori, who died in 276 A.H., in his book O' YOON-ul-Akhbar and Ghareeb-ul-Hadees quoted many sermons and discussed meanings of many words and phrases used by Hazrat Ali (A.S.) )
3. Ibne-Wazeh-e-Yaqoobee,wo died in 278 A.H, cited many sermons and sayings of Hazrat Ali (A.S.) in his history.
4. Abu Haneefa-e-Daynoori (280 A.H) is his history Akhbar-e-Tawal quoted many sermons and sayings.
5. Abul Abbas Almobard (286 A.H) in his Kitab-ul-Mobard, collected many sermons and letters.
4th CENTURY :
1. The famous Historian Ibne Jurair-e-Tabaree who died in 310 A.H. quoted some of these sermons in his Tareek-e-Kabeer.
2. Abu Muhammad Hussan-Ibne-Ali-Ibne Shoba-e-Halbee (320 A.H) had collected some sermons in his book"Tahfath-u-l Oquool. This book was later printed in Persia. There are 7 other writers who have quoted the sermons and saying of Hazrat Ali (A.S.) Ibne-Wareed 321 A.H) Masoodi (346 A.H.) in Morravij-ul-Zahab, Yaqooth-e-Hameveene in, Mojam-ul-Adibba, Abul Farz Isphani (356 A.H), Abu Ali Quali (356 A.H), Navadir, and Shaikh Sadook (381A.H) in Kitab-ul-Tauheed.
5th CENTURY :
1. Shaikh Moofeed (413 A.H.) in Irshad has quoted many sermons, Ahadees (traditions) sayings and letters of Hazrath.
2. Syed Razi ( 420 A.H.) compiled the book Nahjul Balagha.
3. Shaikh-ul-Taa'ye'fa Abu Jaffer Mohammad Ibne-Hussan-e-Toosi (460 A.H) was contemporary of Syed Razi and had collected some of these sermons etc., long before Syed Razi took up his work.
NOTE : It is reported that what Allama Syed Razi couldcompiled in Nahjul Balagha does not contain all the sermons, letters and sayings of Hazrat Ali (A.S.). Masoodi (346 A.H) in his famous history Morravej-ul-Zahab (Vol II page 33 printed in Cairo) says that only sermons of Hazrat Ali, which have been preserved by various people, number more than four hundred and eighty. Nahjul Balagha op. Cit. pp 5-6.
The author contends that "If I quote all of what has been said by Muslims and the Christian Arab Scholars, Theologians, Philosophers and Historians in praise of sermons, sayings and letters it will cover volumes as big as the book". Only a selected few are quoted here :
1. Abu Sa'adath Mubarak Majud din-ibne-Aseer Jazaree (606 A.H) is recognised even today not only for narator of Ahadees(traditions) but also as alexigolist of great eminence. His book "NEHAYA", is a study of the history and meanings of difficult words of Holy Quran and the traditions. In this book he has at great length discussed many words, phrase and sentenses of Hazar Ali's sermons from the Book Nehjul Balagha. He says so far as comprehensive ness is concerned Ali's wods come next to the Quran.
2. Allama Shaikh Kamaluddin-ibne-Mohammad-ibne-Talha-e-Shafayee (who died in 652 A.H.) in his famous book "MOTHALEB-UL-SOAOL write :
"The fourth attribute of Hazrat Ali (A.S) was his eloquence and rhetoric's. He was such a Imam in these arts that none can aspire to rise up to the level of the dust of his shoes. One who has studied Nahjil Balagha can form some idea of his supreme eminence in this sphere"
3. Maulana Abu Hamid Abdul Hameed-Ibne- Hinathulah, known as Ibne-Abil Hameed-e-Moathazalee, who died in 655 A.H.), and who has written a really great commentary on the sermons says :
(i) His speeches, letters and sayings are so supremely eminent that they are above the sayings of man and below only to the words of God. None can surpass it but Holy Quran.
(ii) At another place he says that "His (Hazrat Ali) sayings are miracles of the Holy Pophet (S.A.W.). His prophecies show that his knowledge was superhuman".
