If there are only a few narrations of unknown authentically attributed to the Holy Prophet (saws) can these be considered to be enough for such a belief?
Even if the existence of Al-Mahdi (as) is theoretically possible, how can we believe in his actual existence in the absence of any scientific or religious proofs? If there are only a few narrations of unknown authentically attributed to the Holy Prophet (saws) can these be considered to be enough for such a belief?
It is incorrect to claim that there are only a few ahadeeth or unauthentic traditions on this issue. There are many arguments that should convince every rational individual. The fact is that the concept of Al-Mahdi (as) -as the Awaited Savior, who is to change the world for the better- has been mentioned in the traditions of the Holy Prophet (saws) in general and in the sayings of the Imams (as) in particular. It has been emphasized in so many passages that there is no reason to doubt it. The number of reports on this subject found in the books of our Sunni brethren comes to 400 91, and the total number of reports found in both Shi'ah and Sunni sources comes to more than 6,000 92. This is a colossal figure, unparalleled in the case of most Islamic issues not usually doubted by any Muslim.
We will divide the presentation of our argument into two categories:
* The first category: Those arguments which prove the existence of Al-Mahdi (as) as the personification of the Twelfth Imam based on the Shi'ahs belief in Mahdi'ism. These types of arguments are not necessarily based on Shi'ah-Muslim scholar's narrations or on Shi'ah hadith sources.
* The second category: Those arguments which prove the necessity of a just global society formed by the leadership of a man either under this specific name, i.e. Al-Mahdi (as) or under other names and descriptions that do not contradict the arguments in the first category.
The first category:
There exists enough proof and justification to believe in the doctrine of AL-Mahdi (as). All these arguments prove the existence of Al-Mahdi (as) as the embodiment of the concept of the Twelfth Imam who was born and will yet appear again to fill the earth with peace and justice.
This justification can be summarized in two arguments, one being Islamic and the other rational.
By the Islamic argument we prove the existence of the Awaited Savior and by the historical argument we prove that Al-Mahdi is not a mere myth but his existence is a fact proved by Shi'ah historical experience.
As for the Islamic argument, it is represented by hundreds of narrations which have come down from the Holy Prophet and the Imams (as) of his House. They specify that Al-Mahdi (as) will belong to the Prophet's House, will be descended from his daughter Fatima Zahra (as) and will be the descendant of Imam Husayn (as) in the ninth generation. The traditions also say that the total number of Prophetic successors will be twelve. Thus, the traditions give a specific shape to the general idea of Al-Mahdi (as) and determine that he is the Twelfth Imam of the Prophet's House. The number of these narrations is very large, in spite of the fact that the Imams were very reserved on this subject, for fear of an attempt on the life of Al-Mahdi (as).
It is not only because of their sheer number that we have to accept these narrations, but there are also other indications of their authenticity. According to the different versions of a narration of the Holy Prophet (saws), we see that he is to be succeeded by twelve caliphs,, by twelve Imams, or by twelve commanders. The total number of reports about this saying, as counted by some writers, exceeds 270, and they are found in the most celebrated Shi'ah books, as well as Sunni collections such as Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sahih Tirmithi, Sunan Abu Dawud, Ahmad's Musnad and Hakim's Mustadrak.93
It may be noted that Bukhari, who has quoted this traditions, was a contemporary of Imam Muhammad bin al-Jawad, Imam Ali bin Mohammed al-Hadi and Imam Hassan Al-'Askari (as). This fact has great significance, for it proves that the narration was recorded before its contents could materialized. Hence, it cannot be suspected that it is a possible reflection of the actual number of the Imams, as believed by the Twelver Shi'ah to reinforce their belief in the twelve Imams. This is because spurious sayings attributed to the Holy Prophet (saws) refer to events which take place earlier than the saying. Such sayings do not precede the events.
So long as we possess material evidence of the fact that the narration was recorded before the number of the Imams was actually completed and was narrated by both Shi'ah and Sunni scholars, we can safely see that these ahadeeth are not a reflection of an accomplished fact. It is only an expression of a Divine Truth, expressed by a man who never spoke according to his own whims, and a prophecy, which was subsequently fulfilled by the actual number of the Imams beginning with Imam Ali and ending with Al-Mahdi (as).
