Rafed English



There are 23 kinds of doubts that may arise during the Prayers which are as follows:- 8 Doubts that if occurred nullify the Namaz. 6 Doubts are such that if occurred may be ignored, and not nullify the Namaz. 9 Doubts that if occurred may not nullify the Namaz but do require the remedial procedure as will be described later and each case carried out. It is not necessary to recite the Namaz again.

Doubts Which Make Prayer Void.Mubtil Shakkiyaat)--> Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 2 units like Fajr prayers or Qasr prayer. Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 3 units. Doubts about the units performed in prayers consisting of 4 units before completion of 2 units.. Doubt in a 4 unit prayers before finishing the Zikr of the second Prostration as to whether he has performed 2 units or more. Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 2 and 5 units or between 2 and more than 5 units. Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 3 and 6 units or between 3 and more than 6 units. Doubt in a 4 unit prayer between 4 and 6 units or between 4 and more than 6 units. Doubt in a 4 unit prayer about the number of units already performed.

If a person entertains one of those doubts in his mind which make his prayer void it is better for him not to break the prayers, rather finish his prayers and offer the prayers again.

Doubts Which May be Ignored. Doubt about the act after the time has already passed. e.g. during ruku a person doubts as to whether he has recited Sura al-Hamd or while in sajda to doubt having missed ruku. Doubt after having finished the prayer. Doubt after the time of prayer has already passed. e.g. doubt at the time of Zohr prayer whether Fajr prayer was offered or not. Doubt of a person, who doubts too much. Doubt by the Imam about the number of units when the mamum (follower) is aware of their number and vice versa. Doubt created in recommended and precautionary prayers.

Doubts Which are Sound (that do not nullify Prayers but require remedial procedure) (Saheeh Shakkiyaat)-->

If a person is in doubt about the numbers of units performed by him in connection with the 4 unit prayers in 9 situations, he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, think over the matter immediately and if he becomes certain or forms an opinion about one side he should adopt that side and finish the prayers accordingly and act according to the following rules: If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2 units or 3, he should regard it as a 3rd unit and do the 4th unit and finish the prayer and on the basis of obligatory precaution offer 1 unit Precautionary Prayer (Namaz-e-Ehtiyat) by standing. If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2 or 4 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer and offer 2 unit Precautionary Prayer (Namaz-e-Ehtiyat) by standing . If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 2, 3 or 4 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer and offer 2 unit Precautionary Prayer (Namaz-e-Ehtiyat) by standing and two units by sitting. If after performing both sajdahs one doubts whether one has performed 4 or 5 units, he should regard it as a 4th unit and finish the prayer on this basis. After finishing the prayers he should also perform 2 Forgotten Prostrations (Sajdatus Sahv). In case, however a person entertains any one of the above mentioned four doubts after the first prostration or before finishing the recital of the first prostration his prayers would be void and be done again. During the course of Prayer if a person doubts, whether he has performed 3 or 4 units, he should assume it as a 4th unit and finish his prayers. He should then offer 1 unit by standing or 2 units by sitting of Namaz-e-Ehtiyat. If a person doubts during Qiyam (before the Rukoo)as to whether he has offered 4 or 5 units he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 1 unit by standing or 2 units by sitting of Namaz-e-Ehtiyat. If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 3rd or 5th unit he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 unit by standing of Namaz-e-Ehtiyat. If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 3rd, 4th or 5th unit he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 unit by standing and 2 units by sitting of Namaz-e-Ehtiyat. If a person doubts while in Qiyam (Before the Rukoo) as to whether he has performed 5 or 6 units he should sit down at once and finish the prayers and offer 2 Sajdatus Sahv. In the last four cases one should on the basis of obligatory precaution, also perform two Sajdatus Sahv on account of undue Qiyam.

There are 7 types of Ghusl

Masse Maiyit
Ghusl of nazar, qasam or Ahd.

There are two ways of doing Ghusl:

1. Ghusl-e-Tartibi (Sequence Bath)

In this type of Ghusl, the person should first wash his head and then his neck and thereafter the remaining parts of his body and it is better that he should wash the right part of his body first followed by the left part of the body. In order to ensure that both the parts ( head and neck; and remaining part of the body ) have been washed properly one should, while washing ones part, also include some portion of the other part.

2. Ghusl-e-Irtimasi (Immersion Bath)

In this type of ghusl it is necessary that the entire body should go down in water at one and the same time. In case a person dives in water with the intention of immersion bath and his feet touch the earth he should lift them up.

It is necessary, on the basis of obligatory precaution, that when a person intends to perform immersion bath a part of his body should be out of water. If after performing immersion bath it becomes known that water has not reached some part of the body one should take the bath again.

If one does not have sufficient time for Ghusl-e-Tartibi, he should perform Ghusl-e-Irtimasi.

If a person is observing an obligatory fast of which the day is fixed or has put on Ihramfor Umra or Hajj he is not allowed to perform immersion bath.

The conditions for the validity of Wazuu (e.g. the water being pure and not having been usurped ) are also applicable for the validity of ghusl.


The two things which cause "Janabat" and after which Ghusl is Wajib are: Discharge of Semen in sleep or while awake Sexual Intercourse.

The following things are while in condition of Janabat Reciting even a single ayat from those Suras in which Sajda is wajib. (Surah as-Sajdah, 32:15; Surah Ham Mim Sajdah, 41:38; Surah an-Najm, 53:62; Surah al-Alaq, 96:19. Touching the writings of Quran or the Names of Allah. Entering Masjidul Haram or Masjidun Nabi. To stay in Masjids, other than the ones mentioned in C. To go and place something in the Masjid or, to enter it to take out something.

Some of the things which are Makruh in state of Janabat. To eat To drink To recite more than seven verses of Quran in which an obligatory Sajdah does not occur. To touch the Quran To carry the Quran from one place to other, even without touching it. To sleep. It is okay to sleep after performing Tayammum instead of Ghusl on account of non- availability of Water To dye ones hair with Henna etc. To apply oil to ones body To have sexual intercourse after the discharge of semen during sleep.


Menstrual discharge (Haiz) is a kind of blood which is normally discharged every month from the womb of women for a few days. When menses is discharged the woman is called 'Haaez'.