4. Allama Sa'aduddin Thafthazani (791 A.H.) in "Sharah-e-Maquasid" says that :
"Ali had supreme command over language, over ethics and over tenets of religion at the same time he was great orator, his sermons compile in Nahjul Balagha bear witness to these facts"
5. Allama Alauddin Quoshjee (875 A.H) in "Sharah-e-Tujreed says that :
"The book Nahjul Balagha that is sermons and sayings contained therein prove that none can surpass it one these lines but the Holy Quran".
6. Mufthi Of Egypt Shaikh Mohammad Abdahoo (1323 A.H) has written commentary on the book Nahjul Balagha. He was among the modern thinkers, who made the modern world realize the beauties of the teachings of Islam. In his commentary of Nahjul Balagha he says" :
"That every one who fully understands Arabic language, must agree that sermons and sayings of Harat Ali (A.S.) are next to the words of God and the Holy Prophet (A.S). Ali's words are so full of meanings and they convey such ideas that they should be very carefully studied referred and quoted. This Professor of Arabic Literature and Philosophy persuaded the University of Cairo and Beirut to include the book Nehjul Balagha in their courses for advanced studies of literature and Philosophy."
7. The famous author and orator Shaikh Mustafa Ghala' Aenee of Beirut, who is considered as an authority on Commentries (Tafseer of Quran) and also an Arabic Literature in his book "Areezu-ul-Zahr' in Chapter" The styles of Language writes :
"Who can write better than Ali except the Holy Prophet (A.S) and God. Those who want to study supremely eminent standards of literature should study the book Nahjul Balagha. It contains such depth of knowledge and such wonderful advises on the subject of ethics and religion that its constant study will make a man wise, pious and noble minded and will train him to be an orator of great standing".
8. Usthad Mohammad Mohiuddin, the Professor of Arabic Language, Alazhar University of Cairo says that the Nahjul Balagha is a collection of the works of Hazrat Ali.It is compiled by Syed Razi :
"It contains such examples of chaste language, noble eloquence and superior wisdom that none but Ali can produce such a work because next to the Holy Prophet (A.S.), he was the greatest orator,the greatest authority on language and literature and the greatest source of wisdom of the religion (Islam). He was such philosopher that from his words flow streams of knowledge and wisdome."
9. Ustad Abdul Wahab Hamodha, an authority of Arabic Literature and the "Traditions", and a Professor of the Fuwad I University of Cairo, in 1951, writes :
"The Book Nahjul Balagha contains all the great scholars,professors of ethics, philosophers scientists, authorites on religion and politicians can say and write. The wonderful force of advises and superfine way of presenting arguments and the depth of vision prove that it is work of a super mind like that of Ali".
NOTE : FOR SOME OTHER authorities THE INTERESTED READER MAY SEE NAHJUL BLAGHA, Translated by Sheikh Hassan Saeed, Chehel Satoon Library, Masjid Jame, Tehran Iran, 1977, pages 6 and 7, Appendixes 29 (a) p. 297, Appendix (b) p. 299.
Out of the 210 Sayings a few have been reproduced here, because of the limited space. Order of the a few have been changed keeping their original numbers intact. The sayings regarding death have been preceded the others because, a man who is sure about this will abstain from doing misdeeds and evils for the society. A famous Economist and Philosopher (Adam Smith), who may have either gone through Quran or the sayings, have observed (in His Theory of Moral Sentiment 1759) that "The dread of death poisons our happines but restrains injustice to mankind; this dread afflicts and mortifies individuals, but it guards the society".
150. Every man has an end ,it may be pleasant or sorrowful.
151. Everyone who is born has to die and once dead he is as good as he had never came into existence.
167. Death is so near and time for friendly actions in life is so limited.
186. Death is never very far.
125. How I wonder at the arrogance of a haughty and vain person. Yesterday he was only a cell and tomorrow he will be a dead body.
I wonder at the man who see people dying around him and yet has forgotten his end.
74. Every breath that you take is a step you put forward towards death.
75. Anything which can be counted or reckoned is finite and will come to an end.
44. Happy is the man who always kept the life after death in his view, who remembered the day of Reckoning through all his deeds, who led a contented life and who was happy with the lot God hath destined for him.
64. Peoples in this world are like travelers whose journey is going on though they are asleep (Life's journey is going one though men may not feel it).
