Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.)
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Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.)
All praise belongs to Allah, Who destroys kings and replaces them with others. Peace and the blessings of Allah be on the leader of the Muslim preachers, the Seal of the Prophets and Messengers, Muhammad, the chosen Prophet, and on the guards of shar'iah, the successors of the great Messenger, his household, and on his pious followers.
Since Satan tempted Adam (a.s.) to eat the forbidden fruit, and he was driven out of Paradise, when Cain murdered his brother Abel, the fierce, and bloody struggle began between virtue and vice, truth and falsehood, justice and injustice, humbleness and arrogance, morality and corruption, good and evil, guidance and deviation...and in a nutshell, between Islam and ignorance. This struggle will go on until the Awaited One eliminates all negative characteristics of man.
Whenever the sword of oppression was drawn, it was the tongue that said nothing but the truth, the blood of a free man who fortified himself with piety, and the true preacher who held onto Allah, the Almighty, that confronted it.
Every conflict on earth ends in the triumph of Allah's word, and the fulfillment of His will. The tyrants' word remains low, and their power diminishes like the sea-froth.
The Abbassids inherited the corrupt rule and unjust power from the Umayyads, but they outran them in brutality and oppression. They persecuted, murdered, and made homeless the members of the family of the Prophet (s.a.w.), the leaders of Muslims, who stood up to their tyranny, and traded their souls for the pleasure of Allah. These people shed their blood and laid out their souls challenging the forces of deviation, defending the faith, and aiding the Muslims. They won immortality until the Judgement Day. Their enemies reaped nothing but disgrace, shame and damnation.
Like a high mountain, our revolutionary Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.), the scion of prophethood and grandson of the pure family of the Prophet (s.a.w.), stood boldly in the face of corruption. Like true, brave warnors, he fought the policies of extravagance, debauchery and terrorism. He kept up defending the shar'iah from the falsehoods of the oppressors and corrupters, and protecting the ummah from the brutalities of the tyrants, until he was martyred by poison, in his shackles inside his jail, and his body was thrown on a bridge in Baghdad.
Al-Balagh Foundation is honoured to present to its dear readers, glimpses from the life of this divinely infallible Imam.
We pray to Allah to grant us success in keeping up our jihad, and purifying the earth from the mischief of the mischief makers and the corruption of the corrupt rulers, until Allah makes His religion triumph over all religions, even if the polytheists hate it.
"... Allah only desires to take away uncleanness from you, O people of the household,
and to purify you a (thorough) purifying."
Holy Qur'an (33:33)
The great message begets great men. The immortal principles produce immortal leaders. The uniquely great creed is certainly able to nurture uniquely great men.
Islam, the great faith, the immortal creed and the divine, uniquely great message, came to change life for the better, tear down the foundations of ignorance, uproot the causes of backwardness and corruption, and mould man's character on the basis of divine guidance, and in accordance with the moral values and the principles of equity and perfection. By this religion, man can reach perfection and join himself to the Eternal, Absolute Truth.
Islam is practical, taking life's facts into consideration, when it lays the plan for man's life, refines behaviour, leads humankind, and creates civilization.
The phenomenon of leadership and Imamate is unmistakably the most critical phenomenon in man's social life. The most controversial and important issue faced by the creeds, principles and values is the existence of the pioneering man, the exemplary personality, and the good example who understands his role, carries out his task, and leads the way for other people to march. Allah chose the Imams and leaders of this ummah from the Prophetic household, Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali and his sons (a.s.). The Qur'anic exegetes say that the above mentioned verse was revealed concerning Ali bin Abi-Talib and his wife Fatimah (a.s.), the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.), and their sons, Hassan and Hussein (a.s.).
Abu-Hurayrah, quoted Umm-Salamah, may Allah be pleased with her, as saying, "Fatimah came to see the Apostle of Allah with an earthenware pot filled with sweet paste she herself had made. She placed the pot in a tray and put it in front of him. 'Where is your cousin and your two sons?' asked the Prophet. 'At home,' replied Fatimah. 'Call them over' ordered the Apostle of Allah. She went to Ali and said to him, 'The Prophet (s.a.w.) wants to see you and your two sons.'
Umm-Salamah went on, "When he saw them coming, he stretched out his hand to a shawl on the bed and spread it out on the floor and seated them on it. Then, with his left hand, he grabbed the four corners of the shawl and drew them together over their heads. He motioned, with his right hand, to his Lord, may His Name be exalted, and said, 'O Lord!, these are my family. Remove uncleanness from them and purify them '" 1
The Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.) is reported to have said, "Allah had certainly made the offspring of every prophet in his loins, and has made my offspring in the loins of this man," pointing to Ali. 2
The truthful, trustworthy Prophet (s.a.w.) also said,
"All the sons of a father are inclined towards him, with the exception of the sons of Fatimah. I am their father and I am the one to whom they are closely related". 3
Ibn Abbas is reported to have said,
"I heard the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) saying, 'I Ali, Hassan, Hussein, and nine men from the loins of Hussein are purified and infallible". 4
The Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s.), by the exact words of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) and the consensus of the companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.), was the most knowledgeable, judicious, and courageous man, among them. He preceded them in embracing Islam. By these virtues, he deserved truly to be the Imam of Muslims. On the 21st of the holy month of Ramadhan, 40 A.H. the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a.s.), just before his martyrdom, gathered his sons, members of his family and companions, and appointed his elder son, Hassan (a.s.), as the next Imam. Imam Hassan (a.s.) did the same thing when he was on his deathbed. He appointed his brother, Hussein (a.s.), the next Imam after him. On his martyrdom day at Karbala, Imam Hussein (a.s.) appointed his son, al-Sajjad Ali bin Hussein (a.s.), the next Imam. Imam Al-Sajjad (a.s.) appointed his son, Muhammad al-Baqir (a.s.), his successor to the office of Imamate. Imam Al-Baqir (a.s.) appointed his son, Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.), the Imam who would succeed him. Imam Al-Sadiq (a.s.) appointed his son, Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.), the next Imam. Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) appointed his son, Ali bin Musa al-Ridha (a.s.), the next Imam. Imam al-Ridha (a.s.), in turn, appointed his son, Muhammad al-Jawad (a.s.), the next Imam. Imam al-Jawad (a.s.) appointed his son, Ali al-Hadi (a.s.), as Imam after him. Imam al-Hadi (a.s.) appointed his son, Hassan Al-Askari (a.s.), the next Imam after him. Imam Al-Askari (a.s.) appointed his son, Muhammad bin al-Hassan al-Mahdi (a.s.), the next Imam. The Awaited Mahdi is believed, by all Muslims, to be the hope of humanity and the awaited saviour of humankind. Muslims, from all schools of thought and denominations agree on the fact that he is a descendant of the Prophet (s.a.w.), but they hold diverse views regarding the saying,
"Days and nights will nor cease until Allah sends a man from my household, whose name is similar to mine. He shall fill it up (the earth) with justice and equity, the same way it has been filled up with injustice and oppression." 5
Humanity is still waiting for this great saviour, and leading reformer, who will establish the state of divine justice and pull out, forever, the roots of loathsome jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance).
