Do Nuts Have Fewer Calories Than We Thought?
If nuts aren't already a part of your healthy eating repertoire, perhaps the results of a new study may entice you to add them to your diet. According to a new study, a one-ounce serving (28 grams) of almonds was found to have only 129 calories, which is 20 percent fewer calories than previously thought. Using the Atwater factors, this serving of nuts was previously determined to have 168 to 170 calories. This new research from the USDA Agricultural Research Service scientists was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
An Outdated Method
The calorie content of foods is mainly calculated by a system called "the Atwater general factor system," which was first developed back in the late 1800s. According to the Atwater factors, the macronutrients are assigned a certain number of calories per gram, despite the food in which they're found. Carbohydrates and protein both yield four calories per gram, fat yields nine calories per gram.
However, scientists say the results from the recent study on almonds demonstrate that the Atwater factor system of calculating the calorie content of certain foods groups, namely nuts, may not be entirely accurate. Although this recent study looked specifically at almonds, researchers believe the system may be a poor predictor of the energy content of all nuts and may possibly be a poor predictor of the calorie content of whole grains and peanuts as well. Scientists speculate that the rigid structure of the almond's cell membranes (and possibly the cell membranes of other plants) could lock in a portion of the fat, preventing it from being fully digested and absorbed. This may be due to the fact that the membrane that contains fiber encases the cell wall, and fiber isn't digested and therefore passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed.
Not Just Almonds, But Pistachios Too
The study itself involved 18 participants who were fed randomized mixed diets containing three different doses of almonds. Macronutrient and calorie amounts excreted in feces and urine were analyzed and compared to what would be expected from calculations using the Atwater factors. The same team of researchers also found in an earlier study that pistachios could have six percent fewer calories than previously considered.
Researchers point out that these results apply to whole almonds and that if the cell walls were to be broken down, possibly through grinding, slicing, or roasting the almonds, this may affect the amount of macronutrients that are absorbed. Therefore, processing nuts may impact the total calories that we absorb from them.
It may be a while before results of studies like these prompt government agencies to make any changes to Nutrition Facts panels. But for now, let's all enjoy a handful of nuts every day to reap the rewards we are already aware of. Nuts, regardless of the exact number of calories they contribute, provide us with heart-healthy fats, fiber, protein, minerals and powerful antioxidants. And most of all--they're delicious!
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