2. One who develops the trait of greediness and avarice invites degra dation; one who keeps on advertising his poverty and ill-luck will always be humiliated; one who has no control over his tongue have to face embarrassment and discomfort.
4. Surrender and acceptance to the will of God are the best companions; wisdom is the noblest heritage; theoretical and practical knowledge are best marks of distinction.
5. A wiseman's mind is the safest custody of secrets;an open and pleasant countenance gets more friends;patience and forbearance will hide and cover many defects.
6. A conceited and self-admiring person is disliked by others;charity and alms are the best treatments for ailments and calamities; one has to face it after life the deeds that he has done in this world.
7. Man is the wonderful creature, he sees through layers of fat (fatty tissues), he hears through a bone, he speaks through a lump of flesh (tongue).
8. When this world favors anybody it lends qualifications, attributes and surpassing merits of others, and when it turns its face away from him it snatches away even his own excellence and fame.
9. Treat people in such a way and live among them in such a manner that if you die they weep over you, if you are alive they crave for your company.
10. If you get an opportunity and power over your enemy then, in thankfulness to God for this, forgive him.
12. When few blessings come your way, do not derive them away through thanklessness.
15. Our affairs are hinged to the destiny decreed by the Lord; even our best thought out programmes may lead us to to death and destruction.
18. One who rushes madly after inordinate desires runs the risk of encountering destruction and death.
19. Overlook and forgive weaknesses of generous people, because if they fall down Hand of God lifts them.
20. Failures are often result of timidity and fears; disappointments are result of uncalled modesty; hours of leisure pass away like summer clouds, therefore, do not waste opportunity doing good.
21. If the right usurped by us is given back to us we shall take, if not we shall keep on claiming.
23. To come to the relief of the distressed and to help the oppressed act as expatiation and amends to many sins.
27. The best form of devotion to the service of God is not to make a show of it.
33. Be generous but not extravagant, be fraught but not miserly.
34. To give up inordinate desires is the best kind of wealth and fortune.
35. One who is quick in saying unpleasant things about others, will himself quickly become a target of their scandal.
39. Optional prayers cannot attain the pleasure of God for you when compulsory daily prayers are left unattended.
40. A wise man first thinks and then speaks and a fool speaks first and then thinks
52. Only he can forgive who has power to punish.
54. There is no greater wealth than wisdom, no greater poverty than ignorance, no greater heritence than culture and no greater friend and helpmate than consultation.
62. If you are wished and saluted then return the wish in the most appropriate manner. If you are favored then repay the obligation manyfold; but he will always excel in merit who takes the initiative.
63. The best source of success of a claimant is the mediator.
73. Whoever wants to be a leader and guide, should educate himself before educating others, before teaching morality to others he should improve his morals and character.
85. One who imagines himself all knowing will surely suffer on account of his ignorance.
87. How I wonder at a man who loses hope of salvation when the door of repentance is open for him.
95. Importance of deeds that you have done with fear of God in your mind cannot be minimised, and how can the deeds which are acceptable to God be considered unimportant.
105. Those who give up religion to better their circumstances in life seldom succeed. The Wrath of God makes them go through more calamities and losses than gain they gather from themselves.
111. Any one who loves us, Ahl- ul- Baith (descendants of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) must be ready to face a life of austerity.
113. When a community is composed of really honest, sober and virtuous people then your forming a bad opinion about anyone of its members when nothing wicked has been seen of him is a great injustice to him; on the contrary in a currupt society to form good opinion of any one out of those people and to trust him is doing harm to yourself.
116. Two kinds of people will be damned on my account; those who form exaggerated opinion about me and those who under-estimate me because they hate me.
124. I define Islam for you in a way that nobody dare to do it before me. Islam means obedience to God; Obedience to God means having sincere faith in Him; such a faith means, accepting His Majesty; acceptance of His Majesty means fulfilling the obligation laid down by Him; and fullfilment of obligation means action (therefore Islam does not mean mere faith, but faith with action)
131. An Angel announces daily "Birth of more human beings means so many more will die; collection of more wealth means so much more will be destroyed; erection of more buildings means so many more ruins in time to come.