History recorded the ascension of the Imams from the family of the Prophet (s.a.w.) to the office of Imamate, whom the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.) praised by saying,
"My household is certainly like the ark of Noah. He who embarks on it shall find salvation, but he who lags behind shall drown "
He (s.a.w.) urged Muslims to follow them. He said,
"I am leaving among you two weighty things: the Book of Allah and my descendants, my household. As long as you hold onto them you shall never go astray after me".
Their religious, military and political roles were recorded by history for the coming generations. Every one of them carried out his responsibility, bore the burden of the message in his time, raised the banner, and later handed it over to the following Imam.
If one closely examines the Prophetic traditions, historical accounts, Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic beliefs, biographical books, Islamic sciences, and probes the political history of the dawn of Islam, and that of the Umayyad and Abbasside eras, he will certainly find that the twelve Imams, came successively and uninterruptedly to hoist the Islamic banner. Each one of them was the Imam of his time, and the most prominent and leading man in knowledge and jihad. They were not fuqaha' squatting in their schools and classrooms, nor were they worshippers, shut out off from life. They were beacons of guidance, and well-known historical symbols. They were leaders to whom fingers were pointed, and leaders whom people resorted to in adversities, and in defense of the faith and the ummah. The tyrants feared them. The scholars felt dwarfed before them. The minds, however sharp, were modest compared to theirs. They were exemplary images for the ascetics and ordinary worshippers.
That is why Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) had entered all the pure, faithful hearts across generations and decades. Their impact and influence remain vivid as long as the faith is immortal on earth. This is the Divine Will.
"Nay, We hurl the truth against falsehood, so it knocks out its brains and lo! it vanishes..."
Holy Qur'an (21:18)
"... then as for the scum, it passes away as a worthless thing; and as for that which does good to people, it tarries in the earth…"
Holy Qur'an (13:17)
On the other side, their foes and adversaries achieved nothing but a short-lived ecstasy of power, enjoying cheap wordily gains.
Thus the study of the history of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.), the examination of their lives, horizons of thought, and jihad are of great importance for Muslims. The Imams of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) represent the school of Islam, the spiritual leaders of this ummah and the leaders of its historical march. Their paramount concern was continuous fighting for the sake of preserving Islam's originality and pureness. The researcher would find a bitter, long-drawn epic of struggle between the Imams (a.s.) and their enemies. It is a struggle that still pounds on the gates of time, and keeps the spirit of jihad alive.
Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) is a good example to be followed by Muslims, especially regarding his opposition to oppression and injustice. He is a member of a household chosen by Allah, the Exalted, from among the sons of Adam (a.s.). He purified them, and set them as good examples and beacons of guidance for mankind. They are, as the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.) said regarding them,
"We are members of a household to whom no one could ever be compared"
It is only natural that Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) would suffer from the oppression of the rulers, and the injustice of the tyrants.
They were made homeless, hunted down, killed, thrown in prison and intimidated. The Imams (a.s.) led the ummah, lifted the banner of opposition, and called for the implementation of Islam's laws. As a result, people's hearts leaned toward them, and their eyes were fixed on them. The downtrodden rallied around them, seeing in them the hope of salvation. And it is only natural that the tyrants would fight them, and use every means possible to silence them. This is a fact pointed out by the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.). He is reported to have said:
"We are a family for whom Allah preferred the Hereafter over this life. The members of my family shall certainly face tribulations, made homeless, and exiled from their homeland. That shall go on until some people come from the east, raising black standards. They shall ask for their right, but shall be denied it. They shall fight, helped by others, and shall be given what they seek. They shall not accept it until they give it (the leadership) over to a man from my family, who shall fill the earth with justice after being filled with injustice. Whoever is lucky to live at that time, let him join them even if it is hard for him to do so, as hard as crawling over a snowy land" 6
Muslims agree that this great man is from the household of the Prophet (s.a.w.). He is the Mahdi, the saviour. He shall implement the shari'ah, and make the dream of the prophets (a.s.) of a state in which justice prevails, a reality, and raise the banner of monotheism over all parts of the world.
Imam Musa bin Ja'far al-Sadiq bin Muhammad al-Baqir bin Ali Zain al-Abideen bin Hussein bin Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.) is the son of the household of the Prophet (s.a.w.), and the man who was born into a family known for its honour and lofty glory. His father, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.), was the Imam of Muslims, the mas ter of ulama' and fuqaha', and the leading unchallenged master of the descendants of Imam Ali (a.s.).
Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.) inherited his father's Imamate and great stature. He is the seventh Imam of the Imams of the Ja'fari (twelve Imams) school of thought. His mother, Hamidah, was a freed slave-girl, who hailed from Andalus. It is said she was a Berber, or, as others maintain, a Roman, but she was most likely of an Andalusian extraction. She was nicknamed "Lu'lu'ah" (Pearl). Imam Muhammad al-Baqir bought her and presented her as a gift of his son al-Sadiq, who married her. She gave birth to Imam Musa bin Ja'far al-Kadhim (a.s.). Abu-Abdullah Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.) paid special attention to Hamidah's education. As a result she became a leading faqih. Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) assigned her to educate women, and steer them to Islam's teachings, beliefs, and concepts.
Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) was born under the caliphate of the Umayyad tyrant Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, at al-Abwa', the very place where the mother of the Noble Prophet (s.a.w.), Aminah, the daughter of Wahab, had passed away and was buried. It is located midway between the cities of Makkah and Madinah.
On Sunday, Safar 7, 128 A.H., little Musa opened his eyes to the world. The good news of his birth was given to his father while having lunch with a group of his companions. Happy and overflowing with paternal love and kindness, he rushed to see his newborn son. Not long after that Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) left al-Abwa' to Madinah. According to Arab tradition on the birth of a child, he invited people to a great feast for three days. People flooded to the presence of the Imam (a.s.) to congratulate him. He couldn't resist making public his overwhelming love for his child. He welcomed him by saying,
"I wish I had no son other than him, so that nobody would share my love for him." 7
The father knew how great the baby would be, and what a leading role he would play in the world of Islam. He would be a great Muslim leader who would do his best to serve the Divine Message.
Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) lived under the care of his father, and learned from the school of his father, to which the scholars, jurisprudents, philosophers and preachers flocked. He inherited from his father his knowledge, manners and morals.
He came to epitomize high morals, generosity, asceticism, patience, bravery, perseverance and jihad. During the Imamate of his father he directed his attention to acquiring knowledge, and after his father's death, he shouldered the responsibility of leading the ummah.
Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.) emphasized this fact, and praised his son by saying,
"Praise is due to Allah Who made you a substitute for my parents, a source of delight among my sons, and a replacement for my friends." 8
Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) earned many nicknames for his great status among the people and his unique refined character. He was called al-'Abd al-Salih (The Good Servant) for his perfect character and manners, Zain al-Mujtahideen (The Ornament of Toilers) for his lengthy worship and supplication, al-Kadhim (The one who curbs his Anger) for his extreme endurance, patience and bravery in the face of adversities, his curbing of pain and anger, and for being kind to those who harassed him, Bab al-Ha-wa'ij (The Gateway to Satisfaction of peoples' needs) for his great position in the sight of Allah, and the fulfillment of one's desires and needs when one beseeches Allah, invoking his name. He was called also Abul-Hassan al-Awwal (Father of Hassan I) and Abu-Ibrahim (Father of Ibrahim).
People described him as being fair-skinned, handsome and thin.
He lived twenty years, or nineteen years according to another version, in the shade of his father, but remained, as Imam of the ummah, thirty-five years after his father. He first took on that responsibility at the age of 20.
His sons and daughters were numerous. His sons were Ali al-Ridha, Ibrahim, al-Abbas, al-Qasim, Isma'il, Haroon, al-Hassan, Ahmad, Muhammad, Hamzah, Abdullah, Ishaq, Ubaydullah, Zayd, al-Fadhi, and Sulayman.
His daughters were Fatimah al-Kubra, Fatimah al-Sughra, Ruqayyah, Hakimah, Umm-Abiha, Ruqayyah al-Sughra, Kaltham, Umm-Ja'far, Lubabah, Zainab, Khadijah, Aliyyah, Aminah, Hassnah, Burayhah, A'ishah, Umm-Salamah, Maymoonah, Umm-Kulthoom. 9
Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) were a school and a well-connected chain. It appears purely transparent to the researcher, if studied from the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.) to the Mahdi of the ummah. The history of Islam, with its values, its war against its enemies concepts about life, rule, politics, and shari'ah, points to this fact, and outlines this school. That is why any of the Ahlul-Bait Imams (a.s.) appoint the Imam who succeeds him. Likewise, Imam Ja'far bin Muhammad al-Sadiq (a.s.) appointed his son Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.), as his successor. Numerous statements concerning this appointment exist, but we have chosen the following:
"Mansoor bin Hazim went to see Imam Abu-Abdullah, and asked him to specify the Imam who would succeed him. 'May my father and mother be your ransom', said he, 'souls shall certainly taste death. If that is to be, then who will succeed you? said the Imam, pointing to , 'This is your man', Abul-Hassan Musa. Then he placed his hand on the shoulder of his son, as a gesture of emphasis. Musa was, at the time, five years old." 10
Yazid bin Saleet al-Zaydi is reported to have said; "On our way to Makkah, we, a number of travellers, met Abu-Abdullah (a.s.). 'May my father and mother be your ransom', said I to him 'You are the purified Imams. And nobody can escape death. So tell me something which I may convey to sons and relatives. 'Yes', replied he, 'these are my sons, and this one is their master. And he pointed to Musa (a.s.), his son.nll The period during which he assumed Imamate was the worst, the most brutal and troublesome for Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) and the downtrodden. But the Imam endured all the atrocities with his perseverance, patience, and courage. For his ability to contain his sorrow, pain and suffering, he won the nickname of al-Kadhim.
The Devoted Worshipper
When a Muslim knows little about Allah, and has no idea about his relationship with his Lord, he ends up confused, troubled, uncertain which way to take, with no stable and satisfactory relationship with Allah. Such condition is expressed in laziness, the lack of desire to perform the religious obligations, the disrupt of one's tie with Allah, the emergence of a troubled, confused character, torn apart by low desires and the values and ideals of Islam. To the contrary, the man who is near to Allah, enjoys a strong desire to keep himself close to Him, as He is the source of grace and perfection in this world. Such a man knows the path he treads, holds firmly to monotheism, faithfully worships his Lord, and his Lord alone. He feels he is above worldly gains, and trivial pleasures, tied to the Exalted Allah.
The secret behind the greatness of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) and their perfection, which sets them aside from the rest of people, is their divine knowledge, and their absolute devotion to the One and Only Allah, the embodiment of grace and absolute, pure perfection. They were whole-heartedly devoted to Allah, fully grasping the monotheistic concepts which were reflected clearly in their conduct, attitudes, and deeds. It isn't surprising then to see them refrain from enjoying this world's pleasures, thinking little of them, when they contradict the principles of right and the march of the Imams towards perfection. It comes as no surprise also to see devotion to Allah, and true humbleness encompass the heart of the Imam, and direct his feelings, desires and aspirations. Is it a surprise then that Imam Musa bin Ja'far won the nicknames of Zain al-Mujtahideen and al-Abd al-Salih. He who spends his days and nights in worship and deep thought, risking being thrown in the terrible prisons, overlooking the pleasures of life, giving out himself and his wealth so as to win Allah's pleasure, working hard to save humanity and guiding it on the right path?
History portrays the relationship between Imam al-Kadhim and Allah, his worship, asceticism and unique spiritual character. He was, as his father and grandfathers were, educated and brought up to love the Qur'an and live it, as it is the Book of Allah, the "container. of the revelation, and the source of every good and guidance.
Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.) was in the habit of reciting the Qur'an. He was at pains to learn it by heart, recite it, act in accordance with its teachings, and hold onto its message and methodology.
He was impressed by the Qur'an whenever he read it. The verses would move him to tears.
It was said that:
"He was the best one among the memorizers of the Book of Allah, the Exalted. He had a mellifluous voice when he recited the Qur'an. When he recited the Qur'an, those present would be so moved that they would break into tears for merely listening to him. People in the city of Madinah called him 'The Ornament of the Toilers.'" 12
His closeness to Allah, his longing to meet Him and his endeavours to please Him, made him journey to the Sacred House of Allah on foot. It was reported that he had gone to Makkah, along with his brother, Ali bin Ja'far, four times on foot. It took 26 days for him to reach Makkah the first time, 25 days the second time, 24 days the third time, and 21 days the fourth time.
As for his prayer, he was unmatched. The devoted and pious ones followed his example. It is said that "When he stood in the presence of Allah, to perform his prayer, tears would roll down his face."
He used to ask Allah's for giveness and thank Him for his graces. Ibrahim bin al-Bilad said, " Abul-Hassan said to me; 'I ask Allah 's forgiveness five thousand times a day.'"