Rules for the Haaez

Acts which are Haraam for a woman who is in the state of Haiz:-

Prayers and other similar acts of worship for which Wudhu or tayammum or Ghusl is necessary. However, there is no harm in her performing those acts of worship for which Wudhu, tayammum or Ghusl are not obligatory (e.g. Namaz-e-Mayyit). All those acts which are forbidden to a junub Having sexual intercourse.


From the time when the child birth (even in case of a still born) takes place, the blood seen by the mother is Nifas, provided that it stops before or on completion of the tenth day. It is possible that Nifas blood may be discharged for an instant only, but it never exceeds 10 days.

While in the condition of Nifas, a woman is called Nafsa.


One type of blood which is seen by women is called istihaza and a woman in that state is called mustahaza.

Istihaza is usually yellowish and cold and is emitted without gush or irritation and is also not thick. It is, however, possible that at times the color of the blood may be red or dark, and it may also be warm and thick and may be issued with gush and irritation.

There are three kinds of istihaza:- Little Blood (Qalila)

If the blood remains on the surface of the wool or pad etc., (placed by a woman on her private part) but does not penetrate into it, the istihaza is called qalila. (In the case of little istihaza the a woman should perform separate Wudhu for every prayer)

Medium Blood (Mutawassita)

If the blood penetrates into the cotton (or pad etc.), even partially, but does not soak the cloth tied on the outer side, the istihaza is called mutawassita. (In the case of Mutawassita, it is an obligatory precaution for a woman to make one Ghusl everyday for her daily prayers)

Excessive Blood (Kathira)

If the blood penetrates through the cotton, soaking it and the cloth (etc.) around it, the istihaza is called kathira. (In the case of excessive bleeding the woman should do one Ghusl for Fajr prayers, one for Zuhr and Asr prayers and once again for Maghrib and Isha prayers. She should offer Asr prayers immediately after Zuhr prayers and if she allowed any lapse of time between them, she should do Ghusl again for Asr prayers. Similarly if she keeps any time gap between Maghrib and Isha prayers, she should do Ghusl again for Isha prayers.)


Giving Ghusl, Kafan, Hunoot, Namaz, and burial to every dead Muslim is Wajib-e-Kifaee which means if some people undertake to fulfil the obligation, others will be relieved of the responsibility. And if no one undertakes to do so, all will be equally sinful.


If a person touches a human dead body which has become cold and has not yet been given Ghusl (i.e. brings any part of his own body in contact with it) he should do Ghusl regardless of whether he touched it while asleep or awake, voluntarily or otherwise. Ghusl will also be wajib if his nail or bone touches the nail or bone of the dead body. However, Ghusl is not obligatory if one touches a dead animal.

Najasaat means the thing which is unclean in itself, and makes other things unclean by contact. There are 10 Najasaat:- and 2. Urine and Stool The Urine and Stool of the following living beings are impure:

Human Beings The animal, whose meat is haram to eat, and whose blood gushes when its great artery is cut. An animal which eats excretion A sheep which has been nursed by a she pig An animal with which a human being has had a sexual intercourse. Semen

The semen of human beings and of every animal whose blood gushes when its great artery is cut, is impure. Dead Body The dead body of a human being is impure. Similarly the dead body of an animal whose blood gushes while slaughtering is impure if it dies a natural death or is killed in a manner other than that prescribed by religious law. As the blood of a fish does not gush, its dead body is pure, even if it dies in water. Those parts of a dead body (whether of a human being or of an animal) are pure which do not posses life in it like nails, teeth, hair, bones, horns etc. Blood The blood of a human being and of every animal whose blood gushes when its great artery is cut is impure. The blood of a fish or a mosquito is pure because it does not gush.

and 7. Dogs and Pigs

The dogs and pigs which live on land are impure and even their hair, bones, paws and every liquid substance of their body is impure. However, aquatic dogs and pigs are pure.


A kafir is a person who denies Allah or the Day of Judgment, or associates anyone else with Allah, is impure. As for the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) who do not accept and believe in Prophet Muhammed (peace be on him and his progeny) they are known to be impure.

Alcoholic Liquor

All Alcoholic liquors and beverages which intoxicate a person, are najis.

Beer (Fuqqa)

Note: Sweat of an animal who persistently eats najasat is najis.

The Negative Attributes which cannot be found in Allah because they are below His. They are many, but like "Positive Attributes Of Allah" only eight are listed.

They are:- SHAREEK:- The word "Shareek" means a colleague or a partner. Allah has neither a colleague nor a partner in His Divinity.

MURAKKAB:- This word means "Compound" or "Mixed". Allah is neither made, nor composed, of any material. He cannot be divided even in the imagination.

MAKAAN:- It means "Place". Allah is not confined to a place for He has no JISM (body).

HULOOL:- It means "entering". Nothing enters Allah nor does He enter anything or anybody. Therefore, the belief of Incarnation in any form is abhorrent to the conception of Divinity.

MAHALLE HAWADIS:- This means "subject to changes". Allah cannot change.

MAR-I:- It means "visible". Allah is not visible. He has not been seen, is not seen and will never be seen, because He is not a body.

IHTIYAJ:- It means "dependence" or "need". Allah is not deficient in any virtue, so he does not need anything.

SIFATE ZAID:- This means "added qualifications". The attributes of Allah are not separate from His Being. For example, we say that Allah is Alim, but it does not mean that His knowledge is something separate from His Existence. In fact, there has never been a time when he was less Alim and then acquired more knowledge. His Knowledge, His Mercy, His Justice and all His virtues and attributes are His Own Being.

It will thus be seen that according to Islam ALLAH is the name of God as percieved in the light of the above Positive and Negative Attributes. In other words, ALLAH is the Creator of the Universe, Self-Existent, the source of all perfection and free from all defects.

It is not possible to perfectly translate the names and attributes of Allah from their original Arabic into English. However, here are some fairly close explanations.

1. Allah He who has the Godhood which is the power to create the entities.

2. Ar-Rahman The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers and the blasphemers in this world and especially for the believers in the hereafter.