135. Daily prayers are the best medium to advance oneself in favor of the Lord. Haj is Jehad (Holy War) for every weak person. For everything that you own there is Zakat, a tax paid to the Lord, and tax of your health is to keep fast. The best defense of a woman against man is to render his home life pleasing and congenial.
136. If you want to pray to the Lord for better means of subsistence then first give something in charity.
140. One of the two conveniences in life is to have fewer children.
145. Defend your faith (in God) with the help of charity. Protect your wealth with the aid of Zakaath (Poor-rate levied by Islam). Let the prayers guard you from calamities and disasters.
152. One who adopts patience will never be deprived of success though the success may take long time to reach him.
153. One who ascents or subscribes to the action of a group or party is as good as he committed the deed himself. A man who joins a sinful deed makes himself responsible for two fold punishment, one for doing the deed and the other for assenting and subscribing to it.
156. You have been shown, if you only care to see;you have been advised if yopu care to take advantage of advises; you have been told if you care to lend you ears to good counsels.
159. One who acquires power cannot avoid favoritism.
160. One who is wilful and conceited will suffer losses and calamities and one who seeks advice can secure advantages of many counsels.
161. One who guards his secrets has complete control over his affairs.
162. Poverty is the worst form of death.
163. One who serves such a person from whom he gets no reciprocal performance of duties in fact, worship him.
164. By disobeying God you do not actually obey any human-being.
165. Do not find fault with or speak ill of a man who delays in securing what are his just rights, it is more vicious to grasp the rights which do not belong to you.
168. There is enough light for one who wants to see.
197. Bear sorrows and calamities patiently otherwise you will be never happy.
203. Best deeds of a great man is to forgive and forget.
206. Be a partner of a successful man because he knows how to achieve success.
207. The little that you give in the way of God will bring greater return to you.
208. There are people who obey God to gain His favors, they are like businessmen trading with God, while there are some who obey Him to keep themselves free from His Wrath, they act as slaves, but they are few who obey Him out of their sense of gratitude and obligation, they act as gentlemen and noblemen.Nehjul Balagha, Hasan Saeed: pp. 273-294.
EXTRACT FROM SELECTED SERMONS
The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize Him as the Lord, the perfection of understanding lies in conviction and confirmation, and the true way of conviction is to sincerely believe that there is no God but He. The correct form of belief in His Unity is to realize that He is absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from His being. Sermon.1 para 3. page 1.
"You know the prophet Moses was never afraid of death, what he really feared was ascedancy and triumph of wealth, power and ignorance over truth and justice. Similar is my case, death does not frighten me, it never did, what I am nervous about you is the fact that you do not realize that you are standing on the cross roads and religion and infidelity. Remember those sincerely accept religion will never be disappointed." Sermon. 8, para 5, page 10, about mentality of Quraish.
"Beware that you are being spiritually tried at this hour and you will find hardships, perils and calamities reappearing in the same form as befell upon you at the time when God first ordered our Holy Prophet(may be peace of God be upon him and his descendents) to deliver His Message and to propagate Islam. Sermon. 20, para 2, page 16 (at the time when he was asked to accept Rulership)
"Remember that there are two ways of life the right and wrong, And there are two kinds of people; those who follow the right path and those who adopt wrong way. If you find evil doers in majority or in ascedancy and followers of religion and truth in minority and down trodden, a world full of apparent contradictions, do not feel surprised or disappointed; it has often happened like that. But truth and justice will conquer in the end, though it may not appear possible that those fallen low will ever rise to great heights. Sermon. 20, para 6, page 16, context as above.
"You will find three types of people in the society, those who exert and strive to be good and to do good, their salvation is certain. Those who are lazy and lethargic-tardy stragglers inactively and ineffectively hoping for the best. And lastly those are defaulters and failures in duty; they shall end in Hell. Sermon. 21 para 2. page 17
No individual is lost and no nation is refusd prosperity and success if foundations of their thoughts and action rest upon piety and good liness, and upon truth and justice." Sermon 21, para 4, page 17.
"Remember! that to a casual observer the Quran appears to a book very easy to understand and interesting but inner meanings of its passages are far extending, profound and hard to understand. For deep thinkers its fascination will never cease and its wonders will never end". Sermon. 23. para last. page. 19.