Hisham bin Ahmar is reported to have said: "I was riding with Abul-Hassan (Musa bin Ja'far) on a street in Madinah when he dismounted and prostrated. He remained so, motionless, for a lengthy period of time. Then he raised his head and remounted. "May I be your ransom", asked I. "I saw you going down in a long prostration?" He replied; 'I remembered a grace which Allah favoured me with. I loved to thank my Lord for it." 13
Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) was a pious, monotheistic saint. His heart was brimming with love for Allah. The most of Allah's beloved things for him was worship and the remembrance of Allah. He (a.s.) wished that Allah would grant him an opportunity to serve Him. One of the spies placed in the prison with the Imam, to keep a watchful eye on him, reported to the governor Isa bin Ja'far, that he had heard the Imam (a.s.) saying,
"O my Lord, You know that Ihad been asking you to spare me time to devote myself to Your service. You have done that. Praise be to You." 14
The Imam (a.s.) would not think much of jails. Nor would he get bored by them. He simply didn't fear the rulers, his opponents. He was towering over this life, lofty and high, no jail would deter or intimidate him. He had given up the pleasures of life, for a more sublime goal, to defend the right, and serve his Lord.
He considered prison life a divine favour. It is reported that al-Rasheed would sit in a place overlooking the prison. He saw the Imam in prostration. "What is that garment?", al-Rasheed asked al-Rabi', "which I see everyday on that spot?" Al-Rabi' replied; 'It is not a garment. That is Musa bin Ja'far. He prostrates every day from sunrise until noon'". 15
It was no secret that the Imam (a.s.) loved to serve Allah devotedly and wholeheartedly. Historians and biographers wrote about his worship and prayer.
"It became widely known among people that Abul-Hassan Musa was the highest in status from among al-Sadiq's sons, the most devoted in his faith, and the most fluent in expressing his mind. Not only was he the most devoted in his worship among the people, but he was also the most well-versed man in Islamic sciences and jurisprudence. It is reported that he would perform the optional prayers of the night until the morning prayer. He would perform it and remain awake reciting some supplications until sunrise. He then would go down in prostration during which he praised, thanked and glorified Allah, and would not lift his head until it was noon. He said, in his prostration: "The sin of your servant is shamefully ugly. Let your forgiveness and pardon be bountiful" 16
Quoting al-Irshad (guidance), a book authored by Sheikh al-Mufid, the author of Bihar al-Anwar (Seas of Lights), adds:
"He used to weep out of his fear of Allah until his beard got wet. He was distinguished by his care for his family and relatives, whom he would visit and help if they needed him. In the dead of night, he used to call on the poor people of Madinah, carrying to them, in a basket, gold Dinars and ordinary Dirhams, flour and dates. He would deliver all that to them without letting them know who he was, or who the donor was." 17
His foe and jailer acknowledged his religious devotion and piety. Al-Fadhl bin al-Rabi' quoted Haroon al-Rasheed as saying, "This is certainly a saint from the Hashimites; 'Then,' enquired I, 'why have you harassed him by throwing him into prison?' "Alas," replied he, "This is something I cannot resist doing." 18
Hafs reported from a number of tradition-transmitters, the following: "I have never seen a man more god-fearing than Musa bin Ja'far. Nor have I seen a man more hoping for Allah's kindness than he. His recitation of the Qur'an aroused sorrow (on the part of the listener.) It was as if he was addressing a human being when he read the Qur'an." 19
What a high-minded, devoted man was Imam al-Kadhim!
Giver of Forgiveness and Freedom
"Those who spend in ease as well as in adversity and those who restrain (their) anger and pardon people. And Allah loves the doers of good (to others)."
Holy Qur'an (3:133)
Islam aimed at liberating man, and making slaves enjoy the favour of freedom. For this grand civilized goal, Islam presented a set of concepts and values, teachings and laws. Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) contributed effectively to this cause. Imam Ali bin Hussein bin Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.), for example, was called 'The Liberator of Slaves' due to the great number of slaves he bought and set free. Fatimah (a.s.), daughter of the Apostle of Allah (s.a.w.), the mother of the twelve Imams, sold her necklace and with the money she got she bought a slave and emancipated him for the sake of Allah. Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.), likewise, set free numerous slaves. Historians narrated that once a young black slave, burdened with the shackles of slavery, and troubled by the yoke of bondage, longed for the fragrance of freedom, and the life of the free men. He found none to relieve him of his trouble other than the son of prophethood, al-Kadhim Musa bin Ja'far (a.s). Tongue-tied, the slave couldn't express his demand, so he presented a modest gift to the Imam (a.s.), The story is as follows:
"Imam Musa Kadhim (a.s.), accompanied by his entourage and some of his sons, left Yathrib (Madinah) for his farms at Sayah. 20 Before reaching their destination, they stopped to have some rest at a spot nearby. It was extremely cold. They were still resting when a black slave, speaking good Arabic, carrying a boiling pot on his head, approached them. He saw the servants of the Imam (a.s.) and asked them:
"Where is your master?"
"Over there" said they pointing to the Imam (a.s.).
"Abul-Hassan," said they.
They he stepped forward and imploringly said to Imam Musa Kadhim (a.s.):
"This is sweetmeat. It is my present to you, sir."
Imam Musa Kadhim (a.s.) accepted his present and asked him to hand it to the servants. The black slave did so and went away. It was not long before he returned carrying a bunch of firewood. He went over to the Imam (a.s.) and said:
"This is firewood. It is my present to you, sir."
The Imam (a.s) accepted his present and ordered him to bring fire. The man instantly carried out Imam's order, whereupon the Imam (a.s.) ordered his name and the name of his master to be written down. He recommended that the name be kept at hand. Then, they proceeded to the farms where they stayed for a few days. From there they went to the Holy House of Allah. Having finished his umrah (Minor pilgrimage), the Imam (a.s.) ordered Sa'id to look for the master of the black slave.
"Should you find his house, tell me, so I may call on him. I hate to send for someone while I need him."
Sa'id went out. He searched for the man, and finally found him. He recognized him and learned that he was a Shi'ite. Sa'id approached and greeted him. The man asked if the Imam (a.s.) had come to Madinah, to which question Sa'id replied 'No.' The man then asked why had he come to the city. Sa'id told him that he had some business to do. Unconvinced, thinking that the Imam might be in the town after all, the man followed Sa'id who had bid him farewell. Sa'id felt the man following him, but tried in vain to evade him. Resigned, Sa'id walked with the man until they reached the Imam's residence. When both men went in, the Imam (a.s.) severely blamed Sa'id for telling the man about his arrival in Makkah. Sa'id apologized but said that he didn't tell the man about that, but the man himself had followed him, against his will. When the man seated himself, the Imam (a.s.) welcomed him and asked:
"Do you sell your slave?"
"May I be your ransom," said the man, "the slave, the farm, and all my property are all yours."
"As for the farm, I do not want to strip you of it," replied the Imam (a.s.).