3. Ar-Rahim The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers.

4. Al-Malik The One with the complete Dominion, the One Whose Dominion is clear from imperfection.

5. Al-Quddus The One who is pure from any imperfection and clear from children and adversaries.

6. As-Salam The One who is free from every imperfection.

7. Al-Mu'min The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him. And He witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him.

8. Al-Muhaymin The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures.

9. Al-^Aziz The Defeater who is not defeated.

10. Al-Jabbar The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed.

11. Al-Mutakabbir The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them.

12. Al-Khaliq The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence.

13. Al-Bari' The Creator who has the Power to turn the entities.

14. Al-Musawwir The One who forms His creatures in different pictures.

15. Al-Ghaffar The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again.

16. Al-Qahhar The Subduer who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything.

17. Al-Wahhab The One who is Generous in giving plenty without any return.

18. Ar-Razzaq The One who gives everything that benefits whether

19. Al-Fattah The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldy and religiousmatters.

20. Al-^Alim The Knowledgeable; The One nothing is absent from His knowledge.

21. Al-Qabid and 22. Al-Basit The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdomand expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.

23. Al-Khafid and 24. Ar-Rafi^ The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.

25. Al-Mu^iz and 26. Al-Muthil He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.

27. As-Sami^ The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ.

28. Al-Basir The One who Sees all things that are seen by His Eternal Seeing without a pupil or any other instrument.

29. Al-Hakam He is the Ruler and His judgment is His Word.

30. Al-^Adl The One who is entitled to do what He does.

31. Al-Latif The One who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them.

32. Al-Khabir The One who knows the truth of things.

33. Al-Halim The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them.

34. Al-^Azim The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement,and Purity from all imperfection.

35. Al-Ghafur The One who forgives a lot.

36. Ash-Shakur The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience.

37. Al-^Aliyy The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures.

38. Al-Kabir The One who is greater than everything in status.

39. Al-Hafiz The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to protect.

40. Al-Muqit The One who has the Power.

41. Al-Hasib The One who gives the satisfaction.

42. Aj-Jalil The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.

43. Al-Karim The One who is clear from abjectness.

44. Ar-Raqib The One that nothing is absent from Him. Hence it's meaning is related to the attribute of Knowledge.

45. Al-Mujib The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him.

46. Al-Wasi^ The Knowledgeable.

47. Al-Hakim The One who is correct in His doings.

48. Al-Wadud The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slaves is His Will to be merciful to them and praise them:Hence it's meaning is related to the attributes of the Will and Kalam (His attribute with which He orders and forbids and spoke to Muhammad and Mu sa -peace be upon them- . It is not a sound nor a language nor a letter.).

49. Al-Majid The One who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness.

50. Al-Ba^ith The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment.

51. Ash-Shahid The One who nothing is absent from Him.

52. Al-Haqq The One who truly exists.

53. Al-Wakil The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon.

54. Al-Qawiyy The One with the complete Power.

55. Al-Matin The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired.

56. Al-Waliyy The Supporter.

57. Al-Hamid The praised One who deserves to be praised.

58. Al-Muhsi The One who the count of things are known to him.

59. Al-Mubdi' The One who started the human being. That is, He created him.

60. Al-Mu^id The One who brings back the creatures after death.

61. Al-Muhyi The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul. He gives life by giving the souls back to the worn out bodies on the resurrection day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge.

62. Al-Mumit The One who renders the living dead.

63. Al-Hayy The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh or blood.

64. Al-Qayyum The One who remains and does not end.

65. Al-Wajid The Rich who is never poor. Al-Wajd is Richness.

66. Al-Majid The One who is Majid.

67. Al-Wahid The One without a partner.

68. As-Samad The Master who is relied upon in matters and reverted to in ones needs.

69. Al-Qadir The One attributed with Power.

70. Al-Muqtadir The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld rom Him.

71. Al-Muqaddim and 72. Al-Mu'akhkhir The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.

73. Al-'Awwal The One whose Existence is without a beginning.

74. Al-'Akhir The One whose Existence is without an end.

75. Az-Zahir 76. Al-Batin The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies.

77. Al-Wali The One who owns things and manages them.

78. Al-Muta^ali The One who is clear from the attributes of the creation.

79. Al-Barr The One who is kind to His creatures, who covered them with His sustenance and specified whoever He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy.

80. At-Tawwab The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance.

81. Al-Muntaqim The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It may mean the One who destroys them.

82. Al-^Afuww The One with wide forgiveness.

83. Ar-Ra'uf The One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willed among His creatures.

84. Malik Al-Mulk The One who controls the Dominion and gives dominion to whoever He willed.

85. Thul-Jalal wal-Ikram The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied.

86. Al-Muqsit The One who is Just in His judgment.

87. Aj-Jami^ The One who gathers the creatures on a day that there is no doubt about, that is the Day of Judgment.

88. Al-Ghaniyy The One who does not need the creation.

89. Al-Mughni The One who satisfies the necessities of the creatures.

90. Al-Mani^ The Supporter who protects and gives victory to His pious believers.

91. Ad-Darr and 92. An-Nafi^ The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.

93. An-Nur The One who guides.

94. Al-Hadi The One whom with His Guidance His belivers were guided, and with His Guidance the living beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them.

95. Al-Badi^ The One who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example.

96. Al-Baqi The One that the state of non-existence is impossible for Him.

97. Al-Warith The One whose Existence remains.

98. Ar-Rashid The One who guides.

99. As-Sabur The One who does not quickly punish the sinners. "...Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer..." Qur'an [42:11]

(Arabic transliteration: Huwa Allathi Laysa Ka Mithlihi Shay'un Wa Huwa As-Sami^ Al-Basir)

Courtesy of:- Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project.

The positive attributes which are befitting Allah are many in number, but eight of them are listed.

They are:- QADEEM:- This means that Allah is Eternal i.e. He has neither a beginning nor an end.

QAADIR:- It means that Allah is Omnipotent, i.e. He has power over everything, and every affair.

AALIM:- It means that Allah is Omniscient i.e. He knows everything. Nothing ever remains a secret from Him.

HAI:- means that Allah is alive and will remain alive forever.

MUREED:- This means that Allah has His own discretion in all affairs. He does not do anything under compulsion.