About Jang-e-Jamal helping his people, must remember that he has withheld one hand of help and at the time of his need thousands of hands will abstain from his help." Sermon. 28 para 11. page. 22.
"Upon my life, I never showed undue leniency towards enemies of God or towards those who bring harm to religion with their words and deeds".
O Muslims fear God, follow the path which He hath fixed and lighted for you and obey his commands."
And if you are not rewarded in this life, I stand guarantee for your reward hereafter". Sermon. 29. page. 22
Re. giving up vicious ways of life : "Remember, one who is benefited by religion, falls an easy prey to the devil; and one, whom guidance cannot lead to the right path, ends in calamities and destruction.
Remember life is decreed to move on and you are directed to lay up for the next world with right thoughts and righteous deeds.
On your behalf I am afraid of two things; that you may be misguided by desires and that you be allured with wishful thinking, avoid both and take from life such things as would protect you from punishment on the DAY OF JUDGEMENT." Sermon. 33. Last three paras. page. 26.
"A benevolent and godly government is necessary so that under its kind rule, Muslims and Non-Muslims alike may prosper and enjoy fruits of the efforts of their mind and body; that under it benign protection God may grant them happy life and peaceful end, that under its auspicous government they may flourish and thrive; that under its banner they may defend themselves from enemies; that there may be safety of highways and security of life, honor, religion and hereafter; and that the rights and claims of poor, humble and depressed may be secured for them from the grasp of rich and powerful oppressors so that virtous people may be protected from molestation of vicious manners." Sermon . 45. Last para page. 32.
Re : Observation of Faith : I have enough knowledge and wisdom to know what diplomacy and dissimulation mean and have enough aptitude and authority to make use of them, but before me are commands and interdictions of God the Almighty which protect me from sin; yet a man who has no respect for religion jumps to every opportunity to profit through deceit, dissimulation and diplomacy. Sermon. 46 para last page. 33
Reg : more attention to life hereinafter : "his life and hereafter are like two mothers and human beings are like children. Take the life to come as your mother and do not let this world adopt you as her son, because on the day of judgement every child will be attached to mother". "Remember that this life is a place to work and not of judgement and the day of judgment will be the day of reckoning and not action" Sermon. 47, last two paras, page. 34.
What kind of animals can be sacrificed on Idul Zuha; If ears and eyes of an animal are healthy and sound it is worth sacrificing even it its horns are broken and even it is lame and limps to the place of sacrifice. Sermon 58. Para 1. page. 37
At the time of War of Siffin, Hazrat was hesitant : "I fully considered over the apparent and inherent consequences of war and came to the conclusion that only two alternatives were left for me; either to fight the rebels or to forsake the teachings of the Holy Prophet (A.S.). I adopted the first course becuase I felt that it was wiser than to face punishment in the next, and that death to end this life was far better than eternal damnation". Sermon 59, last para. page. 37
When Companions of Hazrat were eager to start the war at Siffin :
"It is not right for you to say that I am hesitating to start the war because I am afraid of death. I bear God as my witness that I never cared whether I approach death or death approach me; and you are equally wrong to say that my delaying the war is due to the fact that I am not fully convinced of the righteous ness of my cause and falsity of the claims of Moavia and his Assyrian hordes". Sermon. 60. para 1. page. 38.
"O people fear God and whatever you do, do it anticipating death, and try to attain everlasting blessing in return for transitory and perishable wealth, power and pleasures of this world." Sermon. 67, para 1. page. 40.
"Death which approaches everybody with certain steady steps and which may either bring success for hereafter or failure, deserves to be welcomed whole heartedly ." Sermon.67, para 4. page 40.
"I pray to God to make me among such persons whom His bounties have not made proud and arrogant, whose works and engagements have not kept them away from obedience to his God, and whom death will not bring sorrows and shame, repentance and regret." Sermon 67. para last. page. 41.