The man pleaded with the Imam (a.s.) and entreated him to accept both the farm and the slave. The Imam (a.s.) turned his offer down. But finally he bought the slave's freedom and gave him the farm. With the blessing of the Imam (a.s.) Allah made the slave's business prosper until his sons became among Makkah's most wealthy men and money- changers." 21
The Imam (a.s.), history testifies, once bought a whole family of slaves, then he emancipated them.
Allamah al-Majlisi reports in his famous book 'Bihar al-Anwar' on the authority of al-Kafi, from a chain of transmitters:
"Muhammad bin Yahya reported on the authority of Muhammad bin Ahmad, on the authority of Ali bin al-Rayyan, on the authority of Ahmad bin Abi-Khalaf, a slave of Abul-Hassan whom the Imam (a.s.) had bought, along with his father, mother and brother and set them all free. Then he made a contract with Ahmad by which Ahmad became Imam's steward." 22
Kindness and Generosity
Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.) is widely known for his kindness, altruism, generosity and his tendency to help the poor secretly and publically. He helped the people to solve their problems, set the slaves free, paid the debts of the indebted, and kept good relations with his relatives.
Sheikh al-Mufid, may Allah be pleased with him, explains, in his book "al-Irshad", Imam's attributes:
"Abul-Hassan was the most devoted worshipper among the people of his time, and the most versed in fiqh. He was the most generous, and the kindest of all people..." "He was very kind to his family and relatives, ready to help them when they needed him", added Sheikh al-Mufid. "In the dead of night, he used to call on the poor of Madinah, give them money and food secretly so that they did not known who he was." 23
Historians maintain that when someone reviled him or said something bad about him, the Imam (a.s.) would send a bag stuffed with 200-300 Dinars. Thus he returned the bad with good, lavishing his kindness on all people. Such bags were sent to the needy and indebted. The money- bags of Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) became proverbial." 24
About the generosity of Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Bikri says:
"I came to Madinah seeking someone who would lend me some money. I found none. Why not go to Abul-Hassan and complain to him about my trouble?" I said to myself. Accordingly, I went to see him at a place called Niqma 25 where he had a farm. He came out with one of his servants carrying a sieve filled with veined, cured meat. I saw nothing else to be eaten. He set out eating and I followed suit. Then he asked me about my trouble, and I narrated my story. He went into the house, and returned shortly. 'Get off,' said he to his servant. He put out his hand with a bag of money. There were 300 Dinars in it. Then he rose to his feet and left me. I stood up, mounted my animal and left." 26
He used to forgive the wrongdoers, returning their bad behaviour with goodness. "When he heard someone talking evil of him, he sent him a moneybag filled with Dinars. Each bag contained nearly 200-300 Dinars." 27
An excellent instance of his tolerance and forgiveness is detailed in the following story:
"There was a man who used to revile Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.) when he met Imam Musa bin Ja'far. He missed no chance of annoying him whenever he saw him. Some of Imam's servants and followers asked him to permit them to kill the man, but the Imam rejected this. Then he mounted his donkey, and went across the farm of the man, crushing the grass. 'Do not trample on the grass!' cried out the man. The Imam (a.s.) did not answer him. Drawing near the man, he dismounted, sat down and began talking kindly and humorously to the man. 'How much did you spend on this farm?' asked the Imam (a.s.). 'One hundred Dirhams,' replied the man, 'And what profit do you hope to gain?' inquired the Imam. 'I do not know,' said the man. 'I have asked you: how much do you hope to get?' repeated the Imam. 'An extra one hundred Dirhams,' answered the man. "The Imam (a.s) got out 300 Dinars from his pocket and handed them to him. The man, moved by Imam's gesture, rose to his feet and kissed the Imam (a.s.) on the head. When the Imam (a.s.), afterwards, entered the mosque, the man sprang up, greeted him, and said, Allah knows best whom to entrust with His message' 'What is that?' the friends of the man rebuked him. The man reviled them.
From that time on, the man began to stand up as a sign of reverence and greet Imam Musa (a.s.) whenever he entered the mosque. Imam Musa (a.s.) said to those who wanted to get rid of the man 'what was better, what you wanted or what I did?'"." 28
Such was Ahlul-Bait's (a.s.) manners, and their tolerance. This is one anecdote of numerous which reflects Imam's forgiveness, and the curbing of his anger. He was not called al-Abd al-Salih, Zayn al-Mujtahideen and al-Kadhim for nothing.
"We feed you, for Allah's pleasure only- We desire from you neither reward nor thanks."
Holy Qur'an (76..9)
Such generosity, forgiveness, openhandedness and love of freedom are different when they issue from the Imam (a.s.). Other people spend liberally, give lavishly, and grant boundlessly, but they do this only in pursuit of fame, social status, and the buying of other people's conscience.
As for the Imam (a.s.), his self is too serene and perfect to seek praise, social position and reputation. He did good, gave lavishly, helped the needy, and emancipated the slaves for the sake of Allah, demanding nothing in return.
A. His Position as a Scholar
"...Not only was he the most devout in his worship among the people, but he was also the most well-versed man in Islamic sciences and jurisprudence." 29
Imam Musa bin Jafar (a.s.) is the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.), and the inheritor of the knowledge of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.). He was the disciple of his father, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.), the great spiritual leader, and the top scholar of his time, about whom Malik bin Anas, the leader of the Malikiyyah school of thought, said:
"Never has an eye seen, nor has an ear heard, nor has a mind of a man ever thought of a man better than Ja'far al-Sadiq in his outstanding merits, knowledge, worship and piety." 30
The well-known historian al-Ya'qoobi wrote, describing him, "He was the best among people and the most well-versed in the faith. The scholars who reported from him, would open their narratives, if they conveyed them from him, with these words, 'The great alim told us that ..." 31
Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.) appointed his son Musa al-Kadhim as his successor to the office of Imamate. Ali bin Ja'far, the brother of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (a.s.), a dependable, trustworthy narrator, is reported to have said, "I heard Abu-Ja'far bin Muhammad (a.s.) saying to some people from his entourage and close friends,
'Take good care of this son of mine, Musa. He is the best of my sons, and the best among whom I leave after me. He shall be my successor and the proof of Allah, the Exalted, over all his servants after me." 32
Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) himself once said to a companion of his,
"Should you ask this son of mine, whom you know, about what is between the two covers of the Qur'an, he will certainly answer you knowledgeably." 33
And so Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) received the heavy trust of guiding the ummah from his father. The Imam (a.s.) raised a generation of 'ulama', preachers and narrators of Prophetic traditions. His mission lasted 35 years.
His era was abundant with ideological and philosophical currents. Divergent views on fiqh, Qur'anic exegesis and science of traditions emerged.
That era was the most critical in the life of Muslims. Atheism, polytheism, and hyperbole penetrated the Muslim society, and new ideological trends, with conflicting beliefs and doctrines surfaced. Schools of fiqh diversified and new sciences, including logic, philosophy, linguistics, in addition to comparison, appreciation and personal tastes, were adopted as bass for deducing fiqh decrees. Some judges and fuqaha' distorted their judgements and decrees so as to suit the rulers. Distorted and fabricated traditions were spread.
