Rafed English

Elements of Islamic Studies

Elements of Islamic Studies by : Allamah Sayyid Sa'eed Akhtar Rizvi With the radical changes in educational system, my community in East Africa is steadily becoming out of contact with the Gujarati Language.

This is specially the case with the new generation. This means that the new generation is unable to benefit from the religious literature written in Gujarati.

The Khoja Shia Ithna-asheri Supreme Council had been aware of this important change, and had decided to prepare text books in English for introduction into Madresas.

This booklet is based mostly on the lessons of Maulana Sayyid Sa’eed Akhtar Rizvi, though at the time of editing he has added some lessons from the 'Book of Salat' (Majlis-ul-Muslimeen, Karachi), and 'Diniyat' (Rah al-Najat Office, Karachi), with necessary adaptations.

Agha Syed Muhammad Mahdi has helped a great deal in its preparation. I pray to Allah for their reward here and in the life hereafter.

Mohamedali Meghji, President
The Supreme Council of The Federation of the Khoja Shia
Ithna-asheri Jamats of Africa.
P.O. Box 1085,
The first edition of this book was published on 15th Sha'ban, 1388 A.H. (7/11/1968), by Haji Mohamed A. Khimji. The booklet was introduced in the classes of Religious Studies in Secondary Schools. Within a short period the book went out of stock; but the demand increased every day.

Therefore, the Mission has decided to reprint it. This edition has been completely revised (according to the Fatwa of Agha Syed Abu’l Qasim al-Khu’i, Dama Dhilluhul-Aali, Najaf, Iraq). Also, many subjects have been added because of the popular demand. For example, details of Ghusls, prayers of Ayaat, Jumu’ah, ‘Eidain, Mayyit and Jama’at.

This has increased the pages from 52 to 85. Also, the size is enlarged and the type used is bigger and clearer.

I am very thankful to Haji Amirali Haji Karim, Nairobi, to prepare questions which have been given at the end of the book.

I hope this edition will be more useful than the previous one.

Sayyid Sa’eed Akhtar Rizvi,
Dar Es Salaam.
28th Safar, 1391 (25th April, 1971)
1. Kalima
La ilaaha illal-Laah; Muhammadur Rasulul-Laah; Aliyun waliyul-Laah wasi-yu-Rasulil-Laah; wa Khalifatuhu bila fasl.
2. Meaning of Kalima La iIaaha illal-Laah: There is no god but Allah.
Muhammadur Rasulul-Laah: Our Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustafa (S.A.W.) is the Messenger of Allah.

Aliyun waliyul-Lah: Imam Ali (A.S.) is the Wali (beloved) of Allah.

Wasi-yu-Rasulil-Laah: Imam Ali (A.S.) is the successor of the Prophet. Wa Khalifatuhu bila fasl: And he is the First Khalifa of the Prophet.
Names of Ahl al-Kisa’
(1) Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (S.A.W.);
(2) Imam Ali (A.S.);
(3) Sayyidah Fatimah al-Zahra’ (S.A.);
(4) Imam Hasan (A.S.);
(5) Imam Husain (A.S.)
Our Holy Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (S.A.W.), his daughter Fatimah al-Zahra’ (S.A.) and. the 12 Imams form the group of 14 Ma’sumeen (Infallible and sinless ones.)

The IMAMS are twelve as follows:

1. Ali al-Murtada, son of Prophet's uncle, Abu Talib, and married to Our Lady of Light, Fatimah, the daughter of the Holy Prophet. 23 B.H. - 40 A.H.

2. Hasan al-Mujtaba (the chosen), elder son of Ali and Fatimah 3 A.H. - 50 A.H.

3. Husain Sayyid-us-Shuhada, (the Chief of the martyrs), second son of Ali and Fatimah. 4 A.H. - 61 A.H.

4. Ali Zain al-‘Abidin 38 - 95 A.H.

5. Muhammad al-Baqir 57 - 114 A.H.

6. Ja’far as-Sadiq (the True) 83 - 148 A.H.

7. Musa al-Kadhim (the Patient) 128 - 183 A.H.

8. Ali ar-Raza (the accepted) 153 - 203 A.H.

9. Muhammad at-Taqi (the Pious) 195 - 220 A.H.

10. Ali an-Naqi (the Pure) 214 - 254 A.H.

11. Hasan al-Askari 232 - 260 A.H.

12. Muhammad al Mahdi: 15 Sha'aban 255, the Imam of our time.

These are the only rightful Imams. There are no more than 12 Imams. The Twelfth Imam is alive till this day, but is hidden, and will reappear at a time appointed by Allah. He is the awaited one and the Mahdi who will revive and spread Islam throughout the world.

NOTE: Whenever we utter or hear the name of our Prophet, we should recite Salawat. We should say, 'Alayhis-salaam' (Peace of Allah be on him) whenever we utter or hear names of Ma’sumeen. Similarly we should stand up, as a mark of reverence, whenever we utter or hear the name of the Imam of our time, (twelfth Imam).
Allahumma salli ‘ala Muhammadin wa Aali Muhammad.
Meaning of Salawat
O Allah! Send Your Blessings to our Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (S.A.W.) and his Ahl al-Bayt.
(There were 5 Ulu’l-Azm Prophets):

1. Prophet Nuh (A.S.);
2. Prophet Ibrahim (A.S.);
3. Prophet Musa (A.S.);
4. Prophet ‘Isa (A.S.); and
5. Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (S.A.W.)
Many books were revealed (sent) to the Prophets by Allah.

Four of them are important. They are 1. Tawrat; 2. Zabur; 3. Injil; and 4. Qur'an al-Majid.

You should know that:

1. Tawrat was revealed to Prophet Musa (A.S.)
2. Zabur was revealed to Prophet Dawood (A.S.)
3. Injil was revealed to Prophet ‘Isa (A.S.)
4. The Qur’an was revealed to our Holy Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (S.A.W.).