While censuring Iraquis when he was forced to accept arbitration at Siffeen : "I am distributing heavenly knowledge and do not want any price for it, provided you try to understand and grasp it. Shortly the world will realize the truth and importance of my teachings". Sermon. 74 page. 44
About this world : "O you have been created by God! Keep in mind the purpose for which you are created and fear God lest you fail to fulfil the purpose. Be afraid of Him as much as He wants to be afraid of. If you believe that He will bring his promise to fulfillment and if you dear the terrors of the day of judgement then try to deserve all blessings that he has reserved for you”. Sermon 86. page. 49.
A few advises to his followers : “creatures of God, take warnings from useful examples, and learn from clear and tangible instances. Let horrors of punishment keep you away from sins”. Sermon 88. page. 54.
Advice to those who sincerely believe in religion : “Abstain from telling lies because lying will keep you away from religion and God. A truth speaking and truth loving person is the man who will receive salvation and honor from God, and a liar will be disgraced and humiliated by Him. Do not envy, because it will lead to calamities and bad luck”. Sermon 89. page. 55 para last but one.
How a faithful and True Muslim can be recognized : "O people! listen and remember well sayings of the Holy Prophet (may the peace of God be upon him and his descendents) that our physical death does not mean that we have totally disappeared from amongst you and our old age does not mean that we have become senile and useless (our teachings, our traditions, our directing principles and our guidance will always remain with you to lead and guide you) Sermon. 90, page. 54, para last.
How God has created things : "verily He is the God Who created all the creatures and will also bring about their total and complete annihilation. He will remain when they will come to an end. He is their Lord and He preserves and nourishes them. Sun and the solar system are moving in the space according to the ways destined by Him.; wearing out every new thing that comes into their contact and turning present into past, they cover gigantic distances in the space during their journey. Sermon. 93. page. 58 para 3.
"Remember unless you try to improve yourself and help yourself to secure His favour no advice and education can improve you, unless you chastise your mind, no outside chastisement can improve you" .Sermon 93. page. 59 para last.
What is the ultimate end of living beings : "Take warning from those whose slogans were "There is none mightier than I". They went to their graves leaving all their might and glory behind them. entertain them. Sermon. 114. p. 85 para last but one.
What is piety : "O people! piety prevents good people from indulging in sins and vices, it makes them God fearing, it persuades them to spend their nights in worship and to pass their days in their duties towards man and God. They always keep their death before their mind's eye". Sermon. 117. page. 87. para 4.
"How alluring and delusive are pleasures of this world; how every enhancement and increase of wealth and position here increases greed and avariciousness; and how the protection offered here very often ends in punishment and pain; what a place is it where neither death can be averted nor the paste can be brought back" Sermon 117. page 87. para 5.
"Remember that it is better to have less in this world and more in the next than to have more in this world and less in heavens, becuase very few things here are really beneficial and many are ultimately harmful. Sermon. 117 page. 87. para 6.
In the praise of the Prophet (S.A.W.) 'God Almighty sent our Holy prophet (may the peace of God be upon him and his descendents) to invite people to truth and also to be witness to the fact that his preachings were understood or not. He delivered the message of God without minimising it and without manifesting weakness in presenting it. He fought the enemies of God without hesitation and excuse. He is leader of those who accept piety and he is guide to those who have vision and presight. Sermon. 119. page. 89.
About the descendents of prophet; "I swear by the Lord that I know fully well all the messages of God that the Holy prophet (may the peace of God be on him and his descendents) has received, the ways of fulfilment of promises made by the God and of all the knowledge that science or philosophy could disclose."
"We the progeny of the Holy prophet (may the peace of God be upon him and his descendents) are the doors through which real wisdom and true knowledge will reach mankind; we are lights of religion. Sermon 123. page 91. para 1 and 2.
From the Sermon to Kharjiites : "Did you not beseech me to accept their request and to give them protection and peace? Did! I not tell you that they are pretending Islam, and have the enmity with God hidden in their hearts. Did I not tell you that your weakness and show of pity will result in our disgrace and humiliation? Did I not order you to go your way and to continue fighting bravely, courageously and patiently till the enemy is completely vanquished and routed. Is it not a fact that I had already advised you not to pay attention to those braving asses (Moavia and Amer-E Aas) because a respond to their call would result in your deviation from the right path," Sermon 125. page. 92 para 1.
"Today we are fighting against such of our brothers who pretend to be Muslims, b
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