Though extremely restricted and beleaguered, Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) didn't give up his mission. It was his top priority to correct the Islamic march by showing to the ummah what was original and what was non-Islamic. Aided by his disciples, he faced the new ideological trends, exactly as his.
father, al-Sadiq (a.s.), and his grandfather, al-Baqir (a.s.), had done before, and displayed their flaws, and demonstrated that they were only distorted views of the original Islam. As for fiqh, he enriched it with his explanations, statements and deductions. By so doing, the Imam (a.s.) solidified the pillars of Islam, purified methodologies of fiqh and Islamic laws. He kept the school of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.) original, and enriched it.
Biographical books and those related to traditions maintain that upward to 300 men had reported from Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.). Proudly history cites a list of Imam's students who were distinguished as great scholars, and prominent ulama'. Most of them authored and compiled rich, and great books on the different sciences of Islam.
Sheikh al-Toosi writes, "The followers of our school of thought have agreed on the probity and trustworthiness of six fuqaha', who were taught and educated by al-Kadhim and al-Ridha (a.s.). They were: Yunus bin Abdul-Rahman, Safwan bin Yahya, Bayya' al-Sabiri, Muhammad bin Abi-Umayr, Abdullah bin al-Mughirah, al-Hassan bin Mahboob al-Rad and Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abi-Nasr." 34
Distinguished among his students were also Hisham bin al-Hakam, the great alim in the science of monotheism and Islamic beliefs, Ali bin Suworyd, Muhammad bin Sinan...etc.
Following are very brief biographies of four of Imam's students and followers. These might give us an idea of how great was the impact of the school of Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) on the ummah.
Ali bin Suwayd al-Soo'i:
He transmitted traditions from Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) and Imam al-Ridha (a.s.). He corresponded with Abul-Hassan I, namely Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) when the latter was in prison. Judging from the letters the Imam (a.s.) sent him, he was a man of great social position, and was a well-known scholar. He authored a book mentioned by Ahmad bin Zayd al-Khuza'i. 35
Muhammad bin Sinan:
Muhammad bin al-Hassan bin Sinan was known by the name of his grandfather because his father died while he was still a child. His grandfather took custody of him. He was nicknamed Abu-Ja'far and al-Zahiri, after the name of Zahir, the servant of Umar bin al-Humq al-Khuza'i, a well-known companion of both Imam Abul-Hassan al-Kadhim (a.s.) and Imam Abul-Hassan al-Ridha (a.s.). He authored books mentioned by, among others, al-Hassan bin Sham'oon, Muhammad bin al-Hussein, Ahmad bin Muhammad, and Muhammad bin Ali al-Sayrafi. A number of reputed people like Safwan and al-Abbas bin Ma'roof, and Abdul-Rahman bin al-Hajjaj 36], quoted him.
Muhammad bin Abi-Umayr al-Azdi:
His father is Ziyad bin Isa. He was Baghdadi by birth and lived in Baghdad. In the sight of all people, the common and those close to the Imams, he was one of the most trustworthy, pious and devout among people. "He was unique, among all people, in all his qualities," wrote al-Jahidh. "He was a leading Shi'ite," adds al-Jahidh. "Under al-Rasheed he was thrown in prison, so as to force him to name the Shi'ites, and especially the followers of Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.). He was so severely beaten that he was about to confess, when he heard Muhammad bin Yunus bin Abdul-Rahman saying to him, 'Fear Allah, Muhammad bin Umay.' He bravely endured torture until Allah granted him freedom."
Al-Kishshi reports that, in the days of Haroon, Muhammad was beaten 120 times with a thick piece of wood. Al-Sindi bin Shahik beat him because of being a Shi'ite. He was imprisoned and kept there until he paid a total of 21,000 Dirhams from his own money.
It was also said that al-Ma'moon, the Abbasside caliph, kept him in prison until he accepted the post of judge in a Muslim town. According to Sheikh al-Mufid, in his book al-Ikhtisas (a book of traditions) he was imprisoned 17 years. His sister buried his books for four years, during which period the books decayed. It was also said that he had kept them in a room where the rain destroyed them. So he depended on his memory, or on the traditions and narratives he had conveyed earlier to people, when he started once again orally narrating the traditions or writing them down. He lived during the Imamate of al-Kadhim (a.s.) 37 but did not quote him, but quoted both al-Ridha and al-Jawad (a.s.). He died in 217 A.H. 38 Historians say that he wrote 94 books on different Islamic sciences and arts. 39
Hisham bin al-Hakam:
Abul-Hakam Hisham bin al-Hakam al-Baghdadi al-Kindi was the servant of the family of Shayban. Shi'ite agree on his probity and great position in the eyes of the Imams (a.s.). He had long discussions with those who differed with him on many aspects of the faith. He associated with Abu-Abdullah Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.), then with his son al-Kadhim (a.s.), then with al-Ridha (a.s.), until his death in 179 A.H. in the city of Kufa. 40
Historians maintain that he was a man of profound knowledge, particularly in the areas of philosophy of monotheism, Imamate and Islamic beliefs. He wrote 30 books. 41
These are only four leading scholars we picked them from a list of students of Imam al-Kadhim's school. Sayyid Ibin Tawoos says, "The companions and close friends of the Imam used to attend his assembly, carrying ebony boards and sticks in their sleeves. They would write down anything he said, or any judgement he gave on any affair". 42
B. Some of Imam's Statements on Monotheism
Without any philosophization or complication, Muslims took plainly and simply monotheism from the preacher of monotheism, Muhammad (s.a.w.). They grasped it from the Book of Allah and believed in it. They fully understood this doctrine and believed in prophethood, revelation, the Hereafter, Paradise, Hell, attributes of Allah, the Glorified, and His relation with the deeds of His servants, the universe, sustenance of His servants, things closely related to monotheism. But through the passage of time, philosophy, logic, and dialectics infiltrated Islamic beliefs, and people began to differ on such things as the divine attributes, the deeds of people, the Hereafter and other things linked to core Islamic beliefs. Some people said that Allah, like any of his creatures, had a body. Others said Allah descended to our sky on a white donkey. Some Muslims believed in fatalism and free choice. A group of people denied the torture of the grave, while another group denied that people would be resurrected bodily on the Judgement Day. Some people called for asceticism and the cutting of one's ties with this life, Imams of Ahlul-Bait (a.s.), especially al-Baqir, al-Sadiq, al-Kadhim and al-Ridha (a.s.), with their students stood against all kinds of ideological deviations, and refuted them with proofs, logic, and reasoned answers.