All previous books were cancelled by Allah when the Qur'an was sent. Now the Qur’an is the only authentic and true book which is to be followed by all men.
1. Muharram

2. Safar

3. Rabi’ al-Awwal

4. Rabi’ al-Akhir

5. Jamadi al-Ula

6. Jamadi ath- thaniyya

7. Rajab

8. Sha’ban

9. Shahr al-Ramadan

10. Shawwal

11. Dhi’l Qa’da;

12. Dhi’l Hajj.
A: Usul (Roots): The fundamental Principles, the belief in which is essential-for a Muslim. These are:

1. Tawheed (Oneness of God)
2. ‘Adl (Justice of God)
3. Nubuwwat (Prophethood)
4. Imamat (Vicegerency of the Prophet)
5. Qiyamat (Resurrection)

B:-Furu’ or branches, which call for certain practices. These are:

1. Salat (Prayer)
2. Sawm (Fasting)
3. Hajj (Pilgrimage)
4. Zakat (Wealth tax)
5. Khums (One fifth levies)
6. Jihad (Holy war)
7. Amr bi’l ma’ruf (Enjoining the good)
8. Nahy ‘an al-munkar (Forbidding the evil)
9. Tawalla (To love and follow 14 Ma’sumeen)
10. Tabarra (To remain aloof from the enemies of 14 Ma’sumeen).
I. Tawheed (Oneness of God)
Tawheed means that Allah is One. He has neither any colleague nor any partner. He is neither born of any parent nor has He any wife, children or relatives.
II. Adl (Justice of God)
It means that God is Just. He is not a tyrant. Everybody's awards will depend upon his deeds. He who obeys His commands will be awarded a place in Paradise and he who disobeys Him will be sent to Hell.

In this connection, the Qur’an says:

“ALLAH affirms that there is no god but He: and so do the angels, and these endowed with knowledge, He is standing firm in justice”. (3:18)
In order to understand Tawheed clearly, the attributes of Allah have been grouped as positive and negative.

The positive attributes which are befitting Allah are called Sifat al-Thubutiyah. They are many in number, but eight of them are usually listed. They are:

1. Qadeem. This means that Allah is Eternal, i.e. He has neither a beginning nor an end.

2. Qaadir. It means that Allah is Omnipotent, i.e. He has power over everything, and every affair.

3. ‘Aalim. It means that Allah is Omniscient i.e. He knows everything. Nothing ever remains a secret from Him.

4. Hayy. It means that Allah is alive and will remain alive for ever.

5. Mureed. This means that Allah has His own discretion in all affairs. He does not do anything under compulsion.

6. Mudrik. It means that He is All-Perceiving, as Sami’ (All-Hearing), Baseer (All-Seeing), Haazir (Omnipresent). Allah sees and hears everything though He has neither eyes nor ears.

7. Mutakallim. It means that Allah is the Master of the word, i.e. He can create speech in anything as He did in a tree for Prophet Musa (A.S.) and in the "Curtain of Light" for the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)

8. Sadiq. This means that Allah is true in His words and promises.

It is impossible to fix any limits to His attributes. This list is not exhaustive but is essential to understand the Glory of Allah. The attributes are not acquired but inherent in the conception of Divinity.
Lesson 11: Al-Sifat al-Salbiyah
The Negative Attributes which cannot be found in Allah because they are below His dignity are called Sifat al-Salbiyah. They are many, but like Sifat al-Thubutiyah only eight are listed generally. They are:

1. Shareek. The word "Shareek'" means a colleague or a partner. Allah has neither a colleague nor a partner in His Divinity.

2. Murakkab. This word means "compound" or "mixed". Allah is neither made, nor composed, of any material. He cannot be divided even in the imagination.

3. Makaan. It means "place". Allah is not confined to a place for He has no jism (body).

4. Hulool. It means "entering". Nothing enters Allah nor does He enter anything or anybody. Therefore, the belief of Incarnation in any form is abhorrent to the conception of Divinity.

5. Mahall al-hawadith. This means "subject to changes". Allah cannot change.

6. Mar’i. It means "visible". Allah is not visible. He has not been seen, is not seen and will never be seen, because He is not a body.

7. Ihtiyaj. It means "dependence" or "need". Allah is not deficient in any virtue, so he does not need anything.

8. Al-sifat al-zaa’id. This means "added attributes". The attributes of Allah are not separate from His Being. For example, we say that Allah is ‘Alim, but it does not mean that His Knowledge is something separate from His Existence. In fact, there has never been a time when he is less ‘Alim and then acquired more knowledge. His Knowledge, His Mercy, His Justice and all His virtues and attributes are His Own Being.

It will thus be seen that according to Islam, Allah is the name of God as perceived in the light of the above Positive and Negative Attributes. In other words, Allah is the Creator of the universe, Self-Existent, the source of all perfection and free from all defects.
Lesson 12: The Roots of Religion (II)

III. Nubuwwat (Prophethood)
The conception of Prophethood follows from the premises that it is the will of Allah that every human being should pursue a defined code of life and follow certain principles of conduct. Allah therefore had to send Prophets to acquaint the humanity with these principles and the code of life. The Qur’an says:

“We never chastise until We send forth a Messenger (to give warning).” (17:15)

The third Usul "Nubuwwat" calls for belief in all the Prophets sent by Allah from time to time for the guidance of humanity. According to Islam, Allah sent 1,24,000 Prophets in all. Adam was the first of them. Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and ‘Isa (Jesus) were other prominent Prophets (peace be on them all). Our Prophet, Muhammad al-Mustafa (S.A.W.) was the last. Some Prophets came with a Shari'ah (code of life), while others merely propagated the Shari'ah of their fore-runners.

Since the words of a Prophet are to be obeyed and his actions are to serve as a guide, it follows that every Prophet should be Infallible in his thoughts, words and deeds.

According to Islam, the entire universe came into existence through the will of the Creator and was created with a definite purpose. The Holy Qur’an says:

“Indeed in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day, are signs for the men of understanding heart, who standing and sitting and reclining bear Allah in mind and ponder on the creation of the heavens and Earth. “O our Lord!" say they, "Thou hast not created this in vain." (3:190-191)

And further the specific purpose of creation is:

“'I have not created the jinn and the human beings but for submission to me”. (51:56)

Now to explain this Divine will came the Divine Messengers known as the Prophets:

“Verily! Allah hath chosen Adam and Noah, the progeny of Abraham and the progeny of Imran above the worlds, the descendants one of the other. Allah is One Who hears and knows”. (2:33-34)

The Prophets never disagreed in fundamentals. Generally the Prophets were deputed for specified communities, regions or periods. Muhammad, the last of the Divine Messengers, was sent to express the will of Allah for the entire humanity, and for all times to come. To quote, the Quran says:

“We have not sent thee but as a mercy unto all the worlds”. (21:107)

“And We did not send you except as a bearer of good news and warner to all mankind, but most people do not know”. (34:28)

