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Details on Tawaf

There is no specific supplication for the Tawaf, but one can recite any verses of the Qur`an or read any supplication.
Tawaf is the second obligatory action in ‘Umratultamattu’. Hajj becomes invalid if the Tawaf is intentionally not done, whether the pilgrim had knowledge of it or not.
Conditions of Tawaf
There are certain conditions of Tawaf, which are:
1. Intention: The pilgrim must make the intention to circle the Ka’bah as a form of worship, for God Almighty.
2. Pure from minor and major hadath: If someone circles in a state of impurity, their Tawaf will be invalid, whether they know about this ruling or not.
Rule: If someone has doubt about being pure or not before starting Tawaf and if they were certain that before that they were pure, they continue with that knowledge of the prior condition, and if not, it is obligatory to purify himself before Tawaf. If someone has doubt about being pure or not during the Tawaf, then if their prior state was pure, they stay so, and if not, if the doubt came before the fourth cycle, he must purify himself and then resume the Tawaf, and if the doubt is after the fourth, he must complete the rest of the Tawaf after purifying himself.
Rule: If someone was to doubt their purity after completing the Tawaf, they should disregard this doubt, even though it is of precaution to repeat it, and it is obligatory to be in the state of purity for the prayer of Tawaf.
Rule: If the pilgrim cannot do wudhu` for a certain reason, then if this excuse will continue, he must do tayammum and then do the Tawaf, and if he cannot do tayammum, then he will be regarded as not able to fulfill the duty of Tawaf. So, if he cannot do the Tawaf, he must get someone to do it on his behalf, and it is of recommended precaution to do the Tawaf even though without being in the state of purity (taharah).
Rule: It is obligatory for a woman in the state of haydh or nifas –after finishing her period-, and a person in janabah to do the ghusl before the Tawaf, and if one is not able to do the ghusl, they must do the Tawaf with tayammum, and if not able to do this, someone else must do the Tawaf on the pilgrim’s behalf.
Rule: If a woman’s menses start after she has finished her Tawaf and before she does her Tawaf prayer, her Tawaf is correct and she must do the prayer of Tawaf after she finishes her periods and does her ghusl, and if she doesn’t have enough time, she must do the Sa’i and shortening (taqsir) and then does the prayer of Tawaf as qasr before the Tawaf of Hajj.
Rule: If a woman felt that her periods had started after finishing her Tawaf and the Tawaf prayer, and she does not know whether it started before the Tawaf or in the middle of it, or before the prayer or in the middle of it, or that it started after the prayer, then in all these circumstances she regards her Tawaf and prayer to be correct.
However, if she is certain that her periods started before the prayer or in the middle of it, she must do according to the prior rule above.
Rule: A supererogatory Tawaf does not need the condition of purity, neither from minor or from major hadath, as is the opinion of the majority of Maraji’, but as for the prayer of Tawaf, taharah is a condition and it is invalid without so.
Rule: In regards to a person with a legitimate excuse, like someone with bowel problems or someone that cannot be in a state of purity, their Tawaf will be correct, even though it is of precaution that if someone with bowel problems (mabtun) to do the Tawaf and the prayer, and to get someone to do it on their behalf.
As for a woman in istihadhah, she must do wudhu` for both the Tawaf and the prayer of Tawaf, if the istihadhah is minor. If it is medium, she must do one ghusl for both actions and do wudhu` for each of them. As for major istihadhah, she must do a ghusl for each of the two actions, withoud doing wudhu` if she has not invalidated her purity, and if so, it is recommended precaution to do wudhu` with the ghusl.
What must be observed during Tawaf
Pure from external uncleanliness (khabath): TheTawaf will not be correct if the pilgrim’s body or clothes is impure (najis), or there is blood more than the allowed limit in prayer, as a precaution, or any other impure thing that will invalidate a prayer. It is permissible to carry something mutanajjis during Tawaf.