MUDRIK:- It means that He is All-Perceiving, as Sami (All-Hearing), Baseer (All-Seeing), Haazir (Omnipresent). Allah sees and hears everything though He has neither eyes nor ears.

MUTAKALLIM:- It means that Allah is The Master of the word, i.e. He can create speech in anything as He did in a tree for Hazrat Musa (A.S.) and in the "Curtain of Light" for Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).

SADIQ:- This means that Allah is true in his words and promises.

It is impossible to fix any limits to His attributes. This list is not exhaustive but is essential to understand the Glory of Allah. The attributes are not acquired but inherent in the conception of Divinity.

A person for whom it is obligatory to offer Prayer of Ehtiyat should make the intention of such prayer immediately after Salam of prayers, without looking away from the Qibla or doing anything which invalidates the Prayers, do the Takbir and recite Surah al-Hamd and then perform the Ruuku, the two Sajdahs, Tashahhud and Salam. In case, however, it is obligatory for him to perform two units of Prayer of Ehtiyat, he should perform after the two Sajdahs, another unit like the first one and then recite Tashahhud and Salam.

Note: In Prayer of Ehtiyat there is no second surah or qonoot.


After the Salam of the prayer one should offer two sajdatus sahv for everyone of the following things:

One has talked by mistake in Prayer One has left one Sajdahs by mistake One has forgotten Tashahhud by mistake One has recited Salam at the wrong place by mistake Has added or omitted by mistake any such thing which is not Rukn; or In the 4 Unit Prayer, after the second Sajdah one doubts whether it was the 4th or 5th unit.

How to do Sajdatus Sahv

Soon after finishing the Prayer, one immediately makes the intention and goes to Sajdah and recite " Bismillahe wa billahe Assalaamu alaika aiyuhan-Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuh", and then one sits and perform the other Sajdah in the same way as the first one and sits and recite Tashahhud and Salam. (It is enough to say "Assalamu alaykum wa Rahmatullahe wa barakatuh for Salam.)

Note: If the Prayer of Ehtiyat is also to be performed it must be performed before Sajdatus Sahv.

There are 12 things which make impure objects pure.


Water is of two kinds

Mutlaq (pure water)

Mutlaq is of 5 kinds: Rain water Running water Well water Still water about Kur or more than a Kur (Abe Kathir); and Still water less than a Kur(Abe Kaleel). Muzaf (mixed water)

Water cleanses a Najis thing on the condition that water is (1) Mutlaq, and (2) clean (Tahir ), and (3) does not become Mozaf by coming into contact with that Najasat, and (4) all the Najasat is washed away from that Najis thing.

Rain water, running water (like sea, river, stream, spring etc.) and well water make things clean if washed once after removing the Najasaat. But if any thing becomes Najis by urine it must be washed twice. It is better to wash twice even in other Najasaats.

Clothes should be squeezed after every washing as described above.

Still water which is just a Kur or more than a Kur, also, makes things clean in the same way.

These waters cannot be unclean by mere contact with Najasaat. They will be unclean if either their taste, color or smell is changed by that contact.

Still water which is less than a Kur becomes unclean by just coming into contact with a Najasaat. To cleanse with clean still water, it is necessary to wash two times after removing the Najasaat. It is better to wash three times.

The water running from the pipes in the houses is treated as river water so long as it is running.

Pots must be cleansed three times with water which is less than a Kur, and once if it is washed in Kur or running water.

If a Pig licks the pot, then it should be washed seven times whether the water is running or Kur or less than that.

The same is the rule if a rat dies in a pot.

If a Dog licks the pot, it should be rubbed with wet clean earth thoroughly; then, after washing away the earth, it should be washed twice with water which is less than a Kur, or once in Kur or running water.

If a pot becomes Najis by liquor, it must be washed three times, whatever the kind of water.

Note: A Kur is about 384 liters of water.


The earth makes clean the sole of the shoe or feet, but there are four conditions for it: The Najasaat must have been contacted from walking on the earth; It is removed by walking on the earth; The earth is clean; and Dry.

Note: This rule does not apply to the end of the stick or wheels of car or carts etc.


The sun makes clean those things which cannot be moved like wall, tree, earth etc. If the Najasaat is removed, and the place or tree etc. is wet, and then it becomes dry by direct rays of the sun, it becomes clean. If it dries by hot air combined with the suns rays, or just by hot air, or by suns heat without direct rays, it will not be clean.


It means "change". If a najis thing is changed into a clean thing (chemically), it will become clean. For example, a Najis stick burnt turns to ashes or if a dog after death is changed into earth, that earth will be clean.


It is similar to the Istihala. The difference is that in Istihala, the shape and form, all are changed, while in Inquilab, only the properties are changed. Its only example: If wine becomes vinegar, it is Inquilab. By Inquilab, it will become clean.

Note: If grape juice is fermented, either by fire or by itself, it is to drink. But if that fermented liquid is boiled on fire and its two-thirds are evaporated the remaining one-third will become Halal.


It means to change place. If a mosquito sucks the blood of a man and there is a gap of time, so that the blood is called the blood of mosquito, it will become clean.


Kafir becomes clean after accepting Islam.


The following things become clean by it: When a Kafir becomes Muslim, his minor children become clean automatically. If a well becomes Najis and the water is taken out of it until it becomes clean, then the wall of the well, the bucket and the rope will become clean automatically. While washing Najis things our hands become unclean; but when that thing becomes clean, our hands will become clean automatically. If the wine becomes vinegar and thus becomes clean, the pot in which it was, will become clean automatically. Wood plank or cement/stone slabs upon which the body of a dead Muslim is washed, as well as the piece of cloth used to cover hiss hidden parts, and also the hands of the person washing the body become clean when the Ghusl-e-Meyyit is completed. ZAWAL-E-AIN If there is any Najasaat on the body of an animal, it will become clean if that Najasaat is just removed or rubbed out from his body. Likewise, the inner parts of human body, like mouth and stomach, become clean if the Najasaat is just removed from them. Eyelids, lips and dentures are not included in this rule.


The urine and the stool of the animal which eats the refuse of man are Najis; and the only way of its Taharat is Istibra; i.e. guarding it from above mentioned Najis feed for a certain prescribed period. This period is 40 days for a Camel; 30 days for a Cow; 10 days for a Sheep and Goat; 5 to 7 days for a Duck and 3 days for a Hen.