“Say (unto them): ‘O mankind! I am Allah’s messenger to you all; Whose is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth! There is no God but He! He gives life and brings death! Therefore believe in Allah and His Messenger - the Makkan Prophet – who has faith in Allah and His words; and follow him so that you may be guided”. (7:158)

Islam therefore, is a perfect code of life for the entire humanity without distinction of classes, climes and countries. It lays first emphasis on the purification of the 'self’ of an individual based on the fundamental principles - belief in Oneness of Allah and in the life hereafter. This ultimately would lead to international brotherhood and creation of a peaceful society.
Lesson 13: The Roots of Religion (III)

IV. Imamat (Vicegerency of the Prophet)
During his life time, Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) had announced on several occasions that the responsibility of the guidance of the Muslim community would devolve after him on certain named persons as ordained by Allah. These persons are known as Imams (Vicegerents of the Prophet). The Imam deputizes the Prophet in every respect. Like the Prophets, therefore, the Imam should also be infallible in his thoughts, words and deeds. You have already been taught the names of those Imams in Lesson 3.

There are clear references in the Holy Qur’an about belief in the Imams. As for example:

“O ye who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those amongst you invested with divine authority; and if in aught ye differ, bring it before Allah and the Messenger if ye believe in Allah and the latter day. This is the best and the fairest way of settlement”. (4:59)

“Verily it is We who bring the dead to life and keep record of what they have sent forward and left behind; everything (all authority) have We vested in the clarifying Imam”. (36:12)

“(And remember) the day (the Day of Judgment) We shall call together all human beings with their respective Imams”. (17:71)

Referring to Imams, the Prophet (S) has further emphasized:

“One who dies but does not recognize the Imam of his time dies the death of a pagan.

On the Day of Resurrection every nation will be called along with the Imam of its time, the Book of Allah and Sunnat (tradition of its Prophet).
V. Qiyamah (Resurrection)
There is a life hereafter. After death an individual gets the reward or punishment of the deeds performed before death. For this purpose on a certain day called the Day of Judgment, all the dead will be resurrected from their graves and awarded heaven or hell depending on the merits of their actions in this world.

The Quran says:

“Beware when the event (qiyamah) will occur, no soul would then falsify its occurrence.. (It will be) lowering (the faithless), exalting (the faithful). When the earth is shaken to its depths, and the mountains are completely crumbled, becoming scattered dust..”. (56:1-6)

The day of Qiyamah will be of 50,000 years duration as has been written in the Holy Quran. The sun on that day will come down very low and the earth will be red-hot like heated copper.
Lesson 14: The Branches of Religion (I)

Furu’ al-Deen
Furu’ al-Deen means the branches of religion. These branches are very many: but usually six to ten are taught to the children. They are explained below.
I. Salat (Prayer)
'The daily five prayers and other eleven prayers which are detailed elsewhere are all obligatory and should be performed on their occasions in fulfillment of prescribed conditions.

The prayers are obligatory on adults (baligh). For purpose of fulfilling religious obligations a boy is deemed to be adult on completion of his fifteenth year, and a girl on completion of her ninth year.

The Qur’an has repeatedly enjoined upon every Muslim the offering of prayers (Iqam as-Salat):

“Verily! I am Allah; there is no god but I, therefore submit to Me and maintain the prayer for My remembrance”. (20:14)

“Recite what has been revealed to you of the Book, and maintain the prayer! Indeed the prayer prevents indecencies and wrongs… and Allah knows what you do”. (29:45)

“O my son! Maintain the prayer and enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and be patient in whatever befalls thee: for this is firmness in the conduct of affairs”. (31 17)
II. Sawm (Fasting)
Fasting is obligatory for every Muslim adult, male or female, for the entire lunar month of Ramadhan every year. The fast lasts from the true dawn till the commencement of night. During the fast one has to abstain from eating, drinking, smoking and some other actions.

In this regard the Qur’an says:

“O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you, as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may exercise self-restraint”. (2:183)

“So every one of you who witnesses this month should fast in it”. (2:185)
Lesson 15: The Branches of Religion (II)

III. Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Every Muslim is enjoined to go to Mecca, once in the life time, for pilgrimage which becomes obligatory when a man has funds enough for his return journey as well as maintenance of his family and is able to fulfill other conditions laid down for Hajj. This is performed on the 9th of the last month of the Islamic (lunar) month Dhi’l Hajj.

“Proclaim the Hajj among people so that they come to you on foot and on camels of any kind from deep and distant places”. (22:27)

“The Hajj of the House of Allah (Ka'ba) is obligatory on every one who has the means for the journey to it”. (3:97)
IV. Zakat (Wealth Tax)
It is incumbent upon everyone to pay wealth-tax on gold, silver, cattle and agricultural produce, when all conditions are fulfilled. This contribution is termed Zakat and should be paid to poor Shia Ithna ‘Asharis having a right to it.

The Quran has commanded the payment of "Zakat" almost as vigorously as the saying of prayers so much so that almost every verse which speaks of saying of prayers speaks of payment of zakat, example:-

“And offer prayers and pay zakat and bow down with those who bow down (in worship)”. (2:43)
V. Khums (One-Fifth Levy or Income Tax)
Setting aside one-fifth of the amount of a year's savings, (after deducting all the lawful expenses from the earnings of that year) is called Khums. Sadaat (descendants of the Holy Prophet), provided they are Ithna ‘Ashari and poor, will get half of the Khums, while the other half belongs to Imam (A.S.). During the ghaybah of Imam (A.S.), his share must be handed over to the Mujtahid.

The Quranic command for this is as follows:

“And know that out of all wealth that you may acquire, one-fifth of it is for Allah, and for the Messenger and for his kinsmen, and the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer”. (8:41)
Lesson 16: The Branches of Religion (III)

VI. Jihad (The Holy War)
Defense is unquestionably the most important phase of a community’s life. Islam provides for the defense of the Muslim community by imposition of what is called Jihad. It means fighting in the path of Allah in response to the call from the Prophet or the Imam of the age.

