Doctrine of the Justice of Allah
Adopted from the book : "The Faith of Shi'a Islam" by : Allamah Muhammad Ridha al-Muzaffar"
We believe that one of Allah's positive attributes is that He is Just beyond all injustice ('adil ghayr zalim). He does not treat His creatures without justice, nor does He rule them unfairly or cruelly, He rewards His obedient servants and punishes them for more than the sins they have committed.
We believe that He does not omit to do any good act, nor does He perform an evil one, because it is in His power to do every good act and to abstain from every evil one. For, since He knows the excellence of good and the badness of evil, He is not constrained to leave what is good and to do what is evil. Again, since doing good cannot harm him, there is no reason for him not do it. Moreover, since evil is not constrained upon Him, He is not forced to do evil. But Allah is Wise and His works must display His Wisdom, and they must be arranged in the best possible way.
Now, suppose that He treats a creature with cruelty or commits an evil, then it must be because of one of four reasons. (1) He is ignorant of the action. and does not know that it is evil.; (2)He knows what He does, but He has been compelled to do it, and is unable to desist from it; (3) it is necessary for Him to do it; (4) He does it at His pleasure, without cause, or to do it, and neither is it necessary for Him to do it.
Each of these is an impossibility for Allah, as each one entails a deficiency in Him. But He is Absolute Perfection; therefore we must say that He is glorified from oppression and from doing what is evil.
Nevertheless,there are Muslims who say that Allah can do evil. They say that Allah can punish the obedient and bring the evildoers and the unbelievers into paradise. They also say that Allah can order His servants to perform actions which are beyond their capabilities and endurance, and, at the same time, that He can punished them for not doing those things. In short, they say that Allah can be an oppressor, can do what is in error, can deceive His servants, and do things which are without interest, purpose or benefit, because
He is not asked about that which He has done, but they will be asked. (21;23)
Let is be known that this is blasphemy concerning Allah for he has said in His Book, the Qur'an:
Allah does not desire injustice for (His) servants. (40; 31)
Allah does not love corruption. (2; 205)
We did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in jest. (21; 16)
I have not created the jin and mankind except to serve Me. (51; 56)
and He has said similar things in other verses.
Glory be to thee who did not create without aim. (3; 190)
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