If any of these animals are kept away from the refuse of man for the prescribed period its urine and stool become Tahir, provided that, at the end of that period, they are no more called refuse eating animals.


If there is a Muslim, who is strict follower of the Shariat; and any of his clothes or things becomes Najis, then he goes out of your sight long enough to enable him to make it clean, then he comes back and you see him using that cloth in Namaz, for example, then you must believe that he has cleansed that cloth, otherwise, he would not have used it in Namaz. It is called Ghaibat -e- Muslim, which means "Absence of Muslim".


When a Halal animal is slaughtered according to the rules of Sheriat, and its blood flows out of its body in such a quantity which is normal in that kind of animal, the blood which remains in its body becomes Clean.

But that blood which remains in those organs of body which are Haram (like Spleen, Bladder etc. ) must be avoided.

Sign prayers become obligatory when any of the following conditions are present: Solar eclipse (whether partial or complete). Lunar eclipse (whether partial or complete). Earthquake Thunder of the clouds and lightning, red and black cyclones and other similar occurrences, which normally creates fear in people.

The obligatory precaution is that besides the events mentioned the offering of Sign Prayers should not be abandoned in the event of certain terrestrial events, e.g. if the water of the sea recedes or the mountains fall, because of which people are usually frightened.

If there occur several events, which make offering of Signs Prayers obligatory, one should offer separate Signs Prayers for each occurrence.

If it becomes necessary for a person to offer a number of Signs Prayers it is not necessary for him, while offering the lapsed prayers, to specify the event, for which he is offering a particular lapsed Signs Prayers.

Offering of Signs Prayers is obligatory for the residents of only that town in which the event occurs, that is if you were able to see or feel it.

In the event of Solar or Lunar eclipse Signs Prayers should be offered when the eclipse commences and should not be delayed till such time that the sun or the moon may start coming out of the eclipse.

Signs Prayers is not obligatory for a women who is in Hayz or Nifas, and it is not obligatory for her to offer the Qaza of it.

If a person did not know about the sun or the moon eclipse, and came to know after the eclipse was over, he should offer its qaza if it was a total eclipse, and if he comes to know that the eclipse was partial, qaza will not be obligatory.

If Signs Prayers becomes obligatory on a person at the time of daily prayers, and if he has enough time at his disposal for both, he can offer any of them first. If the time for one of them is short, he should offer the daily prayers first.

If a person realizes during the daily prayers that the time for Signs Prayers is short, and if the time for daily prayers is also short, he should complete the daily prayers and then offer Signs Prayers. But if the time for the daily prayers is not short, he should break that prayers and first offer Signs Prayers and then offer the daily prayers.

If a person realizes while offering Signs Prayers, that the time for daily prayers is short, he should leave Signs Prayers and start offering daily prayers. After completing the daily prayers, and before performing any act which invalidates the prayers, he should start Signs Prayers from where he left.

Methods of Offering Signs Prayers

Signs Prayers consists of two rakats, and there are five Ruku in each. Its method is as follows: After making niyyat of offering the prayers, one should say takbir (Allahu Akber) and recite Surah-al-Hamd and other Surah, and then perform the Ruku. Thereafter, he should stand and recite Surah al-Hamd and a Surah and then perform another Ruku. He should repeat this action five times, and, when he stands after the fifth Ruku, he should perform two Sajdah, and then stand up to perform the second Rakat in the same manner as he has done in the first. Then he should recite tashahhud and Salaam.

All the rules of the daily prayers also apply to the Signs Prayers.

Tayammum should be performed instead of Wudhu or Ghusl in the following seven conditions: When it is not possible to find sufficient water for performing Wudhu or Ghusl

If a person is unable to find water on account of old age or weakness or due to fear of a thief or a beast or because he does not possess means to draw water from a well, he should perform tayammum. The same order would apply in case the trouble to acquire water is usually considered to be unbearable.

If a person fears that if he uses water his life will be in danger or he will suffer from some ailment or defect in his body or the ailment from which he is already suffering will become acute or some complications will arise in its treatment. However, if warm water is not injurious for him, he should perform Wudhu with it and also do Ghusl with it in cases in which Ghusl is obligatory.

If a person fears that if he uses water to do Ghusl, or to perform Wudhu, he will be involved in hardship, he should perform Tayammum under the following 3 cases: In case he fears that if he uses the water for Ghusl or Wudhu, he will be involved in an acute thirst, which may result in his illness or death, or which it will be very hard for him to bear;

In case he fears that in the event of his doing Ghusl or Wudhu, the people whose care is obligatory for him may become ill or die on account of thirst,

and, In case he fears, on account of lack of water, for others ( whether human beings or animals ) besides himself, and their death, illness or restlessness is unpleasant for him.

In the absence of anyone or more of the three conditions mentioned above it is not permissible to perform Tayammum when water is available. If the body or dress of a person is impure and he possesses only so much water that it is likely to be exhausted if he takes a bath or washes his dress he should, on the basis of precaution, take a bath or wash his dress, and offer his prayer after performing Tayammum. However, if he does not possess anything with which to perform tayammum he should use the water for bathing or for Wudhu and offer his prayers with impure body or dress.

If a person possess unlawful water or container, he should perform tayammum instead of Ghusl or Wudhu.

When the time left for offering prayers is so short that if a person does the Ghusl or Wudhu he would be obliged to offer the entire prayers or a part thereof after the prescribed time, he should perform tayammum.

If a person intentionally delays offering the prayers so much that no time is left for Ghusl or Wudhu he will have committed a sin, but the prayers offered by him after performing tayammum will be in order, although recommended precaution is that he should also offer the prayers in question again after performing the Ghusl or Wudhu, whatever the case maybe.

In case a person is doubtful whether or not any time will be left for prayers, in case he does the Ghusl or Wudhu, he should perform tayammum and then offer prayers.

Things on which Tayammum may be Performed Performance of tayammum on earth, sand, a lump of clay or a stone in order, but the recommended precaution is that if earth is available tayammum should not be performed on anything else. In case earth is not available it should be performed on sand or a lump of clay and failing that on a stone. It is in order to perform tayammum on gypsum or lime - stone. On the basis of obligatory precaution, however, tayammum should not be performed, without proper excuse, on baked gypsum or lime or baked bricks or mineral stones.