“And fight in the cause of Allah against those who fight against you: but do not transgress because Allah does not love transgressors”. (2:190)
VII. Amr bi’l Ma’ruf
It means enjoining the good. If a person does not fulfill the obligations laid down by Allah, it is obligatory on us to guide him to the right path provided we have a hope that he will follow our guidance.
VIII. Nahy ‘an al-Munkar
It means forbidding the prohibited things or works. We should ask any man who is found to be doing things prohibited by Allah, to refrain from such deeds, provided we have a hope that he will act on our advice.
IX. Tawalla
It means to love the Fourteen Ma’sumeen and keep friends with their followers.
X. Tabarra
It means that we should remain aloof from the enemies of the Fourteen Ma’sumeens.
Ijtihad and Taqlid
In every sphere of life we have to heed to the advice of the experts in that field. Likewise, in the matter of Islamic Laws, we must obey the rulings of the experts of that Law. Those experts are called Mujtahids; and the act of obeying their rulings is called taqlid.

Here are some of the conditions which govern our choice of the Mujtahid:

(a) He must be baligh (i.e. adult), (b) Aaqil (i.e. sane), (c) Man, (d) Alive at the time of beginning the Taqlid, (e) Ithna ‘Ashari, (f) Aadil, (g) Mujtahid, (h) A’lam, (i) Of legitimate birth. (j) Having good memory, (k) Not involved in worldly affairs so as to hinder his scholarly pursuits.

Aadil means a person who does not commit major sins even unintentionally; and if he commits minor sins (not intentionally) he repents at once. Only an aadil person can lead the prayers, can be accepted as a reliable witness and be appointed as qadhi (judge).

A’lam means one who is the most learned of all.
Lesson 17: Useful Explanations Part I & II

Part I
1. Wajib: The religious duties, the performance of which is rewarded and neglect of which is punishable are called wajib.

2. Mustahab: Such of the rites, the performance of which is rewardable but their omission is not punishable are termed as mustahab or sunnat.

3. Haraam: Deeds, the doing of which is sinful and punishable and abstinence from them rewardable, are termed as haraam.

4. Makruh: Those deeds, abstinence from which is rewarded, but committing them is not sinful, are termed as Makruh.

5. Mubah: Those deeds which are allowed by the Shari’ah, but there is neither reward nor punishment for doing or neglecting them, are called Mubah. Mubah is also termed as "ja’iz”.
Part II
1. Muslim: One who believes in Allah, His Prophet and the Day of resurrection (Qiyamah), recites the Kalima and accepts the commands of Allah and His Prophet as true, is called Muslim.

2. Mu’min : That Muslim who believes that Allah is ‘Adil (Just), and the twelve Imams (mentioned in lesson 3) are the only rightful successors of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), and that all of them were appointed by Allah, is called mu’min (i.e. believer: faithful).

3. Kafir: He who does not believe in God or His Prophet or in Qiyamah is a kafir (unbeliever).

4. Mushrik: One who believes that Allah has one or more associates or partners is called a mushrik.

5. Munafiq: One who proclaims his belief in Allah and his Prophet and also recites the Kalima but does not have faith in them at heart, and is inimical towards them inwardly, is called a Munafiq.
Lesson 18: Useful Explanations Part III
1. Ghasbi: Anything taken by force from others without their consent; likewise, anything taken from others in normal transaction with an intention of not paying its price.

2. Mubah: legal; lawful; taken with consent of the owner.

3. Hadath: Those impurities (najasah) which require niyyah (intention) for cleaning, like those things after which wudhu or ghusl becomes necessary. Hadath is of two kinds: greater and smaller.

4. The greater Hadath: Those things which require ghusl for being clean, like janabat, haidh, nifas, istihaza and mass al-mayyit.

5. The smaller Hadath: Those things which require wudhu for being clean, like sleep etc.

6. Khabath: Those impurities (najasat) which do not require niyyah for cleaning like all the najasah described in Lesson 19.

Note: The difference between hadath and khabath may be described thus: Khabath is external impurity (najasah) and therefore there is no need of niyyah for cleaning it, while hadath is not an external but a spiritual uncleanliness, and therefore it requires the attention and Intention of spirit to clean it.

Note no 2. To make the above point more clear it is advisable to mention that, for example, when a person goes to the the toilet, he acquires both kinds of najasah i.e. the khabath and hadath - khabath is the external najasah which he cleanses without any niyyah, and thus his body becomes tahir. But still, he cannot pray; because the spiritual najasah i.e. hadath has not been removed. It will be removed when he will perform wudhu (with niyyah) and then he will be qualified spiritually to converse with Allah.

7. Muwalat: To perform any act, e.g. wudhu, without interruption; to perform all parts of the act one after another without a gap.

8. Tartib: To perform every act in the same order that has been approved in the Shari’ah.
Lesson 19: Najasah
Najasah means the thing which is unclean in itself, and makes other things unclean by contact. There are ten (10) Najasah:

1 and 2. Urine and stool of those living things whose meat is forbidden (haram), and whose blood comes out with a gush, other than birds. For example the urine of sheep is not najis, because its meat is not haraam though its blood comes out with a gush. Likewise, the stool of snake is not najis because its blood does not come out with a gush, though its meat is haraam.

Note: Urine and stool of those animals are najis which eat refuse of the human beings or have drunk milk of pig.

3 and 4. Blood and semen of those living things whose blood comes out with a gush, whether they be halal or haraam. So all these things of human beings are najis, and also those of cow are najis.

5. Dead body of those living things whose blood comes out with a gush. But there are some details: Those parts which have no life in them during life-time, like hair, nail, bone, teeth etc. are not najis. The corpse of a Muslim is najis after being cold and before being washed. Before being cold it is tahir; after being washed it is tahir. The limbs which are cut from a living body (as in operation) are treated as corpse. (Ivory is taken out from dead elephant; still it is not najis, because it is a part which has no life in the life-time of the elephant (You may think of other examples yourself).

6. The dog.

7. The pig.

8. Kafir.

9. Liquor (liquid intoxicant).

10. Fuqqa (mild beer).

Note: The sweat that comes out during or after becoming unlawfully 'junub', and the sweat of the animal which eats refuse of human beings are not najis; but prayer with such sweat on body or clothes is not allowed.
Lesson 20: Mutahhirat (I)
Mutahhirat i.e., the things which make a najis thing clean. These are 12 in number:

(1) Water; (2) Earth; (3) Sun; (4) Istihala; (5) Intiqal; (6) Islam; (7) Taba’iyat: (8) Istibra; (9) Ghaybah (disappearance) of a Muslim; (10) Zawal al-‘Ayn; (11) Inqilab and (12) Flowing of blood in normal quantity from a lawfully slaughtered animal.
1. Water
(a) According to purity or impurity, water is of two kinds: mutlaq i.e., pure water; and mudaf i.e., mixed water. Mixed water cannot make anything clean. Instead, it itself becomes unclean by coming into contact with anything unclean.