When some people claimed that Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, descended to the sky, he said,
"Allah never descends. He need not descend He is the same, whether close or remote. No remote thing is far from Him, nor a close thing is near Him. He needs nobody and nothing, but everybody and everything are in need of Him. He is the Generous and Powerful There is no god but He, the Mighty and Wise.
As for those describers who say that He descends, the Blessed and Exalted Allah is far above this description. Those who say so believe that Allah is vulnerable to decrease or increase. Any movable thing needs some outside force that moves is or serves as a medium for its movement. Doomed is he whose faith in Allah is shaken. Beware to attribute to Allah qualities that depict Him as decreasing or increasing, moving or being moved, changing or descending, standing or sitting. Allah, the Almighty and Powerful, is certainly beyond the words of the describers, the depiction of depicters, and the fancy of the fanciful" 43
Some people explained the verse "The Beneficent is established on the Throne of Power. "by saying that Allah sits on a throne like a chair. He corrected their idea when he said, "The meaning of this "The Beneficent is established on the Throne of Power" is that Allah has power over all things, tiny or huge. 44 That means He has true power over the whole universe. 'Sitting' here is equal, in its meaning, to the description of Allah, the Exalted, as being Powerful and enjoying mastery over all things. Though near and present everywhere, He does not go far away, nor diminish."
One of his contemporaries argued with him about the exegesis of this verse. The man said, 'I see here a coming out of the unseen, and a descension to the earth. I think Muhammad (s.a.w.) saw his Lord with his heart but it was attributed to his eyesight. How can this be explained?'
'He drew near and came down,' replied the Imam (a.s.), 'But He did not leave a place, nor did He come down in a body.'
'I describe Him by His own description,' said the man. 'He did not come down from His place without leaving it. If the matter was not so, He would not describe Himself in this way.'
'This is an expression used by the tribe of Quraish,' said the Imam (a.s.). 'When a man from them wants to say 'qad sam'it 'I have heard -, he says 'qad tadallayt' - I have come down. 'Coming down' means understanding in the Quraishi dialect." 45
In another statement Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) explains the relation between Allah's will and man's. He shows how man's behaviour has developed, whether it is good or bad. He emphasizes the fact that man is free, and he enjoys the full freedom of choice. He can do something and can refrain from doing it. Allah never abolishes man's will. But this freedom to act on the part of man doesn't mean that Allah is unable to prevent His servants from doing evil, o r that He can't force them to do good. Allah simply wants to test man in this life, Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) says:
"When Allah created His creatures, He knew what their fates would be. He ordered them to do certain things and forbade them to do other things. If He ordered them to do certain things, He left them free to do them or not. They cannot do something or abstain from doing it without His will. Never did Allah force any of His servants to disobey Him. 'He simply tests His servants with tribulations'." 46
C. Imam States Key Sources of Islamic Thought and Legislation
Here we have a brief look at certain ideas, concept and basic standards laid down by the Imam to control the foundations of fiqh, deduction of Islamic laws from Islamic text, and thought. They were stated and explained in a letter he wrote at the behest of the Abbassid caliph, Haroon al-Rasheed. "I ask you, by the names of your fathers, to summarize the discussion we have just had in numbered, comprehensive words," asked Haroon al-Rashid. "Yes," agreed the Imam (a.s.). An inkpot and paper were brought to him. He wrote the following:
"In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. All that concern religions can be summed up in four categories, concerning which there is no dissent: There are matters so clear that people unanimously agree on their authenticity, among which are the religious texts and traditions, the authentic, agreed-upon ones, in the light of which doubted matters are examined, and new judgements are inferred. There are matters that appear doubtful They are settled by asking the knowledgeable, who seek a proof, from the Book of Allah, on which all Muslims as authentic, or syllogism reasons acknowledge its fairness, and neither scholars nor the common people doubt it. These two categories cover all matters, including monotheism and what is less grave, and the compensation one should make for a slight injury one causes to others, and what is graver. So these are basic standards according to which religious matters are scrutinized. What is proved to be correct you should accept, and what remains vague and doubtful you should put aside. Any one of these three is the conclusive proof which Allah emphasizes is His address to His Messenger. Such conclusive proof is understood by the ignorant, in spite of their ignorance, and also by the knowledgeable, by virtue of their knowledge. That is because Allah is Just, and never treats His servants unjustly. He argues with His servants with what they know. He calls to what they blow, not to what they do not blow or deny." 47
The Imam (a.s.), by these words, states the sources of the faith and Islamic laws, so as to keep reason, thinking, and conduct from slipping into deviation. He names specifically the Noble Qur'an, the authentic Sunnah, and syllogism based on the Book and Sunnah. Imam al-Kadhim (a.s.) defines syllogism as a way to keep thinking, and religious inferences away from methodological mistakes. That is why he calls to unify our thinking, understanding, studying and judgement inference, in order to preserve the originality of the faith on one hand, and to enrich Islamic thought and legislation, on the other hand. He decides that we should make the Qur'anic concepts, accepted by Muslims with one interpretation, and the religiously authentic Sunnah, a basis for deducing ideas, concepts and judgements. He also makes syllogism, which is viewed as fair by mature intellects, a method by which opinions, concepts and judgements are deduced from these two sources. Thus, neither various interpretations of Qur'anic concepts, nor every tradition and statement handed down from each narrator, nor the fairlooking syllogism, that appears to the researcher good, can be justifiably made a basis for the comprehension of the faith, or deduction of the laws and judgements.
And, as we have said before, the Imam (a.s.) raised a generation of fuqaha' , ulama', and tradition transmitters he bestowed on his companions, students and fellow ulama', religious decrees, judgements, lessons, arguments...etc.
History conveyed to us sessions in which the Imam had argued with the accomplished thinkers and fuqaha' of his time, among whom Abu-Hanifah, and Abu-Yusuf, the supreme judge, under Haroon al-Rasheed and others. They all acknowledged the correctness of Imam's judgements and decrees.
The chief faqih of Hanbalis, Ahmad bin Hanbal, confidently and respectfully conveyed certain thoughts and concepts from him. This fact is attested to by a group of narrators, authors and men concerned with the traditions. Ahmad bin Hanbal is quoted as saying, "Musa bin Ja'far said to me, on the authority of Abu-Ja'far bin Muhammad...on the authority of the Prophet." Ahmad then added: "This chain of transmitters is so indisputably authentic that if it is read to a fool, he would certainly restore his reason." 48
D. Reason, its Scientific and Behavioural Value in the Sight of ,he Imam
Reason enjoys great value and importance in Islam. By it Allah, the Exalted and High, is known and His greatness is grasped. By it knowledge and sciences are acquired, and so life progresses. By it man takes the path leading to good, and differentiates between good and evil. And finally by virtue of reason man's humanity and value find their sense. That is why Islam regards reason as something unequally precious. It respects reason and the men of sound judgements, and attaches much importance to knowledge and the knowledgeable. It makes thinking obligatory, and urges the good use of reason and the conquest of new horizons of research and thinking.