If it is not possible for a person to procure earth, sand, lump of clay or stone, he should perform tayammum on the dust which may have settled on a carpet or dress. And in case even if dust is not available he should perform tayammum on wet earth. And if none of these things are available he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, offer prayers without performing tayammum, and it is obligatory that he should also offer his prayers again.

The things on which a person performs tayammum should be pure and Mubah - not Ghasbi

, and if he has no pure thing on which tayammum is in order, it is not obligatory for him to offer prayers. He should however, offer lapsed prayers .

How to do Tayammum. Niyyat: I am doing tayammum in place of Wudhu or Ghusl, so that my prayer or fast may be correct, Wajib or Sunnat Qurbatan ilallah. Strike palms of both hands together upon things on which tayammum is correct. Just putting the hands upon earth etc. is not enough. (Fig 1.) Pull both palms together from the beginning of the forehead down to the point of the nose. Both sides of the forehead joining the ears should be included. (Fig 2a & 2b) Then pull the left palm upon the back of the right hand from the projecting small bone on the joint of palm and arm up to the fingertips. Then pull the right palm on the back of the left palm likewise. Strike the palms together upon earth etc. second time. Pull the left palm on the back of the right hand, as explained above Pull the right palm on the back of the left hand, as explained above.

While performing tayammum one should remove the ring he or she is wearing and also remove any obstruction which may be present on his forehead or on the palms or back of his hands.

In case a person has a wound on his forehead or the back of his hands and it is bandaged with a cloth or something else which cannot be removed, he should wipe his hands on it. And in the case that he has a bandage on his hands which cannot be removed then he should strike his hands along with the bandage.

A person whose obligation is tayammum cannot perform it unless the time for prayers sets in, however if there is a probability that his excuse will cease to exist before the time for prayers is over it is better that he should not offer the prayers during the earlier part of the time.

If a person performs tayammum on account of non - availability of water or because of some other excuse his tayammum becomes void when that obstacle ceases to exist.

If some Ghusls are to be performed by a person but he cannot do the Ghusl it is okay to perform one tayammum, but it is recommended to do that for everyone of those Ghusls he should perform one tayammum.

If a person performs tayammum in lieu of Ghusl - e Janabat he can do his prayers, however if he performs tayammum in lieu of other Ghusl then he should do another tayammum in lieu of Wudhu.


There are various definitions of and different concepts about Death as held by different personalities, religion as well as others. Some may say Death is the end; while others say Death is a means to enter the permanent phase of life'.

"To the ignorant, death means the end of life, while in reality it is but the evening leading to the dawn of Eternal life."

According to an English Scholar : "Death is a slave to other means of expiration. For instance one cannot achieve Death unless he meets some accident, has illness -maybe heart failure, poisoning, a fall, etc."

There is no escape from death.

Death is a word dread by most of the people, but little do they realise, that everything which comes into existence from nothing, has to perish, decay or die one day. This is the law of nature. However hard one may try, the science may reach its zenith, there is no escape from death.

The Holy Qur'an emphatically declares: "Whenever you will be, death will overtake you, even if you are in (strong and) lofty towers". (an Nisa, 4:78)

"Every one on it will perish. But will remain for ever the Face of the Lord, the Glorious and Gracious."

"Every soul must taste death, (and we test you by evil and good by way of trial; and to us you shall be brought back)."

How does death come?

At the approach of death, when the eyes, ears and tongue cease to function, the person concerned sees (in spiritual vision) three things which claim to be friends : One of them says, "I will remain with you till your death." (That friend his worldly wealth and assets).

"I will accompany you till the door of your grave." (And this is his children).

But one friend says. "I am with you forever, in life as well as death." (these are his deeds of this world)

When time comes for a man to die, Allah sends two angels:

MUSHKIYAH - One who makes him generous, and

MUNSIYYAH - One who makes him forget.

i.e.MUSHKIYAH makes him generous with his family wealth MUNSIYYAH makes him forget all worldly affairs.

Also two other angels visit the dying man:

RAQUEEB - Comes to deliver the record of good deeds, and,

ATEED - Comes to deliver the record of bad deeds. Imam Ali (A) has said: "Whoever dies, sees me, whether he is a believer or a hypocrite."

So far as the believers are concerned, they become happy to see the Imam (A), but the hypocrites become sad when they see him. -->

When these angels have done their job, the Angel of Death (Malakul Maut / Isra'il) arrives and tells him not to worry (especially if he has good record of his deeds):

"By Allah, I am kinder to you then your father. Now open your eyes and look."

Then the dying person's spiritual eyes are opened.

Then he hears the following call (present in the Holy Qur'an); "O soul that are at rest! Return to your lord, well pleased with Him, well-pleasing Him. So enter among my servants and enter into my gardens." (al Fajr, 89:27-30)

At that time the believers only wish is to die as soon as possible so that he may reach that caller. Thus, the believer leaves this world without any sorrow and without any care. And Allah gives him death when he himself desires death above all things, so that he may reach the Messenger of Allah.


Barzakh literally means "Barrier". It has been used for the period between Death and the Day of Resurrection (ie the day when all human beings will be brought back to life). During Barzakh, one's correct belief and good deeds alone will assist him in having a peaceful time.

Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (A) has said: "We will intercede (ask for forgiveness) on your behalf on the Day of Judgement, but, by Allah, I am worried about you for the period when you would be in Barzakh"

Sinners will be punished during this period. The Holy Qur'an confirms the period of Barzakh saying, "......And before them is a barrier until the day they are raised."(al Mu'minoon, 23:100)

The Groups In Barzakh:

There are 3 groups in Barzakh:

The true perfect believers

This group of people are perfect in their Faith and virtuous in their deeds. They lived a blameless life, and if there was some mistake or sin, their worldly troubles like, illness, poverty, death of near and dear ones, troublesome neighbours, and/or agony at the time of Death were sufficient to be counted as payment for the sins they committed.