(b) Mutlaq is of 5 kinds: (1) Rain water; (2) Running water; (3) Well water; (4) Still water about a kur or more than a kur; (5) Still water less than a kur. Water cleanses a najis thing on condition that the water is (1) Mutlaq and (2) Clean (tahir), and (3) Does not become mudaf by coming into contact with that najasah, and (4) All the najasah is washed away from that najis thing.

Rain water, running water (like sea, river, stream, spring etc.) and well water make things clean if washed once after removing the najasah. But if anything becomes najis by urine it must be washed twice. It is better to wash it twice even in other najasah.

Clothes should be squeezed after every washing as described above.

Still water which is just a kur or more than a kur, also makes things clean in the same way. These waters cannot be unclean by mere contact with najasah. They will be unclean if either their taste, color or smell is changed by that contact.

Kur means water which takes 27 cubic span space (3x3x3). It is better to make it 42 7/8 cubic span (3 1/2 x 3 1/2 x 31/2). 1 span = 9 in.

Still water which is less than a kur becomes unclean by just coming into contact with a najasah. To cleanse with clean still water, it is necessary to wash twice after removing the najasah, and it is better to wash thrice.

The water running from the pipes in the houses is treated as river water so long as it is running. Pots must be cleansed three times with the water which is less than a kur, and once if it is washed in kur or running water.

If a pig licks the pot, then it should be washed seven times whether the water is running or kur or less than that.

The same is the rule if a rat dies in a pot.

If a dog licks the pot, it should be rubbed with wet clean earth thoroughly; then, after washing away the earth, it should be washed twice with the water which is less than a kur, or once in kur or running water.

If a pot becomes najis by liquor, it must be washed three times, whatever the kind of water.
2. Earth
The earth makes clean the sole of the shoe or feet. But there are 4 conditions for it:

1. The najasah must have been contacted from walking on the earth;
2. It is removed by walking on the earth;
3. The earth is clean;
4. And dry.

Note: This rule does not apply to the end of the stick or wheels of car or carts, etc.
3. Sun
The sun makes clean those things which cannot be moved like wall, tree, earth etc. If the najasah is removed, and the place or tree etc. is wet, and then it becomes dry by the direct rays of the sun, it becomes clean. If it dries by hot air combined with the sun's rays, or just by hot air, or by sun's heat without direct rays, it will not be clean.
4. Istihala
It means "change". If a najis thing is changed into a clean thing (chemically), it will become clean. For example, if a dog after death is changed into earth, that earth will be clean.
5. Inqilab
It is similar to the istihala. The difference is that in istihala, the shape and form, all are changed, while in inqilab, only the properties are changed, but the shape is not entirely changed. Its only example: If wine becomes vinegar, it is inqilab. By inqilab, it will become clean.

Note: If grape-juice is fermented, either by fire or by itself, it is haraam (unlawful) to drink. But if that fermented liquid is boiled on fire and its two-thirds are evaporated… the remaining one-third will become halal.
6. Intiqal
It means to change place. If a mosquito sucks the blood of a man and there is a gap of time, so that the blood is called the blood of mosquito, it will become clean.
7. Islam
A Kafir becomes clean after accepting Islam.
Lesson 21: Mutahhirat (II)
In previous lesson we explained seven mutahhirat. Now the remaining five are explained here:-
8. Taba’iyat:
Taba’iyat means to follow. The following things become clean by it:

1. When a kafir becomes Muslim, his minor children become clean automatically.

2. If a well becomes najis and the water is taken out of it until it becomes clean, then the wall of the well, the bucket and the rope will become clean automatically.

3. While washing najis things our hands become unclean; but when that thing becomes clean, our hands will become clean automatically.

4. If the wine becomes vinegar and thus becomes clean, the pot in which it was will become clean automatically.

5. Wood-plank or cement stone slabs upon which the body of a dead Muslim is washed, as well as the piece of clothes used to cover his hidden parts, and also the hands of the person washing that body become clean when the ghusl al-mayyit is completed.
9. Zawal Najis al-‘ayn (removal of the original impurity)
If there is any najasah on the body of an animal, it will become clean if that najasah is just removed or rubbed out from his body. Likewise, the inner parts of human body, like mouth and stomach, become clean if the najasah is just removed from them. Eyelids, lips and dentures are not included in this rule.
10. Istibra’
The urine and stool of the animal which eats the refuse of man are najis; and the only way of its purification (taharah) is istibra; i.e. guarding it from above-mentioned najis feed for a certain prescribed period. This period is 40 days for camel; 30 days for cow; 10 days for sheep and goat; 5 or 7 days for duck; 3 days for hen.

If any of these animals is kept away from the refuse of man for the prescribed period its urine and stool become clean (tahir), provided that, at the end of that period, they are no more called ‘refuse-eating animals.’
11. Ghaybat al-Muslim
If there is a Muslim, who is a strict follower of the shari’ah; and any of his clothes or things becomes najis; then he goes out of your sight long enough to enable him to make it clean; then he comes back and you see him using those clothes in prayer, for example, then you must believe that he has cleansed the clothes; otherwise, he would not have used it in prayer. It is called ghaybat al-Muslim, which means the "absence of a Muslim."
12. Flowing of Blood
When a halal animal is slaughtered according to the rules of shari’ah, and its blood flows, out of its body in such a quantity which is normal in that kind of animal, the blood which remains in its body becomes tahir (clean). But that blood which remains in those organs of body which are haraam (like spleen, bladder etc.) must be avoided.
Lesson 22: Rules of the Toilet
The following rules must be observed when going to the toilet:

1. The place where one sits to urinate or to relieve bowels, must be such as to hide one’s private parts from onlookers

2. It is haraam to urinate or relieve bowels in the following places:-

(a) In the property of another person without the permission of the owner;
(b) In a place which is waqf for a certain group - for a person who is not from that group;
(c) On the grave of a Mu’min and in all places which are sacred in the religion, like a Mosque, Husayniyah, etc.