The rational argument consists of the experience of a large number of people for a period covering seventy years. This period is that of the Minor Occultation. The Minor Occultation represents the first stage of the Imamah of the awaited savior who was destined to keep himself physically absent from the public scene from the very inception of his Imamah. Had this Occultation come about suddenly it would have been a great shock to his supporters, for they would have been accustomed to have constant contact with the Imam and to consult with him on their divergent problems. His sudden disappearance would have created a great vacuum, which might have destroyed his entire organization, with his supporters feeling that they had been cut off from their spiritual and intellectual leadership. In order to familiarize them with the idea of Occultation and to enable them to adapt themselves to the new situation it was felt necessary that a preparatory stage should precede the final Occultation.
During this first period four persons, whose piety and impeccability was recognized by all, occupied the position of vicegerent of the Imam. They are as follows:
1. Uthman ibn Sa'id al-'Umari;
2. Mohammed ibn Uthman al-'Umari;
3. Abu'l Qasim, Husayn ibn Ruh Nawbakhti;
4. Abu'l Hassan, Ali ibn Muhammad al-Simmari.
These four persons performed the duties of vicegerency in the above order. As and when one of them died, another was duly appointed by Al-Mahdi (as) to succeed him.
The vicegerent was in contact with the Shi'ah. He carried their questions to the Imam and submitted their problems to him. He also conveyed the Imam's (as) (mostly written) replies to his followers. The people who were unable to physically see the Imam (as), found consolation in correspondence and indirect contact. All the letters received from the Imam (as) during the tenure of his four vicegerents, which lasted for about seventy years, were in the same handwriting and in the same style and bore the same signature.
Al-Simmari was the last vicegerent. He announced the end of the stage of the Minor Occultation, the distinctive feature of which was the appointment of a vicegerent. The Major Occultation began after the object of the Minor Occultation had been achieved and the Shi'ah had gradually adapted themselves to the absence of the Imam (as). Following the Major Occultation, the Imam (as) is now represented in a general way by the qualified mujtahids (eminent jurisprudents, capable of arriving at independent decisions on issues of religious law) who have a keen insight into spiritual and temporal affairs.
The existence of Al-Mahdi (as) is a fact experienced by a larger number of people. He was represented by his vicegerents for seventy long years during which they dealt with many people, none of whom observed any inconsistency in what they said, nor discovered any signs of deception in their conduct. It is inconceivable that a fraud could be continued for seventy years by four persons, one after the other, without giving rise to the least suspicion. These four persons had no special link with each other and no collusion between them could be suspected. Their conduct was above reproach. They gained the confidence of all and everyone believed in the genuineness of their claim and the reality of their experience. An old proverb says that "the truth will always come out." Events of practical life also prove that a fraud has no chance of lasting for such a long time in such a way. It is not possible to deal with so many people fraudulently and at the same time to gain their confidence.
Thus we know that the Minor Occultation is tantamount to a scientific experiment to prove the facts about the Awaited Savior including his birth, life and occultation and the general proclamation of his Major Occultation, according to which he retired from the scene of life and does not now disclose his identity to anyone.
The second category:
Let us present first the famous fatwa issued by the late Shaykh Abd ul-Aziz bin Abd Allah bin Baz in Mecca, who was ardently anti-Shi'ah. It is the most important fatwa on this issue, given by the Muslim World League (Rabitatul 'Alamil-Islamy) on Oct. 11, 1976 (23 Shawwal 1396). This fatwa states that more than twenty companions narrated traditions concerning Al-Mahdi (as), and gives a list of those scholars of hadith who have transmitted these ahadeeth, and those who have written about Al-Mahdi (as). The fatwa states:
The matter of Al-Mahdi (as) is clear and certain and the traditions concerning this point are too many (Mustafidh), or even they are 100% correct (Muta'dhid and Mutwatir). The memorizers (Hafidh) and scholars of hadith have verified that they are authentic (mutawatir). For them there is no doubt that the status of those reports are sahih and Mutawatir.94
The above-mentioned Sheikh and other scholars of hadith have also verified that the belief in Al-Mahdi (as) is obligatory, and that is one of the beliefs of Sunni Islam. Only those ignorant of the sunni and innovators in doctrine deny it.95
Now we will divide the second category's arguments into two major types:
* The general argument;
* The particular argument.
