The cause of headaches is uncertain. During the first trimester, they may be caused by changes in your hormone levels and an increase in blood volume and circulation. Pregnancy-related headaches may disappear in the second trimester, when your body becomes used to the hormonal changes. During the third trimester, headaches tend to be related more to posture and tension from carrying extra weight.
Some women often have tension headaches, which cause squeezing pain or a dull ache on both sides of the head or the back of the neck. The headaches may increase during pregnancy, especially if the woman experiences any of the following:
- Caffeine withdrawal (especially if she suddenly stops or cuts down on coffee drinking or other sources of caffeine when she learns she is pregnant)
- Lack of sleep
- Dehydration (lack of fluids)
- Hunger or low blood sugar
During the second and third trimesters, headaches may also be caused by a serious condition called preeclampsia (high blood pressure during pregnancy). Preeclampsia requires immediate medical attention.
Headaches: What You Can Do
Before taking any medications or herbal remedies, always talk to your health care provider. If you regularly suffer from migraines, ask your health care provider before taking the medications you normally used before becoming pregnant.
The following tips may safely help relieve or prevent headaches during pregnancy:
- Warm or cold compresses. To soothe a headache in the sinus area, apply warm compresses to the front and sides of your face and around your nose, eyes and temples. To relieve a tension headache, apply a cold compress to the back of your neck.
- Reduce stress. Avoid placing yourself in stressful situations. Relaxation exercises, which may consist of deep breathing or simply closing your eyes and imagining a peaceful scene, may also help.
- Rest and exercise. Resting in a dark, quiet room can soothe headaches. Getting enough sleep and exercise can also be helpful. Always be sure to find out from your health care provider what exercises are safe for you, and how long you can maintain your exercise program.
- Eat well-balanced meals. Eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day can help keep your blood sugar from getting too low.
- Maintain good posture, especially during the third trimester.
- Get a massage. Massaging your temples, shoulders and neck can help reduce the pain of headaches.
- Avoid headache triggers. Different kinds of food or stresses can trigger headaches. Keep a diary, and review the kinds of foods and activities that tend to trigger tension or migraine headaches. Triggers of migraine headaches include certain foods, such as chocolate, aged cheese, peanuts and preserved meats.
Most headaches during pregnancy are harmless, but headaches can sometimes be a sign of a more serious problem. If you have a migraine for the first time during pregnancy, or if you have a headache that feels unlike any you’ve experienced before, call your health care provider to make sure it is not a sign of more serious problems.
Call your health care provider right away if your headache:
- Is sudden and explosive or includes a violent pain that awakens you from sleep
- Is accompanied by fever and stiff neck
- Becomes increasingly worse, and you have vision changes, slurred speech, drowsiness, numbness or a change in sensation or alertness Occurs after falling or hitting your head
- Is accompanied by nasal congestion, pain and pressure underneath your eyes, or dental pain (since this may be a sign of sinus infection)
- Does not go away or recurs often
- Is sudden and very severe
- Is accompanied by blurry vision, spots in front of your eyes, sudden weight gain, pain in the upper right abdomen, and swelling in the hands or face
- Is accompanied by nausea and vomiting