3. It is haraam to face qibla, or to sit with one’s back to the qibla when urinating or relieving bowels.

4. After urinating, the part of the body concerned must be washed twice (better, thrice) with water.

5. After relieving bowels, the part of the body concerned may be cleansed by water or alternatively with clothes, paper, or clay, provided the clothes, paper or clay itself is tahir and dry .It is wajib to use three separate pieces even if the body becomes clean before that. If after using the three pieces, the body is not clean, extra pieces should be used till the body becomes clean.

6. If the stool was mixed by some other najasah (like blood), or the stool had spread outside the body (more than normal), of if some external najasah had reached the part of the body concerned, then the only way of cleaning it is with water. Paper etc. cannot make it tahir.

7. It is better to use water after relieving bowels even when using paper etc. is allowed.

8. It is haraam to use sacred things in cleaning the body after relieving bowels: for example, khak al-shifa or a paper having the names of Allah or Ma’sumeen on it.

9. It is now allowed to use bone or dung in cleaning the body after relieving bowels.
Lesson 23: Wudhu (Ablution)

1. When is it required?
Wudhu is necessary for: (1) Salat, (2) Tawaf wajib, (3) Touching the writings of the Qur’an and the names of Allah and 14 Ma’sumeen, (4) Qadha of sajdah and tashahhud, (5) To wash a copy of the Qur’an which has become najis, and (6) When it becomes obligatory because of nadhr, ‘ahd or qasam.
2. What is Wudhu?
Wudhu is two washings and two masah (wiping). It means that washing of the face and two hands and wiping part of the head and feet.

1. Washing of the face. The face should first be washed from the place where the hair normally starts growing to the place below the chin lengthwise, and in breadth as much as is normally covered by the tip of the thumb and that of the middle finger, by taking water and pouring the over the face.

2. Washing of hands. After washing the face as above, wash the right hand from a little above the elbow to the tips of fingers. Then wash the left hand in the same way.

3. Masah (wiping). After washing the face and the hands, masah of the head should be performed by drawing the wet fingers of the right hand from the middle of the head up to the edge of the hair. Finally masah of the feet should be performed by drawing the wet fingers of the right hand over the upper part of the right foot from the tips of the fingers to its junction with the ankles and then the wet fingers of the left hand over the left foot in the same way.
3. Nawaqid al-Wudhu (things that invalidate Wudhu)
i.e. those things after which wudhu becomes necessary if anybody wants to perform any ‘ibadat mentioned in No. 1 above. These are called the smaller hadath as explained earlier. These are following: (1) Stool, (2) Urine, (3) Gas which comes out of stomach, (4) Sleep, (5) Unconsciousness, intoxication and all such things which effect the sense of a man, (6) All things mentioned in the greater hadath, and (7) Istihaza (for women). '

Note 1. If a. man is sure that his wudhu had been broken by any of the above mentioned occurrences, but he is in doubt whether he performed wudhu after .that or not it will be assumed that he has not done wudhu.

Note 2. If a man is sure that he performed wudhu and is sure that any of the above mentioned nawaqid has occurred, but he is not sure which of the two was earlier and which was later, it will be assumed that his wudhu was broken. He will have to perform wudhu for ‘ibadat as mentioned in No.1.

Note 3. There is no need of wudhu after Ghusl al-Janabat.
Lesson 24: Conditions of Wudhu
There are many conditions for wudhu, which are described here:

1. The water of Wudhu must be (1) Tahir, (2) Mutlaq and (3) Mubah;

2. The place where Wudhu is being done must be mubah;

3. The pot in which the water of wudhu is kept must be mubah and should not be made of silver or gold;

4. There must be time for wudhu and Salat. It means that if time of Salat is so short that if you begin wudhu, the Salat will not be performed in time, then you should not make wudhu; instead you are required to do tayammum. But if the time needed for tayammum is the same as that of wudhu, then wudhu should be done. .

5. The face, hands, head and feet (which are called Organs of wudhu) must be tahir at the time of wudhu.

6. Wudhu must be performed with the intention of qurbatan ilal-Laah, i.e. to obey the order of God, to become nearer to Allah. If you do wudhu to keep cool or with any other intention the wudhu will be batil (null and void);

7. Tartib should be maintained. It means that you should begin by washing your face, then the right hand from elbow down to the fingers, then the left hand accordingly, then you must do masah of a portion of your head. then the masah of feet. It is better to do the masah of the right foot, then of the left; though masah of both feet may be done together;

8. Muwalat. It means that you must do all the above mentioned works in wudhu without interruption;

9. You must do all the acts of wudhu yourself. It means that if you tell another person to wash your face and hands etc. or to put water upon your face or hands etc. the wudhu will be batil (invalid); but if you are unable to do wudhu yourself (for. reason of illness), you may seek help from others in wudhu.

10. There must not be any difficulty or danger in the use of water

11. There must not be anything on the organs of wudhu which may prevent the water from reaching the organs e.g. ring or oil or nail polish etc.

12. Washing must be done in the proper way. It means that face must be washed beginning from the forehead up to the chin (not in opposite direction), hands must be washed beginning from the elbow and ending up to the tips of fingers (not vice versa).

13. Masah (wiping) must be done from the remaining wetness of the water upon the hands. No other water should be mixed. Remember that if your head or feet are already wet, the masah will be batil, and accordingly wudhu will be wrong. Therefore, your head and feet must be dry before masah.

Some people put some drops of water on head before starting masah. This is absolutely wrong, because their head or hair becomes wet before masah. Likewise, you should remember that while doing masah of head, your hand should not touch your forehead. Otherwise the water of forehead will mix with the water of hand. In that case the masah of foot will become wrong. Some people, after washing the left hand, wipe their right hand again by the left hand in the manner of washing. It is wrong for two reasons:

1. It disturbs the tartib;

2. It puts extra water on the left hand, putting the validity of the masah of the left foot in question.
Mustahab acts of wudhu
There are many things mustahab (sunnat) in wudhu, washing the hands twice; gargling three times; rinsing the nose three times, (all these are before wudhu). Washing the face and hands during wudhu twice, etc.
Lesson 25: Prayers
There are 12 kinds of obligatory (wajib) prayers:

(a) Three prayers:

1. Daily prayers of five times (Subh: 2 rakaats; Zuhr: 4 rak’ats; Asr: 4 rak’ats; Maghrib:3 rak’ats; Isha: 4 rak’ats).
2. Friday Prayer (wajib takhyiri in the ghaybah of Imam)
3. Prayer of ihtiyat. All of these are related to the daily prayer.