Rule: It is permissible for the body or the clothes to have blood from a sore (qarh) or a wound (jarh) if purifying it is hard to do, but if the pilgrim can remove the blood it is obligatory according to precaution to do so. Moreover, it is permissible to have any other kind of uncleanliness on the body or the clothes if one is compelled.
Circumcision for men: It is also of precaution that a distinguishing child (mumayyiz) to be circumcised for his Tawaf to be valid.
Covering of private parts: During Tawaf, with the same limits regarded in prayers, according to precaution, and it is recommended precaution that while doing the Tawaf, the pilgrim should observe all the conditions mentioned about clothes in prayer.
Obligatory acts in Tawaf
There are eight obligatory things to do in Tawaf, they are:
One and two: To start and finish at the Black Stone for every cycle done. To start or finish from any part of the stone is correct; even though it isrecommended precaution to have the whole body pass by the whole stone when starting and ending each cycle. It is at this time when the intention is made, and the seven cycles of Tawaf is to be performed.
Three: Having the Ka’bah on the pilgrim’s left hand side throughout the whole Tawaf. If one was to turn towards the Ka’bah during Tawaf to kiss the holy place or do anything else, or the congestion made him turn towards or away from the Ka’bah, or that his right hand side is to the Ka’bah, then the Tawaf will be invalidated. The extent of how the left side of the body must be facing the Ka’bah is what is commonly seen as doing so, as is known from the tradition of the Prophet (s.a.w) riding during Tawaf. There is no need for precision in this in slanting the body at the beginning of the Hijr of Isma’il and the four pillars (al-Arkan al-Arba’ah).
Four: Adding Hijr Isma’il in the Tawaf, meaning to do the Tawaf outside the Hijr, not inside it or its wall.
Five: To do the Tawaf outside the Ka’bah and outside the place that is called al-Shadhuran.
Al-Shadhuran is the place that is about three quarters of an arm length from the bottom of the Ka’bah’s wall. The jurists have differed as to whether this section is a part of the Ka’bah or not. It is said that it is a part of the Ka’bah and Quraish demolished it from the wall itself. This part can be seen in some parts of the Ka’bah, other than next to the Black Stone.
Six: To do the circle seven time, and less than seven is not sufficient, and intentionally doing more than seven invalidates the Tawaf.
Seven: The seven cycles must be done consecutively in a commonly accepted form, meaning to do it with sequence and not with long gaps in between.
Eight: The movement around the Ka’bah must be done with the pilgrims own will and choice, so if his will has been taken away like being pushed in heavy crowds or something similar to that, the Tawaf will not be valid and he must repeat it.
Rule: The majority of scholars say that the Tawaf must be done between the Ka’bah and Maqam Ibrahim, which is approximately twelve meters from the Ka’bah walls, and as Hijr Isma’il must be added in the Tawaf, so the place of Tawaf from the Hijr to the Maqam is no more than four meters, so the pilgrim must take heed of this.
Leaving the boundaries of Tawaf
Rule: If the pilgrim leaves the boundaries of Tawaf and went to the Ka’bah, his Tawaf will become invalid and he must repeat it, and it is better that he finishes the Tawaf and repeating it if the exiting from the boundary was after doing half of it.
Rule: It is of recommended precaution that the pilgrim should not put out his arms while doing the Tawaf to touch the pillars (arkaan) or anything else. It is also recommended precaution not to touch the wall of the Hijr during the Tawaf.
The last obligatory act: Tawaf al-Nisa`
The Tawaf al-Nisa` is similar to Tawaf al-‘Umrah and Tawaf al-Haj in performing it, its conditions laws and prayer.
It is said: Tawaf is better than prayer for he who is in the neighbouring of Mecca, and he who lives there the opposite is better, as the authentic tradition narrated by Huraiz says: Tawaf for those other than the people of Mecca is better than the prayer there, and prayer there is better than Tawaf for the people of Mecca.

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