Allah knows that they deserve reward; but since the Day of Judgement has not yet come, they cannot be sent to Paradise. By the rule of the law they should be left without any reward till they are resurrected; but by the Mercy of Allah, they are questioned about their beliefs and on giving correct answers, they enter a state of Bliss, which gives them the satisfaction of knowing that their future is secure. They find pleasure and happiness in their grave and wait eagerly for the Day of Resurrection.

The confirmed unbelievers and hypocrites

These are the people whose lives were devoid of good deeds, or if there were any good deeds performed, the worldly blessings of health, wealth, good family and friends, prestige and power, etc and/or the ease at the time of death were sufficient rewards.

Allah knows that there place is in Hell; but He does not send them there before the Day of Judgement. So, to give a fore-taste of their punishment, they are questioned about their beliefs, and when they do not give correct answers, their graves are turned into cells of punishment; and they wish that Qiyamah would not come at all.

Note: The reward or punishment of Barzakh is different from that of Paradise or Hell. The reward or punishment of Barzakh is for the Soul only. It is for this reason that we do not see anyone being rewarded or punished in the grave. In the tradition of Ma'sumeen (A) it has been compared to happy dreams or nightmares.

Neither perfect believers nor confirmed believers

These are the children, the insane, those who for some reason or another could not differentiate the right path from the wrong path, those who were so far out of the Islamic Environment that they were not aware of the truth of Islam, those who did not know about Islam but yet were not enemies of Islam, those whose religious beliefs were not based upon logical understanding but just followed what their families were following, those non-believers who love the Holy Prophet (S) and the Ahlul Bayt (A) without knowing that they were the True Guides sent by Allah.

Such people will not be subjected to the questioning and squeezing in the grave. They will left in a state like deep slumber, and Allah will decide about them on the Day of Judgement. Till then, there is neither reward nor punishment for them.

After these main groups, there still remains a group in between. This group is of those believers who had committed so many sins that could not be wiped out by the worldly troubles and agony of death. If Allah decides that such a believer should come on the Day of Judgement clean from all blemishes and free from all sins, then He may put him under punishment during Barzakh. It is this punishment which has been referred to in the Hadith by Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (A): "We will intercede on your behalf on the day of judgement but, by Allah, I am worried about you whilst you would be in Barzakh."

On the other hand, if Allah decides to leave this case in suspense till Qiyamah, then it will fall under the 3rd group.

All these things depend upon the justice and mercy of Allah. We have not been told enough to know all the details about all the groups. It is about the 1st, 2nd and last group of people who will be punished in Barzakh, that the Holy prophet (S) has said:

"When one dies, his Qiyamah starts."

Questioning In The Grave

According to traditions, after one has been buried and those who came to bury him go away (it is said that 40 steps away from the grave is sufficient), two angels come into the grave. One is called Munkar, the other Nakir. The soul is caused to re-enter the body for questioning. Then the person (now alive again) is asked :

"Who is your Rabb (Lord)? Who is your Prophet? What is your Religion? What is your Book? What is your Qiblah? Who are your Imams?

Talqeen prepares the dead person to answer all these questions. Since it teaches the dead-body the correct answer to the questions which are to be asked.

Whoever would answer the questions correctly would get comfort and mercy in his grave and the garden of bliss in the Akhirat; and whoever would not answer correctly, for him would be the fare of boiling water in his grave and Hell in the next world.

Questioning in the grave includes questions about Salaat, Zakaat, Haj, Fasting and the love for Ahlul-Bait (A). If he is a believer and answers correctly, the angels tell him to sleep peacefully, and a door is opened into his grave from the paradise; he sees his place in the paradise, then his soul is taken out of the body and is placed in the neighbourhood of the 14 Ma'sumeen (A).

After the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakir the angels, Mubashir and Bashir, come to congratulate the believers if they have answered successfully.

Again the love for Imam Ali (A) helps during the questioning. Our Holy Prophet (S) told Imam Ali (A):

"Those who love you will be glad in three places:

At the time of death. (Because you will be there visiting them) At the questioning in the grave (As you will be teaching them the correct replies) At the time of coming before Allah (and you will be there introducing them)."

If he is not a believer, and does not answer correctly, then the angels punish him with and a door is opened from the hell into his grave.

After the questioning in the grave, the soul of a believer is sent to Wadius Salaam (the Valley of Peace); and that of an unbeliever to Wadiul Barhut (the Valley of Turmoil/Trouble). The Valley of peace is said to be in Najaf, where the soul of the believers remain in peace waiting for the Day of Judgement; and the Valley of trouble is said to be in Yemen, where the souls of the hypocrites and unbelievers remain in turmoil, afraid of the approaching of the Day of Resurrection.

Squeezing In The Grave (Fishare Qabr):

Imam Ja'far as Sadiq (A) has said:

"Whoever is subject to the questioning in the grave, is also squeezed by the grave therein, and the one who is exempted from questioning, is exempted from the squeeze also."

For some believers the squeeze will be like two friend embracing each other. For some sinful believers, the squeezing will be severe enough to fracture the ribs. For non-believers, the squeezing will be worst.

The squeezing is not dependent upon the corpse being buried in the earth. In the words of Imam (A.S.): "The lord of the earth is also the lord of the atmosphere."

And the corpse would be squeezed, if it deserved it, no matter in what condition or place it happens to be.

Once a companion of Imam Ali ar Ridha (A) asked him as to what he had to say about those dead ones who, though liable to be subjected to the squeeze in the grave, could not actually be buried in the ground. Imam (A) replied:

"If by virtue of their deeds they are entitled to punishment in the grave, they will receive it, no matter where they lie dead, or in whatever form they happen to be in. Their soul will receive the same painful treatment as the body receives through this severe embrace of the grave."

Raj'at - Qiyamate Sughra

Prior to the total resurrection, the Final Day of Judgement or Reckoning, there will be a period of Raj'at or Qiyamate Sughra i.e. Partial resurrection wherein the Holy Prophet (S) and the Ahle Bait (A), a group of people perfect in faith and belief, and a group of extremely wicked people will be brought to life again. This will take place during the period when the expected and the awaited Imam Mahdi (A), the twelfth and the last successor of the Holy Prophet (S) will appear on this earth.

Imam Ja'far as Sadiq (A) says:

"He who does not believe in our Raj'at (return) is not from us."