The general argument:
We should realize that all human beings possess an intrinsic hope for a better future. Diverse religions and different nations have expressed their belief in a charismatic future religious letter in one way or another. Here are some examples:
* Hindus believe in a religious savior, whom they call "Kalki avtaras";
* Buddhists believe in a future dimension of Buddha, called "Maiterya";
* Zoroastrians name him "Sociant";
* Jews are expecting him as the "Messiah";
* Christians are waiting for the Second Coming of Christ.96
Thus this phenomenon is a manifestation of the human hope for a happy salvation, and the coming of a Divinely-guided leader who will save the world from its misery.
Imagine that you are a fiction writer, who is doing his best to construct some sort of bestseller. In such a situation, you would try to create a story that presents the events in a exciting way, and concluding with a happy end. Mankind -like his favorite fiction- always hopes for a happy end. As such, it is our belief that every human beings looks towards a happy future. The Latin phrase: "finis coronat opus," which means "the end crowns the work," is easily understood by anyone who has completed a major project and rejoiced in its completion. We can never expect human beings to stand before a miserable future, and to have any sense of enjoyment. If someone is offered a life that will only end badly, then everything will appear worthless.
The above-mentioned points might explain why the Shi'ah are so steadfast in their belief in the awaited savior, who will provide a just world and a happy end for the life of mankind. Germans have a famous saying that states: "Ende gut, Alles gut" which means, "If the end is good, every thing is good." Many people would share this sentiment, and hope for a happy future.
The particular argument:
The second type is divided into those arguments based on historical facts and those based on narrations. We will deal first with the first part, which is based on:
The historical facts:
Under this part there are assorted historical facts, which prove that the Prophet (saws) has told the Muslims about this matter.
* First historical fact:
It is confirmed that the Holy Prophet Mohammed (saws) had prophesied several events that later occurred after his death. There were hundreds of events foretold by the Prophet, that later happened as had been narrated. We have to believe that he has informed Muslims that one person must appear, or at least will come on the scene just before the advent of the Day of Judgement. The Prophet (saws) has foretold that he is one of his descendants, named Al-Mahdi (as). In the period when he appears, the believers will be severely oppressed in every corner of the world. Al-Mahdi (as) will fight the oppressors, unite the Muslims, bring peace and justice to the world and lead a prayer in Mecca in front of the eyes of the Muslim world.
If this belief about the appearance of Al-Mahdi (as) had not come from the Holy Prophet (saws) himself, and all the sects of the Muslims had not taken it as authentic, it would never have been possible for impostors to claim to be Al-Mahdi in the early centuries of the advent of Islam. Throughout the history of Islam many individuals and leaders of different factions driven either by the desperate state of Muslims in their community or a selfish pursuit of power and prestige, laid claim to being Al-Mahdi and found a following among the uninformed masses of Muslims who were looking for salvation from their miserable circumstances.
Groups like Kaysaniyah, some Abbasids and the 'Alawiyah tried to defraud people by manipulating Muslims and taking advantage of this general belief to gain power and leadership. Through their false claim they wanted to take advantage of the Islamic belief in the reappearance of Al-Mahdi, which was the belief of all the Muslims, as a means of influencing the people in general. Had this belief been exclusive to the Shi'ah, these pretenders would not have been able to take advantage of this generally accepted belief.97
For some, like the Bab of Iran or Mirza Ghulam of India, claiming to be Al-Mahdi (as) was just a stepping-stone to the development of innovated sects, which broke away from the fold of Islam. Thus, it is prudent to understand the facts of this prophecy and avoid failing pray to the false claimants that will appear from time to time. We will deal with this matter in the fourth chapter of this book.
* Second historical fact:
Throughout history the Shi'ah had different ways of making visible their expectation for the appearance of the Awaited Savior, through different practices and widespread traditions.
Heinz Halm, a German Orientalist, wrote in his book "Shi'ism" about the spread of Sufism (Islamic mysticism) during the time of Mongols. He wrote:
... veneration of Ali and the Imams spread far and wide even in Sunni circles and especially through the popularization of Islamic mysticism. Precisely in the period of which we are speaking even the Shi'ah were so affected by this mystical trend that quite a few observers were led to the conclusion that Shi'ism and Sufism were identical in essence, two sides of one coin, and that indeed Shi'ism was only the outer exoteric form of Islamic mysticism.