When Imam Musa bin Ja'far (a.s.) describes reason, and explains its value and importance, he in fact conveys the view of the Qur'an and states the standpoint of Islam. The following advice given by the Imam to Hisham bin al-Hakam, one of his disciples, is considered as one of the most valuable statements ever said about reason, its preciousness and responsibility. Here we quote parts of the statement of the Imam (a.s.):
The Imam (a.s.) said,
"Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, certainly gave the good news to the possessors of good reason and understanding, in His Book, by these words,"...so give good news to My servants, who listen to the Word, then follow the best of it. Such are they whom Allah has guided, and such are the men of understanding."
"O Hisham! Allah, the Almighty and High, completed His proofs to people with reason, communicated to them His message with plain eloquence, and acquainted them with His Lordship by means of His guides.
"O Hisham! Then he explained that reason goes with science by saying, "And these parables, We sent them forth for people, and none understand them but the learned."
"O Hisham! Allah says, "And certainly We gave Luqman wisdom, ..." which means understanding and reason.
"O Hisham! Luqman said to his son, 'Be humble toward right and you shall be the sagest among people. The sagacious are modest toward right. My little son! Life is a deep sea, in which a great number of people drowned So make fear of Allah your ship on it. And make faith its contents, trust in Allah its sails, reason its captain, knowledge its guide, and patience its rudder.
"O Hisham! Everything has a guide, and the guide of the sagacious is contemplation. And the guide of contemplation is silence. Everything has a mount, and the mount of the sagacious is modesty. It is certainly the pinnacle of ignorance to do what you are forbidden to do.
"O Hisham! Allah has certainly two proofs before people: A revealed proof, and a hidden one. As for the revealed, it is the Messengers, Prophets and Imams, and the hidden is reason.
"O Hisham! Who destroys his reason, he undoubtedly spoils both his faith and life.
"O Hisham! People were created to serve Allah. There is no salvation without obedience. Obedience is the fruit of knowledge. Knowledge is acquired by learning, and learning is spurred by the desire to know. There is no knowledge equal to that acquired from a spiritual scholar. The learned gain knowledge by virtue of their reason.
"O Hisham! A sagacious man agrees to be gifted with wisdom though his share of life's spoils is little. But he cannot be satisfied with a little share of wisdom, even if provided with luxury in this life.
"O Hisham! The Commander of the Faithful, Ali bin Abi-Talib (a.s.) said, 'There is nothing better than reason with which Allah is served'
"O Hisham! The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) said, 'No one should lead a number of people without enjoying three qualities: He should be able to provide answers for every question posed to him. He should be able to speak plainly when other people fail to do so. And he should be able to offer the counsel which benefits people. He is certainly a fool who lacks these three qualities but seeks the leadership.'
"Hassan bin Ali (a.s.) said, 'When you are in need of something, ask it from those able to grant it.' 'O son of the Messenger of Allah, , he was asked, 'and who are these?' 'They are those whose mention was made by Allah in His Book, when He says,"...only men of understanding mind' which means those endowed with good reason.'
"Ali bin Hussein (as.) said, 'Sitting with the righteous people leads one to uprightness. Politeness of scholars is a compliment added to their sound understanding. Obedience of the legitimate rulers of justice is the peak of power. Investment of one's money is the epitome of unselfishness. Enlightening advice seekers is an act of gratitude in return for Allah's favours. Abstention from harming others is a sign of sagacity. It is the source of the body's rest, in this life, and the next one.'
"O Hisham! A sagacious man does not tell something to someone whom he fears to give the lie to him on account of it.
He will not ask the favour of whom he fears to refuse, nor does he promise what he is not able to deliver, nor does he hope to get what he would be scolded on account of nor does he advance voluntarily to do what he is unable to. The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) is reported to have given his companions this piece of advice, 'I advise you to fear Allah in privacy and in public, stick to justice in time of satisfaction and anger, work is poverty and richness, keep your relations with whoever ends his relations with you, forgive whoever wrongs you, and to be kind to whoever deprives you. Let your contemplation be for the sake of drawing useful lessons, your silence be thinking, your words be remembrance of Allah, and your nature generosity, for no miser is entitled to enter Paradise, and no philanthropist is going to enter Hell'
"O Hisham! The best ways to gain closeness to Allah, after knowing Him, are prayer, kindness of one's parents, and giving up envy, vanity and pride.
"O Hisham! Isa (a.s.) said to his disciples. 'People, with regard to wisdom, fall into two categories; those who master it in words and suit their actions to their words. And those who master it in words but miss it with their misdeeds. mat a great difference is there between them! Blessed be the learned with their good deeds, and woe to the knowledgeable who only talk'
"Make your hearts abodes of piety, but never make your hearts the dwelling of pleasures. Those who extremely grieve in time of adversity are those who excessively love this life. Those who patiently bear tribulations are certainly those who are less attached to this life. It is no use to purify your skins as long as your hearts are impure.
"Do not be like a sieve that passes the fine flour and retains the bran. Here you are bringing out wisdom from your mouths, while your chests remain full with rancour. O slaves of this world!
You are like a candle which gives light to people, but bums itself] O Israelites! Pay special attention to attend learned men's assemblies, even if you have no other choice but to crawl on your hands and knees, for Allah certainly revives the dead hearts in exactly the same way He revives the dead earth with a downpour.'
"O Hisham! mat a bad servant of Allah is the one who is double-faced, who praises his brother when he sees him, and backbites him during his absence, the one who envies his brother when he acquires some wealth, and fails him when he is afflicted with an adversity... The reward of good deeds is certainly at hand, and the retribution for an injustice is surely at hand. The most evil servants of Allah are certainly those whom you detest to talk to on account of their obscenity. What causes people to enter hell face down other than the product of their tongues? A sign of one's good faith is one's leaving anything that does not concern one.
"O Hisham! Beware of pride, for no one who nurtures an iota of pride in his heart is entitled to enter Paradise. Pride is Allah 's mantle, and whoever tries to share it with Him, He throws him into hell face down.. but who submits to Allah, Allah certainly raises him up.
"O Hisham! He who does not make a reckoning with himself at the end of every day, with the intention of doing more good works, if he has got many good deeds on that day, and not asking Allah's forgiveness and turning to Him in repentance if he has done evil things on that day, is certainly out of our fold (Ahlul-Bait).
"Mind to take refuge in Allah, put your trust in Him, and fight your self to prevent it from following its own low desires ..." 49
This is a bunch of roses picked from Imam's gardens of knowledge. It gives the aroma of faithfulness, and blooms with the beauty of worship and spirituality. These are the gardens of prophethood, the fragrance of the Qur'an, and Islam's beautiful roses, grown in Imam's serene soul.
How important is for us to learn from the Imam (a.s.), and walk in the light of his guidance, so as not
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