Thus belief in Raj'at is an article of faith.

Islam demands a Muslim to essentially believe in the return of every thing to the Lord for the Final Judgement of every soul with regard to its faith and actions. There are repeated declarations in the Holy Qur'an, informing man of this Day and warning him to be on guard in this life on earth, against the Requital which is sure and certain to take place. It is the conviction about this fact that would keep man, on the right path, duly guarded against his accountability. It is natural that when an individual is not mindful of his or her accountability, nothing would stop him or her, to commit any sin or crime and with the sense of one's accountability one would never dare to exceed the limits, and would always remain guarded.

A Muslim should and must believe in Qiyamah and live such a clean life which would help him to pass the Divine Judgement easily and earn the life eternal of the heavenly bliss. The fifth principle of the faith is the belief in Qiyamah. The faith in this principle is compulsory.

Every human being is individually accountable for each one's faith and deeds. The Holy Qur'an declares:

"And for all according to what they did; and that He may fully recompense their deeds, "and they shall not be done any injustice." (al Ahqaf, 46:19)

After death, all human beings will be resurrected to be rewarded and punished according to each individual's earnings of virtue and vice in this life. "The present life is only a season for cultivation or effort, and the life after death will be the period of harvest or the result. This life, is for creating causes for effects in the hereafter. As one sows now, so then shall be reap.

First And Second Trumpets

The sound of the trumpet will be the first stage of the Day of Judgement. Allah has mentioned it in many ayats of the Holy Qur'an. An example of such an ayat : " And theTrumpet shall be blown, then shall swoon (die) whoever is in heavens and whoever is in the earth,. Then the (Trumpet) shall be blown again and lo! they shall stand up awaiting (they shall wake up again)."

So the trumpet will be blown twice. When it will be blown for the first time, people (and every living thing) will die. After it is blown for the second time, everyone will wake up and indeed it will be the Day of Judgement.

Imam Zainul Abedeen (A) was asked : "How much time will pass between the two blowings of the trumpet ? He said : "As much as Allah would please." Then he was asked : "Then please tell me, O Son of the Messenger of Allah, how the trumpet will be blown ?"

The Imam (A) said :

"So far as the first blowing is concerned, verily Allah will command angel Israfil, who will come towards the earth, and with him will be a Trumpet; and the Trumpet will have one mouth-piece and two tubes; and the space between the two tubes will be like that between the sky and earth.

"When the angels will see Israfil descend twards the earth with his Trumpet, they will say, 'Verily, Allah has ordered the inhabitants of earth to die, and the inhabitants of heaven to die.'

"Then Israfil will blow the trumpet once; and the voice will come out of that side which is towards the earth and all living beings on the earth will die; and then the voice will come out from the side which is towards the heaven, and all living things in the heavens will die.

"Then Allah will say to Israfil : 'O Israfil, die.' And he will die too. And they will remain like this as long as Allah would wish."

The Imam (A) continues :

"Then Allah will create a loud voice which will be heard throughout the earth and the heaven : 'Whose is the Kingdom this day ?'. No one will give any answer (as there will be none alive); then He will answer Himself creating a loud voice: 'It is Of Allah, the One, the Subduer (Holy Qur'an 40:16); I subdued all the creatures and gave them death; verily, I am Allah, there is no God except I alone, there is no partner for me and I made the creatures by my power and I made them die by My will; and I shall resurrect them by my Power.

"Then Allah (whenever he decides) will cause the second blowing of the Trumpet; the voice will come out from the side which is towards the heavens; inhabitants there will become alive and will stand as before, and the same wil happen to the people of the earth. People will now be gathered for reckoning (giving accounts of their good and bad deeds). It is indeed the Day - the Day of Judgement or Qiyamah.


There is a life after death. We will all die and we will all be raised again after death on the Day of Judgement and will be judged according to our beliefs and deeds so that a pious person will be rewarded and a sinful person will be punished.

If a person had a true faith and did good deeds, Prayed, Fasted during Ramadhan, paid Zakat and Khums, gave to charity, looked after orphans, fed the poor and other such things, he would receive the grace of Allah and will be sent to Paradise. There will be many signs before the Day of Judgement. One of these signs is the re-appearance of the 12th Imam (A). He will re-appear when the world will become full of injustice. Hazrat Isa (A) will come down to help him n spreading the true faith and Imam Mahdi (A) will rule the whole world. The other signs are rising of the sun from the west and the Holy Qur'an being taken up.

The Day of Judgement will be of 50,000 years long and the sun will be very low and the earth will be red hot like heated copper.

What Will Happen On The Day Of Judgement:

1. Hisab

On the day of Judgement everyone's bad and good deeds will be accounted (Hisab) for, and accordingly they will be punished. Hisab can be taken by many methods but two common ones are mentioned below and they are Mizan and Books of Deeds

a. Mizan

This word actually means the weighing scale. On the Day of Judgement, there will be a weighing scale to weigh the good and evil deeds of men and women. Those whose scale of good deeds will be heavy, they will be rewarded and those whose scales will be light they will be punished.

It is important to note that if human beings have invented various types of scales, devices and equipment to measure things like the weather, blood pressure, etc., there is nothing imaginary in believing that Almighty Allah will weigh our deeds by the weighing scales. However, some learned people have interpreted Mizan as meaning the Justice of Allah, while others say Mizan means the Prophets (A) and Imams (A) who will judge the people.

All these interpretations may be correct; what's more, all of them may exist together. The following Ayats prove the existence of the weighing scales. "And the "balance" that day is true. So he whose scales of good deeds will be heavy, will prosper; and that whose scales will be light will find themselves in loss, because they mistreated Our signs." (al A'raaf, 7:8-9)

"We shall set up "scales of justice" for the day of Judgement, so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least; and if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it to account; and enough are We to take account."

(al Anbiya 21: 47)

b. Books of Deeds

On the Day of Judgement, the written record of our whole life will be given to us. This record is written by the two angels, Raqeeb and Ateed, who are deputed on every person. These angels write down our each and every action. The place of the two angels is the collar-bone; the one on the right side (Raqeeb) writes the good deeds, and the one on the left side (Ateed) writes the evil deeds.

On the Day of J

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