This interpretation, disseminated by the French Orientalist Henry Corbin (1903-1978) in numerous lectures and publications, and which was taken up by Sayyed Hossein Nasr and ultimately goes back to the Iranian mystic Haydar Amuli, has been repeatedly criticized as unhistorical, in particular by Hamid Algar who points out emphatically that veneration of the twelve Imams in the mystical orders of the Mongol and Timurid era was neither borrowed from the Shi'ah not was it a proto-Shi'ite element, but was rather a general characteristic of the order.98
He then explained this old institution of the Shi'ah as follows:
One characteristic of this period which is every important for the future history of iran is the development of isolated tariqas into military Shi'ite fighting federations which gained political significance in the 14th century -if only in local settings initially- for the first time since the disintegration of the Mongol Il-Khanid empire. The earliest example is the tariqa of the Shaykhiyya-Juriyya, which goes back to the 'Pole of the gnostic' (Qutb al-Arifin) Sheikh-i Caliph (d. 736/1335) and his successor Shaykh Hassan Juri (d. 743/1342). The wandering dervish Shaykh-i caliph from Mazandaran on the Caspian Sea set himself up as a mystical teacher in the mosque of Bayhaq/Sabzvar (east of Tehran) where he preached the imminent appearance (zuhhur) of Al-Mahdi (as) and urged the Shiites to prepare themselves for Holy war. He attracted supporters who were mainly recruited from amongst the urban craftsmen and small tradesmen, but his activities aroused the suspicion and hatred of the Sunnis to whom he finally fell victim in 736/1335. His pupil Shaykh Hassan Juri disseminated the teachings of the master in the large Iranian towns of Nishapur, Tus and Abivard; and at the same time though propaganda he supported the amirs of the local dynasty of the Sarbadars from Byhaq/Sabzvar, who emerged as Iranian and shiite champions against foreign Mongol rule after the death of the last Il-Khan Abu Sa'id in 1335. The small principality of Sarbadar was able to hold on to its independence until its overthrow by Timur in 783/1381 and anticipates the later founding of the Shiite-Iranian state of the Safavids. The sarbadars stamped the names of the twelve Imams on their coins and twice a day a saddled and magnificently caparisoned horse would be led out in front of the town gates of Sabzavar for Al-Mahdi (as), when appeared, to mount immediately a custom witnessed in several Iranian towns by the geographer Yaqut and testified to at Hilla in Iraq by the traveller Ibn Battuta.99
* Third historical fact:
Anticipation of the imminent return of Al-Mahdi has a long history among other Shi'ah factions. An example can be found in the doctrine of the Isma'ili Shi'ahs, who established the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt. Heinz Halm wrote in his book "The Empire of the Mahdi".
Anticipation of the "One who appears" (al-Qa'im) stands at the center of Isma'ili doctrine. This too is an ancient Shi'ite tradition. The Shi'ite originally used the epithet Al-Mahdi simply to designate the man who in their view, was the rightful successor of Mohammed. However, from the beginning of the eighth century the title of Al-Mahdi was used by a variety of Shi'ite groups and sects. Each of these believed that its own respective Imam was not dead; rather, they maintained, he had been carried off or else was in hiding, and they awaited his imminent return. Al-Mahdi will put an end to all quarrels and discord which have divided the Muslims ever since the Prophet's death. In a quick, victorious campaign, he will seize power, dethrone the false caliphs, and enter into the rightful inheritance of his ancestor Mohammed... This messianic figure, developed by various Shi'ite groups in the eighth century, acquires yet another trait among the Isma'ilis of the ninth century, an entirely characteristic trait with the true explosive force of the Isma'ili mission. Al-Mahdi (or Qa'im) is the seventh and last Imam of the Islamic cycle, but he will not open a new cycle, nor will he preach a new religion. Instead he will openly reveal the "true religion," which until now has been concealed behind all previous religious, and known only to the small circle of the initiated, to the entire world.100
* Fourth historical fact:
Many Imamas have under certain historical events revealed this doctrine of Al-Mahdi (as).