(b) Three prayers connected with a dead person:

4. Salat al-mayyit;
5, Qadha Prayers of the parents (obligatory for the eldest son} ;
6. If the son does not pray the qadha of the parents himself, he may ask some other person to pray on behalf of the dead person. It is called prayer of ijarah.

(c) Three prayers made obligatory by one's own accord:

7. Prayer of nadhr;
8. Prayer of qasam (oath); and
9. Prayer of ‘ahd (promise to God).

(d) Three other prayers:

10. Prayer of Eidayn (Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha).
N.B. It is not obligatory during the ghaybah of the Imam.
11. Prayer after wajib Tawaf of Ka’ba; and
12. Prayer of Ayaat (for earthquake, eclipse etc.)
Lesson 26: Times of Prayers
1. Subh: Beginning from subh al-sadiq, ending at sunrise;
2. Zuhr: Beginning from exact noon, ending when only four rak’ats time remains to sunset;
3. ‘Asr: Beginning after lapsing of four rak’ats time from noon, ending at sunset;
4. Maghrib: Beginning after sunset when the reddish color at east vanishes, ending when only four rak’ats time remains to exact mid-night.
5. ‘Isha: Beginning after lapsing of 3 rak’ats time from sunset, ending at midnight,

Note 1 If any person did not pray Maghrib and Isha in time owing to some appreciable difficulty, he should pray both prayers before Subh without niyyah of 'ada' or 'qadha'

Note 2. Midnight is 12 hours after exact noon. .
Some Details About Time

1. Time of fadhilah (the most excellent time for prayer)
It is better to pray in the time of fadhilah when the prayers are more greatly rewarded:

(a) Subh: From the subh al-sadiq up to the time when red color appears on the horizon;
(b) Zuhr: From the noon up to the time when the shadow of a given thing becomes equal to its length.
(c) Asr: After the time of fadhilah of Zuhr up to the time when the shadow of a given thing becomes double of its length;
(d) Maghrib: After sunset up to the time when the red color on the western horizon vanishes;
(e) ‘Isha: After the time of fadhilah of Maghrib.
2. Reserved and Joint times
(a) Zuhr: four rak’ats time after noon is the reserved time of Zuhr. If anyone prays Asr in that time, it will be batil (invalid);
(b) Asr: four rak’ats time before the sunset is the reserved time of Asr; if anyone prays Zuhr in that time, it will be batil, The time between these two reserved times is the joint time of Zuhr and Asr.
(c) Maghrib: three rak’ats time after sunset is reserved for Maghrib. If anyone prays Isha in that time, it will be batil;
(d) Isha: four rak’ats time before midnight is reserved for Isha; if anyone prays Maghrib in that time, it will be batil. The time between the two reserved times is joint time of Maghrib and Isha.
Lesson 27: Qibla
1. It is obligatory (wajib) to face towards qibla:

a. While praying;
b.. When slaughtering animals.
c. It is also wajib to face qibla at the time of death;:
d. To keep the dead body facing qibla at the times of praying Salat al-mayyit and
e. At the burial.

Note: It is not wajib to keep the dead body facing qibla at the times of giving it ghusl, kafan or hunut. But it is mustahab (ihtiyatan) to do so.

2. Qibla: Ka’ba is qiibla for those who are in Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Haram is qibla for the whole all world. The whole space above the Ka’ba up to the sky, is the qibla.

3. If anybody does not know the exact direction of qibla, he may ascertain it from the graves of Muslims, or Masjids, or may ask those who know the direction.

4. If a man does not know the direction and there is no way to ascertain qibla, but has a strong feeling that it must be in a certain direction, he should pray facing that direction.

5. If he has no inclination at all, he is required to pray facing anyone side; though it is better to pray four times, facing four directions if there is enough time. If the time is not enough, then he may pray as many times as possible.

6. If he thinks that the qibla must be in either of two directions, he must pray twice, facing both the directions.

7. If a man prays facing a certain-direction, and after the prayer he comes to know that the difference was of 90 degrees or more, i.e. qibla was on his right or left or back side, he will have to repeat the prayer, if the time of that prayer has not lapsed. And it is "ahwat" to recite its qadha if the time of the prayer has lapsed.

8. If, in the above case, he comes to know that the difference was less than 90 degrees on either side, the prayer is not to be repeated.

9. It is unlawful to face qibla, or to keep the qibla on the back-side, when sitting in the toilet.
Lesson 28: Clothes of Prayer
There are certain rules laid down concerning the clothes for prayer:

1. It must be tahir (clean): The Salat in najis clothes is invalid (batil).

Details will be given afterwards.

2. It must be mubah, not ghasbi. Salat in ghasbi clothes is batil. Clothes purchased by money from which zakat or khums (when wajib) was not given is ghasbi; and prayer with such clothes is batil.

3. It should not be a part of an animal whose meat is not halal. Therefore, the hide of an elephant and such things are not allowed in Salat.

4. It should not be a part of any dead animal. Meat, hide and fat are not to be taken from a dead animal unless it is known that it was a zabiha (lawfully killed animal). Therefore, leather belts or similar items are not allowed in Salat unless they are known to have been taken from a zabiha, or have been purchased from a Muslim (provided it is known, or at least probable, that that Muslim had purchased it after due scrutiny).

5. It is not allowed to pray in clothes which have sweat that exuded during or after becoming unlawfully junub.

6. It is not allowed to pray in clothes which have the sweat of an animal which eats refuse of human beings.

7. For men only: The clothes should not be made from gold, whether it is pure gold or mixed. But there is no harm in keeping gold in pocket.

8. Likewise men are not allowed to wear pure silk.

Note: Wearing gold and pure silk are haraam for men even at other times.
Other Rules
1. If a person did not know that his body or clothes were najis, and came to know after Salat, the Salat is correct.

2. If he knew that his body or clothes were najis, and forgot and prayed in those clothes, he would have to pray again, if the time is still there, or pray qadha if there is no time.

3. If the clothes became najis during prayer, and it was possible to change the clothes or to clean them without disturbing the prayer, he should do it, and the prayer would be correct. If it was not possible to change or clean the clothes as mentioned above, and there was enough time, he should break the prayer, clean or change the clothes and pray afresh. If there was not enough time, as mentioned above, and it was not possible to take away that clothes, he would proceed in the prayer in that clothes, and the prayer would be correct. The same rules apply if any part of his body becomes najis during prayer. If he could take away the clothes, but had no other clothes, he would complete the prayer in that same clothes.