1. It has been narrated by Assbagh bin Nabateh:
I came one day to the Prince of Believers Ali and saw him thinking and looking down at the ground. I asked him: Why are you thinking? You seem to be sad because you have been deprived of your right to be the caliph? He replied: No, I swear by God I have always been ascetic in this world's life, but I was thinking about the son of the eleventh Imam (from my descendants) who is named Al-Mahdi (as). He will replace injustice with justice. Under his Occultation many groups will go astray.101
2. When Imam Hassan (as) was compelled to make peace with Muawiyah and was reproached for this by some people he offered several reasons for the correctness of his deed, of which many people were ignorant, and said:
Did you not know that there is no Imam of ours who is not forced to show allegiance to the arrogant men of his time except the concealed and Awaited Imam behind whom Jesus performs his prayer? Indeed God conceals his birth and hides him from people so that, on his reappearance, how could owe allegiance to no one. Know that he is the ninth offspring of Husayn, my brother's generation, and son of the noblest slave-girl. God will let him re-appear as a young man under forty in order to show that God is mighty in everything.102
3. Abd Ar-rahman bin Saleet is reported to have heard Imam Husayn (as) saying:
Amongst us twelve guided persons, the first one is Ali bin Abi Talib and the ninth Imam of my descendants is Al-Mahdi (as) who is the awaited to bring justice, and who is to revive the earth after its death, by whom Islam will prevail against the polytheists' wishes. Under his Occultation many people will go astray, but there will be people who will stay firm, but they will suffer, and will be hurt by people telling them "When will your promise be fulfilled?" Those who will be patient under his Occultation are like a fighter under the presence of Mohammed (s).103
4. Sa'eed bin Joubayr reported that he had heard Imam Ali bin Hossayn Zayn Al-Abedeen (as) saying:
Al-Mahdi (as) has many similar attributes to the seven Prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Job, Moses, Jesus and Mohammed (as). The attributes of Adam and Noah are their longevity, of Abraham his secret birth and living in seclusion, of Job the relief after the difficulties, of Moses his fear and Occultation, of Jesus, people's different opinions about him, and of Mohammed (as) his fight for justice.104
5. Abu Ayoub Al-Mackzoumi reported that Imam Baqir (as) was speaking about the guided caliphs, and said:
The twelfth Imam is the one who will lead the prayer for Muslims amongst whom Jesus is present. You must follow the Qur'an and his path.105
6. As-Saduq narrated that Zourareh bin A'aen had heard Imam Sadiq say:
Al-Qa'im (as) (another name used referring to Al-Mahdi) will be in Occultation. He asked him: Why? Imam Sadiq replied: He will fear for his own life, And then Imam said to Zourareh: O Zourareh, he is the expected one, over whose birth the people will hesitate. Some of them will say: He was never born, and some will say: He is still in his mother's womb, and some will say that he is in Occultation. Allah (swt) wants to examine his servants in order to purify them.106
7. Younus bin 'Abd-irahman narrated that he went to meet Imam Musa, and he asked the Imam:
Are you Al-Qa'im Al-Mahdi (as)? The Imam replied: I am the Qa'im, but if you are asking about the one who will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice, then he is the fifth of my descendants. During his Occultation, which will be prolonged to save his life, many will regress, but many will stay firm.107
8. Al-Harawi narrated from that he heard Dabill Khaz'ee say that he went to Imam Ridha (the 8th Imam) and read a eulogy in praise of Al-Mahdi (as), and saying:
An Imam will eventually appear,
whose appearance is beyond doubt
On God's command he will appear,
and will bring his blessings about.
Truth from falsehood and vice from the virtue,
surely he will separate
to reward the good and punish the bad, surely he wouldn't hesitate
Imam Ridha (as) interrupted him and said:
"O Da'bill, you have uttered the words of fate, but do you know who that Imam will be?" Da'bill replied that he would be from Imam Ridha's (as) progeny and would bring justice and fairness to the gloomy earth. Imam Ridha (as) further said that after him, there would come his son Mohammad then his son Ali then his son Hassan and then his son Al-Mahdi (as), the last Imam for whom the entire world is waiting anxiously. He will eliminate oppression and injustice and fill the earth with justice and peace.108
9. As-Saduq narrated that As-Saqar bin Dalf said: I heard that Imam Muhammad Al-Jawad (as) said:
The Imam after me is my son Ali, who is a just Imam like me. His son Hassan who is just like his father will follow him. Then ther was silent. I asked him: Who is the Imam after that? He was very moved and said: After him will be his son Al-Qa'im, the expected one with justice. I asked: O Imam; why are you calling him Al-Qa'im? He replied: He is named Al-Qa'im because he will stand up after the majority of his Shi'ah will regress! I asked: Why are you then calling him the expected one? He said: He is the expected one because during his Occultation there will be many signs, and only the pure Muslims will be saved.109
10. As-Saduq narrated that As-Saqar bin Dalf said: I have heard Imam Ali Al-Hadi (as) say:
The Imam after me is my son Hassan, and after him his son Al-Qa'im who will fill the earth with justice as it was filled with injustice.110
11. Ahmed bin Ishaq narrated that he went to visit Imam Hassan bin Ali Al-'Askari (as).
His intention was to ask him about his successor. He said: Before I asked him he said: O Ahmed bin Ishaq; God will help any one who will ask for help. Then I asked about his successor? He stood up, and came back with a boy of three, who shone like the moon, and said: O Ahmed bin Ishaq because you are reliable I am showing you my son. His name is like that of the Messenger of Allah (saws), and he is the one who will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice. O Ahmed bin Ishaq, His is indeed like Al-Khidr and Dhu al-Qarnain. During his Occultation nobody will be saved except those who stay firm in their belief, and pray for his imminent reappearance.111
91. Ayatollah Sayyid Sadruddin Sadr, Al-Al-Mahdi
92. Al-Ghoulpayghani, Lutfullah Safi, Muntakhab ul-Athar fi Imama Thani Ashr
93. Here are a few examples narrated by Sunni-Muslim scholars:
From Sunan Abu Dawud:
Book 36. Number 4266. Narrated by Jabir ibn Samurah: 'The Prophet (s) said: The religion will continue to be established till there are twelve caliphs over you, and the whole community will agree on each of them. I then heard from the Prophet (s) some remarks which I could not understand. I asked my father: "What is he saying: He said: all of them will belong to the Quraysh.
Book 36. Number 4269. Narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: The Prophet (s) said: If only one day of this would remained, Allah would lengthen that day (according to the version of Za'idah), till He raised up in it a man who belongs to me or to my family whose father's name is the same as my father's, who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it has been filled with oppression and tyranny (according to the version of Fitr). Sufyan's version says: The world will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man of my family whose name will be the same as mine.
94. For the transcription and reproduction of this fatwa, see:
The "Introduction of Al-Ganjji al-Shafi'i, in Al-Bayean fi Akhbar Sahebe Ezzaman
Faleh, Abu Abdallah, Mu'jam Alfadhe Ala'qieda, p.164-165, Al-'Abaykan, Riadh, Saudi Arabia, 1997/1417
95. Faleh, Abu Abdallah, Mu'jam Alfadhe Ala'qieda, p.164-165, Al-'Abaykan, Riadh, Saudi Arabia, 1997/1417
96. All the details and sources will be explained under the answer to question 29.
97. Muzaffar, Muhammad Ridha, The Faith of Shi'a Islam. p.71, Islamic Seminary Publications, 1985
98. Halm, Heinz. Shi'ism, p.72, Translated to English by Janet Watson, Edinburgh University Press. 1991
99. Ibid: pp.74-75
100. Halm, Heinz. The Empire of Al-Mahdi, Translated to English by MIchael Bonner, E.J. Brill University Press. Leiden 1996
101. At-Tusi, Al-Ghaybah, p.204, As-Saduq, Kamal Ad-deen. p.283
102. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.316, Montakhab al-athar, p.206.
103. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.310, Bihar ul-Anwar, Vol.51, pp.133 & 207.
104. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.314.
105. Bihar ul-Anwar, Vol.51, p.137
106. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.331, and Al-Kafi, Vol.1, p.338
107. Al-Kafi, Vol.1, p.347
108. Bihar ul-Anwar, Vol.51, p.154
109. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.361
110. Kamal Ad-Deen, p.366
111. Kamal Ad-Deen, pp.366-367
Adapted from the book: "The Awaited Saviour; Questions and Answers"
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