4. The following najasah are excused in the prayer:

(a) The blood which comes out of wound or tumor provided it is difficult to clean it or, at least change the bandage once a day. But if that blood reaches another part of the body which is far from that tumor or wound it is not excused; it must be cleansed.

(b) The blood, (other than the blood of haiz, Nifas, or istihaza, or of a dead body, or kafir, or an animal whose meat is not halal) on the clothes or body of the person praying, which is less than 'dirham baghalli' in the area. Note: dirham baghalli is equivalent to the tip of the fore-finger.

(c) Those small wearing apparels which cannot be used to hide the ‘auratayn (private organs of a human being) owing to their smallness, like small handkerchief, button, ring, etc. provided they are not made from najasah like dead body, dog, etc. It is not allowed to keep these things in prayer even without wearing them.

(d) The clothes of the woman, who rears up an infant boy, provided that:

1. The clothes have become najis with his urine;

2. And she has no other clothes to change into. In this case, she is allowed to clean the clothes once a day and then ignore the najasah of his urine afterwards. This rule cannot be extended from urine to other najasah, or from the woman to man, nor from that woman who does not have another set of clothes to that one who has got other clothes to change into.

Note: The above mentioned exceptions are for najis clothes. It does not mean that other rules relating to clothes made from dead body or from a part of an animal whose meat is not halal are also relaxed.

5. The rules about clothes concerning the prayer, also apply in wajib tawaf.

6. When there is no other clothes except ghasbi, or golden, or silk, and he is obliged to wear it, owing to cold or because there are other persons, he may pray in it; but if he may take it out, he should pray in a closed room, without clothes.

The same is the rule if there are no clothes other than ghasbi or made from a dead animal or from a haraam animal. If there are no clothes except a najis one and it is not possible to cleanse it, he should pray wearing that same clothes. After finishing the prayer it is better to close the room, take out that najis clothes and repeat the prayer without the clothes.
Lesson 29: Place of Prayer
1. Prayer is not allowed in a ghasbi place. The permission from the owner may be either explicit or implied.

Further Explanation of Rule No. 1:

If someone lives in a rented house and, for one reason or other, is prevented from paying the rent to the owner, then he should seek the owner's permission to live in that house without paying him any rent.

If the owner is not known, or his whereabouts are not known, then the property comes under the category 'mal majhul al-malik' (a thing the owner of which is not known). Such things become the property of the Imam (A.S.), and in his ghaybah, the Mujtahid has authority upon such things.

Therefore, such cases should be referred to the Mujtahid for his decision.

2. The place of sajdah must be tahir. Standing and sitting places may be non-tahir, provided there is no possibility of the najasah extending to the body or the clothes of the prayer.

3. It is not allowed to pray in a place where the prayer cannot be finished properly, or where there is danger to the life, for example on a busy road during rush hour.

4. The place of prayer should not be unstable, like a spring mattress, etc.

5. There should be space sufficient enough to stand properly and to do ruku’ and sajdah properly.

6. If a man and a woman are praying in the same place, woman must stand at least one span (better, 15 feet) behind the man, or there should be a curtain or wall between them.

7. The place where forehead is put in sajdah should not be more than four fingers (about 2 ½ inches) lower or higher than the place where the toes and knees are put.
It is stressed that the prayer should be performed in a Masjid. Masjids in order of preference are:

(a) Masjid al-Haram (around the Ka’ba) - one prayer there = 1,00,000 prayers.
(b) Masjid al-Nabi (Madina) - one Prayer there = 10,000 prayers.
(c) Masjid al-Kufa and Bayt al-Maqdis - one prayer there = 1,000 prayers.
(d) Masjid al-Jami’ - one prayer there = 100 prayers elsewhere.
(e) Masjid of the market- one prayer there = 12 prayers elsewhere.

For women, their home is better than the Masjid.

The Prophet has said: Three things will complain before Allah:

1. The Masjid which is neglected and nobody comes to pray there;
2. An ‘Alim, among the people who do not know the religion; and - .
3. A Qur’an put in a place, from which nobody recites ever, and which remains covered with dust. Also, the Prophet has said: "There is no prayer for a neighbour of the Masjid, but in a Masjid."
Places where praying is makruh
It is not liked to pray in a dirty place, or butchery, or in a place where fire is burning, or when there is fire before a person, or where there are photos of human beings or animals, or with open Quran before him or any open book. It is also makruh to pray in burial ground, or on a grave, or behind a grave, or between two graves, or where there is a human being facing him. It is makruh to pray in a bath-house (hammam), or on roads, or facing an open door, or in a salty place, or in a room wherein someone is junub.
Lesson 30: Adhan and Iqamah
The saying of Adhan and Iqamah before starting daily prayers is greatly rewardable. These are given below.
Allahu Akbar (4 times) (Allah is the Greatest).
Ash-hadu an la ilaaha illal Laah (twice) (I bear witness that there is no God but Allah).
Ash-hadu anna Muham-madan Rasoolul-Laah (twice) (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah) .
*Ash-hadu anna Ameeral Mu’mineen Ali-yan hujjatul-Lah (twice) (I bear witness that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali is the hujjat of Allah).
* These words should be said not as a part of adhan but for barakat only.
Hayya ‘alas-Salaah (twice) (Hasten to prayer).
Hayya ‘alal falaah (twice) (Hasten to success).
Hayya ‘ala khayril ‘amal (twice) (Hasten to the best deed).
Al-lahu Akbar (twice) (Allah is the Greatest}.
Laa ilaaha illal-Lah (twice)
(There is no god but Allah).
There is a little difference between Adhaan and Iqamah. While saying Iqamah, the words
"Allahu Akbar" at the beginning are to be repeated twice. The words "Qad Qamatis salah'
(Indeed the prayer has begun) are to be added after the words "hayya ‘ala khayril ‘amal"
and repeated twice and "laa ilaaha illal Laah" at the end is to be said only once.
Lesson 31: Wajibat (obligatory acts) of prayer
There are 11 things wajib in the prayers:

1. Niyyah: Intention to pray for being near to God.
2. Takbirat-ul-Ihram (Allahu Akbar after niyyah).
3. Qiyam: To stand.
4. Ruku’.
5. Two Sajdahs.
6. Qira'at: to recite Surah al-Hamd and another Surah in first two rak’ats and Tasbihat al-Arba’ah.
(Subhanallahi wal-h

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